The purpose of this report is to explore previous models of Escalation of Force (EOF) and provide a revised model based on pre-decisional cognitive factors that influence Soldiers' decisions prior to engagement in escalation procedures. Previous models were largely reactive, assuming that Soldiers? ability to make decisions was constant across situations (e.g., regardless of cognitive workload or other operational conditions). The proposed pre-decisional space model takes a cognitive-perceptual perspective and focuses on factors that influence information processing. This information processing leads to judgments and decisions occurring prior to engagement in escalation procedures. Further, two previous U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences (ARI) avenues of research, specifically training on nonverbal behavior and on military judgment proficiency, are recommended as viable approaches to assess the validity of the pre-decisional space model and as effective approaches for enhancing Soldier capabilities in EOF situations.