United States military employment of Human Electromuscular Incapacitation (HEMI) began after a 2003 request from US Army forces in Iraq. Currently available HEMI devices operate at multiples of five seconds duration and distances up to 32 feet. Operational forces have requested HEMI capabilities that exceed these current limits. To define the risks, the Human Effects Center of Excellence (HECOE) undertook two reviews of risk associated with HEMI. The 2005 review by Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment focused on identifying where effects research was needed, while the 2012 Naval Medical Research Unit-San Antonio (NAMRU-SA) technical report covered HEMI effects research to date. This report covers the six topics included in the 2012 NAMRU-SA report, risks identified from civilian law enforcement activities, and HEMI effects research since 2012.