tv Doc Film - The End of the Sublime Porte Part 2 Deutsche Welle November 3, 2017 2:15am-3:01am CET
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retreat of the ottoman empire from europe lasted more than a century but its final disintegration took just four years a consequence of the first world war. its last territories in a rabia mesopotamia syria and palestine became the modern day middle east borders and states were formed resulting in conflicts that periodic lee flare up to this day. the air. was. back. on april the twenty fifth one nine hundred fifteen french and british troops
attempted to land on the good little peninsula in the dungeon else straight. the ultimate empire had been at war since november nine hundred fourteen as an ally of germany the austria-hungary an empire and bog area. the ottoman army led by the german commander lehman from sound us and the young autumn an officer mustapha kemal was able to force back the allies on glibly half a million people lost their lives and yet get little it was a victory for the ottomans. one of only a few in a war in which they only reluctantly participated. since nine hundred thirteen the ottoman government had been headed pinal for
a tarion nationalist triumvirate that had emerged from the young turks revolution. jamal pasha the minister of the navy. pasha the interior minister. and the passion the war minister. he was the strongest advocate of the alliance with germany. when war became inevitable the three passions aligned to the ottoman empire with germany from istanbul to the border of anatolia from palestine to yemen mobilization occurred in all the remaining autumn and provinces. biggest like those nine hundred fourteen was supposed to bring about the turkish revenge on the history they story go turning point but from the very first battles the turks fared badly and. neither the first nor the second world war saw the turks
avenge their history at the beginning of the give them until the last trucks of east of. the ottoman stood their ground in the west but they faced a debacle in the east. in one nine hundred fifteen and bipasha went on the offensive against russia he wanted to conquer back lost territories in the caucasus and expand the empire into central asia. winter became a trap typhoid cholera and hunger decimated the poorly equipped ottoman troops at times even before any fighting had occurred. but rather than accept responsibility for this disaster the ottoman high command sort of scapegoat in the armenians.
the little too long allegedly the armenians had collaborated with the russians in turkey somewhat to the much exaggerated number of eight and a half thousand damini and who it said had collaborated with the russians i think larry's. cover for taking a tech to cause him given that around thirteen million soldiers on the russian side and several million muslim soldiers on the ottoman side fourteen world war one eight and a half thousand people is a drop in the ocean or six dawdled in douglasville than a sound are made of the n. sign an armenian population was accused of these quote chronons the thought that they were going to be targeted for collective measures by the ottoman state that would lead to the eradication of the armenian population of eastern a tortilla and effectively the first modern genocide of history. on april the
twenty fourth one hundred fifteen some two hundred primarily armenian intellectuals were arrested and murdered in istanbul an event that marks the beginning of the genocide. armenians in anatolia were deported to the syrian desert where they were murdered the german military mission stood by without intervening two thirds of the armenian population more than a million people were killed. the slaughter of the armenians is evidence of the ottoman empire as national chauvinism there was no room for christians any more it's hard core was turkish and its margins exclusively muslim.
in his role as kali for sometime messmate the fifth called for jihad islamic holy war when the empire entered the conflict. by calling for solidarity with the ottoman empire he aimed to provoke muslim uprisings in the colonies of the on top and powers. the borders of the ottoman empire were under threat from all sides russia or advance to persia france controlled north africa and british occupied egypt was used as a base for allied operations by calling for jihad the ottomans sought to destabilize the enemy from within. the ottoman minister of the navy jamal pascha was appointed governor general of ottoman syria. it covered the territory made up today of syria lebanon
israel palestine and jordan. jamal pascha had his sights set on reconquering egypt and expanding the arab and muslim margins that protected the turkish heart of the empire but his campaign against the british forces on the suez canal failed. the cole for holy war failed to unite muslims in support of the ottoman empire quite the opposite resentment was stirring in its arab provinces over the increasingly centralized and or thora tarion government of the young turks more than anything jamal pascha feared subversive activity by opposition movements. in melbourne lay the minister. maintained an extensive network of survivors in an effort to discredit arab intellectuals and politicians with all means possible.
the opposition ottoman administrative decentralisation party was very. prominent at the time. yeah but. rather than folk ating independence for the empire as arab provinces it sought to regain their pre-war autonomy. but on that if they told so demanded two official languages in each region in turkish and the local language. too and the dominance of turkish in the education system and the judiciary i lot of. jamal pascha responded to these demands with a heavy hand in spring nine hundred sixteen arab intellectuals and activists were arrested and executed as traitors in damascus beirut and jerusalem.
in a very concentrated four year period peoples in the air provinces suffered. in an unprecedented way that had made the burden of the thing under oregon rule unbearable for the average arab autumn and citizen it made them very angry with their state and it made them want out. the ottomans banked on hussein bin ali the sheriff of mecca to throw the weight of his moral authority behind their holy war as an heir of the hashemite dynasty hussein was the guardian of the sacred sites of mecca and medina. but his agenda so to liberate the arab lands from ottoman rule and establish a single independent and unified arab state. the young turks rejected negotiations
and threatened to remove him. the british on the other hand offered him everything he wanted the independence of the ottoman arabs from mesopotamia to palestine under his leadership if he rebelled against turkey. jamaal passions reign of terror a spurt into action in june one nine hundred sixteen sheriff of st called upon the arabs to revolt against the empire. that. was. his son emir faisal was put in charge of the rebellion. a young englishman stood by his side an archaeologist who was now working as a secret agent.
thomas and who had lawrence better known as lawrence of arabia. they conquered and pinned down the troops of the empire on several fronts enabling a british advance to palestine. in december nine hundred seventeen the british general edmund allonby made a triumphant entry into jerusalem. can fear that with the arrival of general allen b. and his indian troops they formed the foundation of the british army at the time the
war was practically over and with it all the suffering it happed cost harp well i have a look at the heart of the then some also saw this as the end of the ottoman empire in particular the end of the oppression by chain pasha and his military administration. damascus found at the end of september nine hundred eighteen faisal immediately installed a provisional government. after just four years the break between the arabs and the ottoman empire was complete the ottoman army and is german allies capitulated on all fronts from palestine to mesopotamia.
yeah. sons and method the fifth died in july nine hundred eighteen his brother succeeded him on the throne as messmate the sixth. when germany the austria-hungary an empire and bug area were also forced to retreat from the front in europe he was forced to accept a truce a short while later on october the thirtieth one thousand nine hundred. three passes enver and jim who had taken the empire into war fled onboard a german submarine two days later the ottoman empire was in ruins.
ottoman government is very conscious that if they don't take action quickly to demonstrate to the outside world that they are responding to the war crimes of the young turks with severity that they would have a sort of suitable punishment imposed on them by the outside powers as part of the war as part of the settlement it's largely unknown in the west. that it immediately after the armistice the ottoman government convened a tribunal to put on trial those held responsible for the organization or for the perpetration of the massacre of armenians hundreds of leading officials from the provincial level right up to the central government were arrested over tried in absentia dozens were found guilty and convicted to death three were actually hanged for their crimes some quite senior in the chain of command leading to the murder of
thousands of armenians though obviously those most responsible. architects of the genocide had already fled ottoman domains and would not be subject to ottoman justice. as much as the new ottoman government tried to distance itself from its young turk predecessors it was unable to prevent the fragmentation of the empire. the paris peace conference began on january the eighteenth one thousand nine hundred nineteen. faisal arrived with thomas edward lawrence to remind the british of their promise the prize of an arab kingdom. the promise is only bind to those who believe in them during the war britain had
secretly reached an agreement with its ally france against ottoman interests. a british agent in france was george p. co a french diplomat had negotiated a plan to divide the ottoman provinces. in the south britain took mesopotamia where it had secured several oil concessions. in the north france wanted to extend its area of influence in syria it had a long history of ties to the region having protected christian maronites in lebanon since the nineteenth century. the sykes pekoe agreement made no mention of kingdom. the secret deal carried more weight than the promise made to the emea.
france was given a mandate for syria the british withdrew and half isel to fend for himself against france. on july twenty fourth one nine hundred twenty eight the final battle took place near my saloon four days later the final was forced into exile. it was the ultimate british betrayal of the promises that they made to the hashemites and was to remain what for arab nationalists would prove the and resolved failure of the british to uphold their promises to the arabs to their right to shape their own future and in so doing of course created the problem that would be deviled the arab world right through the twentieth century of reconciling the legitimacy of the frontiers in which the states of the arab world would be made to live not just in syria but in iraq in jordan and palestine eleven on it was to shape the into war years as a moment of national struggle by divided arabs against their european colonial
masters. it was to distort arab politics forever. france gave in. their design independence independence from the ottoman empire and the rest of syria. on september the first one hundred twenty the new state of great eleven and was founded in beirut. to make it more economically viable the state also incorporated the coastal cities of tire and tripoli as well as the first town to come. further treaties followed the paris peace conference in san rima seven every treaty further divided the remnants of the ottoman empire.
when french british and italian forces occupied istanbul the ottoman government had to accept renewed territorial losses. with you in a shark. many of us more on the loss of the time when the arab world and the middle east weren't yet geographically divided. yet he had the. southern lebanon and galilee where one region. the people traveled through trans-jordan as if it were all one country but at the same thing was true of syria and palestine. for. people who never knew anything else but when the british came and severed palestine from its arab
neighbors not was over there were allowed to be whichever. the british received the mandate to administer the form of the ottoman palestine a mandate which also provided for the creation of a jewish national home in palestine. the move up held a different war time promise one made to the zionist movement its sorta refuge for jews driven out of europe. in november nine hundred seventeen the british foreign secretary of the balfour stated his majesty's government view with favor the establishment in palestine of a national home for the jewish people. the ottoman sultans had rejected any deal with the zionists even though large jewish
communities had existed since antiquity in palestine jerusalem hebron and saf and. the british mandate supported the immigration of european jews fleeing anti semitism and the pa girls in russia ukraine and poland new communities with a european background began living alongside the locals rooted in muslim culture. well to that end there was virtually no difference between muslims relationship to jews and christians. there was no answer going to mystic differentiation between jews and arabs in the ottoman empire my country out of the old nobody would have talked about the jews or the arabs. there were different regional groups and in some villages it was christians who made up the majority in others it was julia.
lao was sure that. there was coexistence that irish. affinity got. to this day we assume that the old city of jerusalem encompassed four quarters of a jewish quarter muslim one an armenian and a christian but we view every quarter as exclusive but no historically it wasn't like that a lot of jews lived in the muslim quote the british not the ottomans introduced this categorization and segregation. of money it was the british who divided up jerusalem's old city and issued passports noting citizens religious affiliation jews and muslims were separated
and if john mortice nineteen twenty marked the start of the in twenty minutes of the religion and nationalism then that live in religion land to additional impetus to an ethnic nationalism. but it's not a religious we'll find that's the difference from the middle ages it's not a theological conflict i think it's a nationalist conflict between ethnic groups. look at them with their own niche a land of your religion one hundred one avenue group against the others. new york she had that i think it represents a missed opportunity at me like school see if you need to feel. zionist and hellerstein your nationalism only reinforce each other at the philistinism the opportunity of an arab zionism in the an arab jewish identity
mixing was not seen me even though it existed in what instead of one movement for the other exclusive deal. they were fired up in the heart of the law it's an irony of history that the first world war was to end the divisions and the tragedies they had cost. but in reality it only cost new divisions and. he meant having. it strengthened separatist movements and fostered a new religious conflicts phil gordon why there should
we see across the middle east pressures emerging from. a state system that are a direct legacy. of the first world war and have marked the middle east as a zone of conflict for the past century it's a sad truth that there really never has been a peace that has been brought peace to the art of. what could be done about the chaos that ensued from the division of the ottoman empire. when the british failed to reconcile zionist an arab aspirations they decided to partition palestine with the jewish national home assigned to the west bank of the jordan river the east bank and therefore three quarters of ottoman palestine became trans-jordan modern day jordan it was put under the command of
finals brother abdullah. that quieted one front while another opened up. in june one nine hundred twenty a major rebellion erupted in mesopotamia also british mandated territory. it's thought that one uprising at a series of pricey tribal leaders revolted for different reasons religious holy cities revolted two different reasons it only to say no to the british for a different reason tiber leaders were angry because they were not paid by the british while their latest obvious went and no jeff and couple i was angry because
of the events taking a place in the neighboring iran's were their age the servicemen it was again this british presence in iran. the strategically important region of mesopotamia modern day iraq consisted of three ottoman provinces. the one around baghdad where sunnis shiites jews and christians all lived together. the largely kurdish mozilla and bastro which was majority shiite. the ottomans had conquered mesopotamia to protect themselves from their major shiite rival the persian. empire modern day iran. since the nineteenth century britain had been interested in the region both because of its oil reserves and its position on one of the communication routes to india. after the rebellion of nine hundred twenty colonize ation was no longer an option the issue
now was to retreat while maintaining british interests. this was the task faced at the conference in cairo in march nine hundred twenty one by the new colonial secretary winston churchill. there was only one woman among the forty conference participants gertrude bell she would draw up the lines of modern iraq. after the war london assigned her the task of devising a plan for mesopotamia she presented its outline at the cairo conference and autonomous kingdom of iraq was to be established one that was loyal to the british headed by faisal the son of sheriff hussein faisal in the british had turned their back on.
that was the argument of well we knew this group loyal reliable group to rule iraq to form the new rolling negative class i thought the problem was how to select a person as a king of the new king of that was really important issue so they hell. i thought they were import of army like in europe so they imitated this idea for the very stupid north to elect someone with from within iraq so they brought someone from. the j.c.l. out of there from the arab peninsula and they thought this will succeed they will he will be a some will of unity but he did not have any popular basis no place in our history or our methody we were divided
society were to govern by force. in august nineteen twenty one crowned king of iraq in the absence of an iraqi national anthem the orchestra played god save the king. how you can create a state with different two groups of people different entire nations different languages different cultures and traditions so you have to use force. force and physical force they failed she had a lead in a very tiny group of seventy harvest army officers to
a belt or to create an artificial state she thought these people are more than this force and they wall. succeeded in creating a more than a state. you know by passage of time it turned out to be amiss two thousand or three put an end to bell's project. in two thousand and three the us invaded iraq it was the end of an era during which a sunni clan ruled a shiite majority and the start of an eight year war that fueled unparalleled sectarian violence.
later places certainly don't mean it army with any domina today army so to do that learn from past mistakes. the chaos of post-war iraq fostered a rise in islamic militancy and the emergence of jihadist groups like islamic state . the civil war raging in syria facilitated the advance of an army of sunni jihadists from iraq. in twenty fourteen its leader abu bakr al baghdadi declared a new caliphate in the territory of iraq in syria. the old borders set up by the psychs people agreement were to be swept away the new order forced upon the ruins of the ottoman empire was to be destroyed. in both
iraq and syria kurds found themselves on the front lines in the war against i asked . it called attention to the plight of an ancient people with its own history culture and language arabic nor turkish the. kurds are scattered across modern day iraq syria and turkey the people without a state forgotten during the division of the ottoman empire. until the nineteenth century the kurds didn't have a national identity they merely saw themselves as subjects of the ottoman empire as part of ottoman society. on an empire i didn't it was defined by religious rather than national turns there was limbs and no muslims since the kurds were muslims they were treated like the majority of muslims although they had semi autonomous
status they too had to pay taxes and do military service that prevented the development of a national consciousness until the end of the nineteenth century only when the autumn an era came to an end did this consciousness arise in reaction to the empires attack if occasion. tells us that when they realized they were different they were oppressed they had been assimilated and extinguished. washed and. not only are they are developed that would tunnel under this pressure. after the awesome ins were defeated there were plans to create a state for the kurds that's what it says in the treaty of seven which settled the
details of the breakup of the ottoman empire. an autonomous kurdish region was to be established in eastern anatolia neighboring and state. the also an empire would then be limited to the region around istanbul and western anatolia but the provisions of seven were never implemented. resistance to autumn and rule grew in anatolia a weakened and discredited regime because it had accepted the humiliating peace treaty of seven. and. it wasn't long before a national liberation army emerged as a result attacking me that fought for the restoration of serenity it was led by the hero of deliberately stuff came.
he established a provisional government in ankara in anatolia he no longer recognized the authority of the sultan nothing could stop his army. in september one nine hundred twenty two he marched into greek occupied smith in a modern day is mia the town was razed the greek population massacred. the last troops loyal to the sultan surrendered meth made the sixth was forced to step down the imperial ottoman family sent into exile. stuff abolish the sultanate and on october the twenty ninth one thousand twenty
three he proclaimed a new turkish republican state the treaty of luzon replace that of seven and recognize the existing borders there would be no kurdish state. the turkish national identity was as nuclear defined. anatolian and sunni muslim the former hard core of the ottoman empire. mustafa kemal wanted to create a modern secular state that put the past behind but just as in the previous century religious identity continued to inform national identity. for the very first time is emerging in the modern era a muslim state that can tell christian states where to stop which it had done that was the achievement of attitude so i think for the republicans the turkish
national pride in the consolidation of the national consciousness is bound up from the start with this sense of having done something that the ottomans for several centuries had been able to do which is to hold western power. at the same time as becoming west. after the first world war the nation state asserted itself but what was to be done about minority ethnic groups. greece and the newly established turkish republic opted for a radical solution. starting in one thousand nine hundred twenty four five hundred thousand muslims were expelled from greece and almost a million greek orthodox christians from taki.
entire villages were abandoned centuries of coexistence and shared history were over the ottoman empire was finished for good. your thoughts to put opiates i think every employer is by definition too big to be on the media to begin saw as and also in composition. an empire can exist as long as no claim is laid one citizen to train as soon as such
a claim is made a state must be founded. but on what basis on an athletic linguistic or concessional basis. it's a sign but i think the ottoman russian and austria hungary and empires weren't able to resolve this question which could lock up in the historical context of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries this decline was inevitable is to have to deliver on that can take in everything though it didn't necessarily have to proceed in this way said formula. shouldn't the end of the ottoman empire with its long history of chaos and violence make us think about states nations and borders.
about other models of living together about types of unions to heal the wounds caused by the division of the empire. wounds in the balkans and in the middle east that still undermine hopes for stability in the world today. take off like me take football personally. struggling to one nevins a boteach no one does make us style is committed to helping children any g.o.p.
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