Adult tissues have amazing regeneration potential. However, the cell sources involved in regeneration have not been clearly identified. Recently, we identified a novel type of multipotent stem cells from blood vessels, termed multipotent vascular stem cells (MVSCs). MVSCs can differentiate into various cell types including neurons and Schwann cells. Another recently identified adult stem cell is very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSEL-SCs). This type of stem cells can be isolated from blood after cytokine mobilization of bone marrow cells, and can differentiate into specific cell types in all three germ layers. We investigate whether MVSCs and VSEL-SCs can promote the regeneration of peripheral nerve following trauma injuries. Transplantation of MVSCs into nerve conduits promote the regeneration of peripheral nerve across the injured site. This project addresses the issues in several focus areas, including regenerative medicine, nanomedicine and biomaterials, advanced prosthetics and trauma treatment.