The U.S. Army Public Health Command (Provisional) maintains an injury surveillance system for deployed Soldiers. U.S. Transportation Command's Regulating and Command & Control Evacuation System (TRAC2ES) data for Soldiers medically air evacuated from U.S. Central Command while deployed for Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF; March 2003-December 2008) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF; October 2001-December 2008) was coded for cause of injury. Additional sources of injury data were the Standard Inpatient Data Records and Defense Casualty Information Processing System data. Descriptive statistics were used to show nonbattle injury (NBI) rates over time, the frequencies of NBIs and fatalities, all injuries compared to disease diagnosis groups, and causes of NBIs. Injury matrices were used to describe the frequency of NBIs by body region and nature of injury. For OIF, NBI rates decreased over time from a high in 2003. The OEF NBI rates have fluctuated over time. For OIF and OEF combined, injuries air-evacuated out-of-CENTCOM (battle and nonbattle combined) comprised 50% of all battle/nonbattle/disease incidents. Leading causes of NBIs were sports/physical training, falls/jumps, toxic substances, land transport accidents, and crush/blunt trauma. Recommendations are to continue surveillance of deployment injuries and identify modifiable risk factors that contribute to the leading causes of injury to inform injury prevention practice and policy.