This study's purpose was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of photobiomodulation treatments in the near-infrared range, delivered with light-emitting diode (LED) arrays, using cell culture and in vivo models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). These results may ultimately lead to clinically-based non-invasive treatment options for TBI. In this study, we have found compelling evidence for the utility of NIR light exposure in improving the recovery process after compression injury in primary neuron cell cultures, and in vivo rat models of traumatic brain injury. These results show a definite, statistically significant, preclinical benefit in rats that received cortical contusion injuries. We have also found a statistically significant decrease in the Bax pro-apoptotic marker attributable to NIR exposure, along with lesser increases in Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic marker and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. This further supports the utility of NIR treatment at the cellular and chemical level.