In response to readiness problems in Army reserve component (RC) units mobilized for Operation Desert Storm in 1990 and 1991, Congress passed legislation establishing requirements for RC personnel and training and active component support to RC units. Since then, Army policies and organizations supporting RC training have evolved to meet rotational demands for forces in Iraq and Afghanistan, and they continue to evolve as these operations come to an end and defense budgets decline. This report examines the congressional intent underlying existing law, the Army s recent experience preparing RC units for deployments, and its future plans for RC training requirements and training support. It recommends changes to law and policy needed to support future RC training plans. This research suggests that premobilization training should focus on individual soldier qualifications and collective training at the crew, squad, and platoon levels, particularly for combat units. In addition, the Army should maintain a multicomponent RC training support structure to ensure that training standards do not diverge across components. Furthermore, some provisions of existing legislation no longer reflect the current operating environment, although others remain relevant.