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tv   Tomorrow Today - The Science Magazine  Deutsche Welle  July 16, 2018 10:30am-11:00am CEST

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or pursuing her own visions. no more than one got some close to home. life and with the film. starts july twenty first. welcome to tomorrow today here's what's coming up. a hard call workout for the brain. exploring the moon with nonsense the latest lunar probe. and how children's toys shape gender identity and what to do about it.
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but first stress the top three causes of it in the modern boat a study says there pressure money worries and lack of sleep once upon a time stress responses how to act in life or death situations flooded our body with help for us. but these days many people are spending their lives in the state of constant along another us can leave traces in your genes. the most traumatizing experiences in life often come with no warning. and they don't just leave marks in your memory traces of stress can also be find in your genes. yes you heard that right trauma can be inherited.
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take this mess for example researchers at zurich university say the animal has inherited trauma from its great great grandfather. which as a baby was taken away from its mother for hours at a time the stress of that experience has been passed on to successive generations. isabelle mostly discovered the phenomenon eight years ago since then the neurobiologist has been studying how the original trauma has been passed on through the genes during the behavioral experiments she has to remain as quiet as possible . you wouldn't know it from just looking at the mouse it's the same with people if someone has been traumatized by physical or sexual violence for example you don't necessarily see it. this. time then the fourth test. which. is.
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the mass is being dunked in cold water this enables the scientists to measure its stress response. how will the mass behave. if. the animal tries desperately to escape. the experiment was approved by regulators even if it seems pretty cruel to us. yes . but the swimming test is an accepted standard method for measuring stress responses in animals. and. here we see that the mouse is just allowing itself to drift. it's non traumatized mice behave differently they spend a lot longer trying to get out several minutes on average. with inherited troll
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mark gives up much sooner sixty six pages which. region associated with this inherited trauma it's called the hippocampus it's located at the back of the brain it was there a scientist identified irregularities in a gene associated with stress response the original trial much of the ancestor called certain parts of the gene to be activated far more than they should be in the descendant. that triggers changes causing the hormone cortisol to play a far bigger role meaning the mind is more susceptible to stress and the same will apply to its offspring and their offspring to. the first we were pretty surprised but it happens with people to parents past their
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trauma and to their children. another test involves placing the mice in a kind of maze the animal can choose to hide or take a risk cameras and a stopwatch help record how often and takes risks so how will this one behave. you might think that a mouse that has inherited trauma would seek out a corner and cower in it but actually it's the opposite traumatized mice have trouble assessing dangerous situations and therefore take more risks. all the way to the open all the animal is taking big risks. the more the mouse behaves without thinking you see this kind of risky behavior in a lot of people who have been traumatized to so in mice trauma is passed on from
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generation to generation and it's likely the same happens in humans it's a pretty tragic finding we need. more yes that's true it's really important that we are aware that our life experiences don't just affect us but our children too. but offsetting the effect of inherited trauma is pretty simple is about mostly just covered how to do that as well. as spacious cage and lots of variety are key to reversing the genetic consequences of troll mountain socialising is also important as well as exercise put simply it's about having a good life does the same principle apply to people. but for many. the same should work with people we want to find out if the genetic changes can be
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reversed through psychotherapy. but hypnosis shamanism or meditation might also help whatever method it takes to help people feel better. to find out more about how trauma is inherited. ease about most we wants to study witnesses of the terrorist attack in new orleans and their children. she's looking for treatments that can help of raise genetic traces left by the events there. and they're all for a change of pace. getting your groove on the fastest. and makes you think. as of course there's the feel good factor too. but that's not all scientists have discovered that dancing makes you smarter to.
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researchers at the institute of human movement sciences and sport at the e.t.h. science university in zurich have made an exciting discovery. dancing is a great exercise for the brain. don't sing involves various companies have been motor learning processes. those processes improve. the whole range of brain functions in the frontal lobe mental flexibility attention span impulse control cognitive control and motor skills. in the prout all over sensory skills and in the cerebellum coordinating movement. what makes dancing so effective is that it requires motor and cognitive performance at the same time. movement alone is not enough the mind has to be stimulated as well the team in zurich had devised several computer programs known as xa games to challenge both
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body and mind similar taney asli i you can play soccer. do martial arts. or dance with a group of avatars. are such activities to give the lie to the notion that computer games are dummies down. the scientists involved say there is evidence that x a games boost the brain. but here too playing alone is not enough. you've got to move your body to. in the united states this kind of gym based brain workout is already quite common place for some and it's still pretty rare one of a few gyms are applying the findings of the e.t.h. team. some regulars here say they can feel the difference. says it is clear just help me to concentrate better i used to need lots
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of tutoring in math but now hardly at all yet seventy one knows how to be that you know i have to say it's improved performance but it might change and i've noticed that i feel less tired now that being. an alternative kind of workout. it's not just about brawn now but brain to. in the middle. of the how and. speaking of small arms these women certainly weren't they weren't as mathematicians at announcing catherine johnson was so well known for the quality of her calculations that she could easily beat machines about them along with her colleagues mary jackson and dorothy whom she calculated the trajectory of the apollo eleven mission in nine hundred sixty nine which took the astronauts to the moon for the first time from their contribution and a major way to the success of announcers manned space flight program and. our web
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video of the week takes you on another mission to the moon and. back it's time to embark on an incredible luna jenny. facing a new find a crater called tyco. it's nearly nine eleven testing. and it features a ping that's one point six kilometers fine. check out this bulb and it's one hundred meters wide no one can figure out how it ended
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up being and. this is the military training it's one has to know it's now and it. seemed a plan and and seventeen. the traces of. beautiful images from. still neighbor in the. desert and hell is from the philippines had another question about the movie. how old is the moon it's a question that has long puzzled scientists and different experts have come to
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different conclusions but the reason they can guess at all is thanks to nasa says apollo missions. there astronauts brought samples back from six different locations on the moon three hundred kilograms in total from fine dust to football sized chunks of rock those samples have been invaluable to science. in labs on earth researchers have now accurately determine the age and chemical make up of the samples they provide unique insights into the history and development of the moon and how it came to exist current theory now has it that the moon formed when a celestial body the size of mars collided with our planet long ago. the injected material gradually formed another body in orbit around earth clumping together to form the moon. but figuring out its exact age is difficult because the moon
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has been bombarded with meteorites that change the composition of its rock the craters on the moon surface bear witness to the many violent collisions but one discovery has brought us closer to an answer. researchers found a very old mineral called zircons. in the moon rock samples it's highly stable and would have formed while the moon was cooling from its molten state. zircons suggests the moon is even more in chant than most researchers originally thought more than four and a half billion years old. i don't know if you. do you have a science question i get in touch send us your question by a video text ovoid smell we can't wait to hear from you. come on
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just ask. you'll find us at d.f.w. dot com slash science twitter at g.w. under school science tech or on facebook d w science. time to return to earth now with a splash. what'd lown fish snails. and earthworms have in common their own gender bender is the difference between the sexes is more slippery than you think and it's the same for humans. and new life is forming. this embryo is thirty days old and about six millimeters long the spine is visible as are the beginnings of arms and legs. at this point the features contain structures that are capable of developing into
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either male or female genitalia. if the cells nuclei contain an x. x. chromosome pair the embryo will typically develop into what's considered biologically female but if it's an x.y. chromosome pair it will become male. but it's more complex than that gender is determined by an interplay of genes and hormones as well as other factors . in the sixth or seventh week the embryo is about one centimeter long. typically male development begins when the primitive gonads become testes. the testes release testosterone an important step in the development of a typically biological male. this hormone together with other factors is involved
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in the formation of the deference the seminal vesicles to the prostate gland. at the same time the gentle structures develop into the glands the penis and the fore skin. typically biologically female development begins when the primitive gonads become ovaries. they produce the hormone estar dial. as with testosterone and boys as to dial plays an important role in the development of a biological female. under its influence the fallopian tubes used to us and the upper part of the vagina are formed. the male structures atrophy and a closure rest layby on the rethrow are formed. this comparison shows that initially the structures can form either male or female
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genitalia genes and hormones affect what happens next. the process of gender differentiation can be influenced by other factors along the way. take underage an insensitivity syndrome for its. it's one of the most common intersex conditions. at first the embryos development is typical for that of genetic males it has an x. y. chromosome pair the fetus develops testes. the testes release testosterone. but the underage and receptors on the genital structures are defective rendering the hormone ineffective. because the embryo also produces extra dial the female hormone has a dominant effect the result in spite of having x.y.
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chromosomes the embryo develops typically female characteristics. the division between pink and blue is nothing new but to to know pink was once the color of choice for male models. and blue was for women like mary the mother of jesus. it was only after the first world war when we remain a false turned blue that things shifted. these days blue is for boys and pink is focus but why. is this a toy for boys or a toy for girls. girls. i know boy. even preschoolers make a clear distinction between boys and girls at around two and
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a half years old they begin to feel like they belong to one sex girls play more with girls than boys more with boys. marketing toys for either boys or girls as a concept that's been around for a long time like toy cars and doll houses. toyman your factures were among the first to capitalize on this gender marketing strategy since they realized they could sell twice as many products. as a cultural scientist from hamburg who opposes the gender rising of toys she says it reinforces and passes on outdated stereotypes. there was. always have to be strong loud angry active and girls of gentle and caring and it's fascinating to take kids shower gel or any other kids products the girls are often looking right at you smiling whether it's a cartoon or
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a real person boys look off into the distance they're in the middle of some activity you find this everywhere boys are pirates girls are princesses it's fine that the job's a different but it's about the message it sends us sometimes but yet. such representations can cement a child's idea of role models this is an advert from the one nine hundred fifty s. . and if a woman has two questions in life what should i wear and what should i cook. it's amazing how much a man can eat when he's married and it seems like appetite grows with marriage. oh yes i'm the most important thing is the custard. by twenty twelve stevie had started to find gender stereotyping so repulsive she set up an organization called pink stinks.
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we need girls who bang their fist on the table and say i want this salary i want that job and boys who can say i'm going to sit in the corner and cuddle my pink pony but they get called gay and wrong they get abused and bullied for it and that's what the ship is the number of successful women in politics in germany at least is growing and there is some progress in female representation in boardrooms and there's a female referee in the german men's soccer league. but gender stereotypes are far from gone they're the reason we still have typical women's jobs that are paid less and valued less on average women do twice as much housework as man and. there are children it's usually the woman who takes a part time job. in germany it's more than forty six percent of women and only nine percent of men. girls are more likely to watch programs like germany's next top
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model there's a huge industry behind that to the show presents what's beautiful desirable and successful. not me i'm. not i'm not i just. earlier this year pink stinks made an advert called not heidi's girl with a message to end body shaming and the obsession with beauty the important thing it says is to feel good in your own skin. it was directed by actress laura merely a vicious the feedback she received was largely positive but not exclusively. i got this comment from a man that said hey you're so cute why do you need to voice your opinion he's. sexy. it's a not that you're good looking what more can i say let's let you listen to. him though he takes on a whole range of topics for playing stinks like beauty. and even bad chat up lines
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she wants to give girls the courage to fight back and stand up for themselves enough of telling girls they have to be sweet kind and pretty. i do theatre work with children and i had this example recently when i was assigning the parts and i said ok one is a beautiful princess whatever beautiful me. and the other it's a funny princess we have all these princesses with different characteristics and what if the children's mother said yeah you're definitely the beautiful princess stuff. some parents try to break away from gender stereotypes by giving boys toys to girls and encouraging them to be loud and wild. but do they give girls toys to boys. that's pink are you a girl or what's a girl never has are you
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a boy saying you softy you girl is meant as an insult to boys and that's degrading to girls too. sexist advertising is degrading to there are still plenty of magazines and adverts splashed with sexist messages some studies suggest this type of advertising is actually growing pink stings has developed enough for people to report sexist images. of. a study from the us the more flash a woman shows the less empathy the viewer hands the more she seen as an object to be used and that so dangerous a family. we live in a period of transition traditional gender roles are being called into question and dismantled but with so much money at stake it could be a long time before gender stereotyping disappears from the toy industry.
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annabel crabb step today show next week we're diving into the world of peevishness the rodents don't any build their own homes they create habitats for other species to. join us for that and more until then take a bite. crimes
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against humanity of civilians become witnesses. their recorded images travel around the globe via social media. digital investigators combed through the flood of images find sources try to reconstruct what happened and to substantiate kling's of crimes. in fifteen minutes long t.w. photographic.
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i. was assuming. somebody was my hero but it's also ok with everybody around the world. some hope. she inspires the most to stay. miniatures in your hands. on the one hundredth anniversary of his birth the legacy of nelson mandela. july eighteenth t.w. . cargo just couldn't get this song out of his. musicologist began searching for the source of these captivating sounds. deep in
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the rain forest in central africa. and deploy their culture in the state while your local is only a promise to his son the orderly withdrawal and return to the concrete and glass jungle of new york. the result of reverse culture shock. the prize winning documentary from the forest starts aug ninth on w. . trunk this is europe but not always true first is germany sometimes trans this is nature. and now i'm meeting with the commission. just. expectations fears surprises. down thinking some today. everybody.
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this is g.w. news live from berlin a high stakes so much in helsinki between the u.s. and russian president trump was welcomed by the president of finland for talks with his russian counterpart vladimir putin set the scene by tweeting this relations with russia have never been worse what can the world expect from the helsinki summit will have expert analysis for.

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