Since independence in 1947, India has been battling numerous insurgencies. The Maoist insurgency in India started as a violent peasant agitation in the state of West Bengal in 1967. Over the next three decades, the movement grew relatively unhindered. However, till the late 90s, the movement was still fragmented, lacked strength, and remained of only nuisance value to the states. Thanks to the economic reforms in 1991, the Indian economy has registered unprecedented growth in the past decade and, ironically, this period has also witnessed a rapid growth of the Maoist insurgency. Historically, Maoist movements have thrived due to poverty and economic deprivation; however in case of India, the demands of rapid economic growth have contributed to the intensification of the insurgency. This study seeks to portray how the rapid industrialization drive, among other key factors such as the merger of the hitherto fragmented Maoist movement and an incoherent COIN response contributed to the movement's growth. Finally, this study proposes a multi-pronged population centric COIN strategy as a permanent solution.