The team led by PI Quan Li has conceptualized and rationally synthesized many novel functional hybrid gold nanorods (GNRs) and liquid crystal media. Now this project has accomplished all the proposed objectives and beyond. Organo-soluble chiral azo thiol monolayer-protected gold nanorods, the first of its kind, were synthesized and characterized. More importantly, the chirality of the hybrid GNRs was optically tunable. Moreover, organo-soluble porphyrin mixed monolayer-protected GNRs, porphyrin Zn, Cu and Mg complex monolayer-protected GNRs, and organo-soluble perylene thiol monolayer-protected GNRs were for the first time synthesized and characterized ; the controllable self-assembling of GNRs via on and off supramolecular noncovalent interactions was successfully demonstrated; and the photo-modulated self-assembly of hydrophobic thiol monolayer-protected GNRs and their alignment in liquid crystal media was achieved. Furthermore, 3D layer-by-layer graphene gold nanoparticle hybrid architecture with tunable interlayer distance was for the first time built. Also, near-infrared light-directing transformation of 3D self-organized cubic nanostructures enabled by mesogen-functionalized gold nanorods was for the first time demonstrated. This project has led to 39 publications in which 24 papers are coauthored with the collaborators at AFRL.