After the independence of its African colonies in the beginning of the 1960s, France maintained strong links and a significant military presence in the young African states. In the 1990s, French-African defense and security cooperation underwent a radical reorientation. In 1996, the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in close coordination with the French Ministry of Defense, developed an innovative system of military training which places the emphasis on three main objectives: (1) building African armed forces adapted to the African specificities, (2) enabling African countries to take the ownership of the training process, and (3) associating regional stability and national security. The ENVR program resulted from this concept. In 2012, this program includes 15 schools dealing with many different aspects of defense and security. Having reached a certain degree of maturity, the ENVR program is now confronted to the challenge of its expansion, which may jeopardize the very nature of the program if not handled carefully.