Nuclear arms control between Russia and the United States is a necessary condition, although insufficient for accomplishment of US and allied objectives in nuclear nonproliferation. New leadership in Russia in 2008 and in Washington in 2009 opens the door to progress, but where to begin and how far to go? This discussion proceeds in three sections. First is a summary of pertinent policy background, emphasizing recent issues of contention between the United States and Russia; second, the significance of history, especially as seen from the Russian perspective; and third, an analytical model is used to examine a candidate Russian-American post Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (SORT), or a new Strategic Arms Reductions Treaty (START), arms-control regime. This post-SORT regime is then employed as a building block for development of a controlled nonproliferation regime involving eight powers.