Supercapacitors are promising energy storage devices due to their higher energy density than dielectric capacitors and higher power density and long cycle life time ( millions) compared with conventional batteries. In order to meet the demands of a wide range of energy technologies, supercapacitors with higher energy and power densities are required. Although many past research programs have focused mainly on gravimetric energy densities, in this program, we have also devoted efforts to study and develop nano-morphologic structures to realize high volumetric energy and power densities, since device volume is another critical and key performance parameter. Fundamental studies have been carried out on the mobile ion transport and storage in the nano-structures developed in this program. In order to meet different application requirements and also for fundamental studies of ion transport and storage in nano-porous media, this program selected carbon based electrodes with unique and controlled nano-morphologies: highly aligned carbon nanotubes (A-CNT) and graphene.