The United States is the largest producer and exporter of defense goods in the world, supplying dozens of countries with a range of defense and military products. On the import side, the United States is capable of designing and manufacturing the vast majority of military systems upon which it relies. However, import restrictions impede the United States' ability to acquire defense-related goods as efficiently and cost-effectively as possible. The problem here is two-fold. The DoD is barred from acquiring foreign suppliers' products -- products that are not only cheaper, but in some instances, technically superior. Secondly, the waiver process complicates matters further, creating needless delays for products that may not even be available domestically. Clearly, the current regime is far from perfect. In this report, we discuss some of the more pressing challenges associated with current export and import regulations: (1) Restrictions on dual-use technologies, (2) Long delays for approval, (3) Fewer opportunities for joint research, (4) Technology outpaces the regulations, (5) Regulations damage relationships with allies, (6) Lack of competition results in higher prices, (7) Interruptions in the supply chain, and (8) Increasing cybersecurity threats. There is a clear need for both import and export controls; however, the current system definitely has significant flaws that impact its ability to succeed. Correcting these issues requires a strong plan of action to revamp and reimagine the control system. Import and export controls are clearly necessary to ensure the protection of American military technology as well as the health of the defense industry. However, the current regime must be revised to take advantage of the globalized economy, while addressing the challenges cited in the previous section. The report also includes our recommendations.