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tv   Tomorrow Today - The Science Magazine  Deutsche Welle  July 19, 2018 9:30am-10:00am CEST

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the culture of the state. only a promise to his son will surely which will return to the concrete and glass jungle of new york. the result of the first culture shock. from the forest. w. . welcome to tomorrow today here's what's coming up. the hard cold workout for the brain. exploring the moon with novices latest lou no prob. and how children's toys shape gender identity and what to do about it.
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but first stress the top three causes of it in the modern boat a study says that pressure money worries and lack of sleep once upon a time stress responses how does to act in life or death situations flooding our body with help for home. but these days many people are spending their lives in the state of constant along and thus can leave traces in your genes. the most traumatizing experiences in life often come with no warning. and they don't just leave marks in your memory traces of stress can also be found in your genes. yes you heard that rice trauma can be inherited.
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take this mass for example researchers at zurich university say the animal has inherited trauma from its grace great grandfather. which as a baby was taken away from its mother for hours at a time the stress of that experience has been passed on to successive generations. isabelle mostly discovered the phenomenon eight years ago since then the neurobiologist has been studying how the original trauma has been passed on through the genes during the behavioral experiments she has to remain as quiet as possible . of course. you wouldn't know it from just looking at the mouse it's the same with people if someone has been traumatized by physical or sexual violence for example you don't necessarily see it. this. time then the fourth test.
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which. is. the mass is being dunked in cold water this enables the scientists to measure its stress response. how will the mass behave. in. the animal tries desperately to escape. the experiment was approved by regulators even if it seems pretty cruel to us we yes of course but the swimming test is an accepted standard method for measuring stress responses in animals. and. here we see that the mouse is just allowing itself to drift of russell to. its non traumatised behave differently they spend
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a lot longer trying to get out several minutes on average. with inherited troll might gives up much sooner six six just pushed it to. reach an associated with this inherited trauma it's called the hippocampus it's located at the back of the brain it was there a scientist identified irregularities in a gene associated with stress response the original trauma to be on south or cold certain parts of the gene to be activated far more than they should be in the descendant. that triggers changes causing the hormone cortisol to play a far bigger role meaning the man is more susceptible to stress and the same will apply to its offspring and their offspring to. create. the first we were pretty surprised but it happens with people to parents past their
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trauma and to their children. another test involves placing the mice in a kind of maze the animal can choose to hide or take a risk cameras and a stopwatch help record how often and takes risks so how will this one behave. you might think that a mouse that has inherited trauma would seek out a corner and cower in it but actually it's the opposite traumatized mice have trouble assessing dangerous situations and therefore take more risks. all the way to the open all the animal is taking big risks. the more the mouse behaves without thinking you see this kind of risky behavior and
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a lot of people who have been traumatized to so in mice trauma is passed on from generation to generation and it's likely the same happens in humans it's a pretty tragic finding we need. more yes that's true it's really important that we are aware that our life experiences don't just affect us but our children too. but offsetting the effect of inherited trauma is pretty simple is about we discovered how to do that as well. as spacious cage and lots of variety are key to reversing the genetic consequences of troll mound socialising is also important as well as exercise put simply it's about having a good life does the same principle apply to people tricks eighty but for many. the same should work with people we want to find out if the genetic changes can be
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reversed through psychotherapy. but hypnosis shamanism or meditation might also help whatever method it takes to help people feel better. to find out more about how trauma is inherited. ysabel most we wants to study witnesses of the terrorist attack in. their children. she's looking for treatments that can help to raise genetic traces left by the events there. and now for a change of pace. groove on foster's bone. and makes you such. as of course the feel good factor too. but that's not all scientists have discovered that
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dancing makes you smarter to. researchers at the institute of human movement sciences and sport at the e.t.h. science university in zurich made an exciting discovery. dancing is a great exercise for the brain hadn't gone down seeing involves various companies have been motor learning processes. those processes improve. the whole range of brain functions in the frontal lobe mental flexibility attention span and. what makes dancing so effective is that it requires motor and cognitive performance at the same time. movement alone is not enough the mind has to be stimulated as well the team in zurich have devised several computer programs known as xa games to challenge both body and mind similar taney asli i you can play soccer. do martial arts. or dance with
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a group of avatars. as such activities to give the lie to the notion that computer games are dummies down. to the scientists involved say there is evidence that x a games produced the brain. but here too playing alone is not enough. you've got to move your body to. in the united states this kind of gym based brain workout is already quite common in switzerland it's still pretty rare one of a few gyms are applying the findings of the e.t.h. team. some regulars here say they can feel the difference. says clues just help me to concentrate better i used to meet lots of tutoring in math but now hardly at all yet so no one knows how to be that you know i have to say it's improved chillis performance but it might change and i've noticed that i
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feel less time is now. being. cut alternative kind of work out. it's not just about brawn now but brain too. speaking of small these women certainly well. and they were just mathematicians and announcer catherine johnson was so well known for the quality of her calculations that she could easily beat machines without them and none of the colleagues mary johnson and dorothy vaughn she calculated the trajectory of the apollo eleven mission in one thousand and sixty nine which the past announced to the moon for the first time from them a bunch of you to name a major way to the success of the announcer's manned space flight program the amount web video of the week takes you on another mission to the moon
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them. back it's time to embark on an incredible luna jenny. facing a new funny crazy cope's high count. it's nearly nine in the machete. and it features a handsome one point on the testimony. check out this bond and it's one hundred meters wide no one can figure out how it ended up here and.
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this is a military training it's astronauts landed. me upon a seventeen land. and the traces and let me down and. useful images from earth's closest celestial neighbor our moon. deseret and hell is from the philippines had another question about the moon. how old is the moon it's a question that has long puzzled scientists and different experts have come to different conclusions but the reason they can guess at all is thanks to now says apollo missions. there
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astronauts brought samples back from six different locations on the moon three hundred kilograms in total from fine dust to football sized chunks of rock those samples have been invaluable to science. in labs on earth researchers have now accurately determine the age and chemical make up of the samples they provide unique insights into the history and development of the moon and how it came to exist current theory now has said that the moon formed when a celestial body the size of mars collided with our planet long ago. the injected material gradually formed another body in orbit around earth clumping together to form the moon. but figuring out its exact age is difficult because the moon has been bombarded with meteorites that change the composition of its rock the
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craters on the moon surface bear witness to the many violent collisions but one discovery has brought us closer to an answer. researchers found a very old mineral called zircons in the moon rock samples it's highly stable and would have formed while the moon was cooling from its molten state this zircons suggests them. moon is even more inch and than most researchers originally thought more than four and a half billion years old. i only gave you. do you have a science question get in touch send us your question by a video text ovoid smell we can't wait to hear from you. come on just ask. you'll find us at d.w.
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dot com slash science twitter at d w underscore site tech or on facebook d w science. it's time to return to earth now with the splash. what'd lown fish snails and earthworms have in common their own gender bender the difference between the sexes is more slippery than you think and it's the same for humans. and new life is forming. this embryo is thirty days old and about six millimeters long the spine is visible as are the beginnings of arms and legs. at this point the features contain structures that are capable of developing into either male or female genitalia.
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if the cells nuclei contain an x. x. chromosome pair the embryo will typically develop into what's considered biologically female but if it's an x.y. chromosome pair it will become male. but it's more complex than the last gender is determined by an interplay of genes and hormones as well as other factors . in the sixth or seventh week the embryo is about one centimeter long. typically male development begins when the primitive gonads become testes. the testes released testosterone an important step in the development of a typically biological male. this hormone together with other factors is involved in the formation of the deference the seminal vesicles to the prostate gland.
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at the same time the gentle structures develop into the glands of the penis and the four skin. typically biologically female development begins when the primitive gonads become ovaries. they produce the hormone esther dial. as with testosterone and boys as to dial plays an important role in the development of a biological female. under its influence the fallopian tubes used to us and the upper part of the vagina are formed. the male structures are trophy and a class or a slave and you read through our formed. this comparison shows that initially the structures can form either male or female genitalia genes and hormones affect what happens next.
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the process of gender differentiation can be influenced by other factors along the way. underage an insensitivity syndrome for example it's one of the most common intersex conditions. at first the embryos development is typical for that of genetic males. it has an x. y. chromosome pair the fetus develops testes. the testes release testosterone but the underage and receptors on the genital structures are defective rendering the hormone ineffective. because the embryo also produces extra dial the female hormone has a dominant effect the result in spite of having x.y. chromosomes the embryo develops typically female characteristics.
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the division between pink and blue is nothing new but to to know pink was once the color of choice for male models. and blue was for women like mary the mother of jesus. it was only after the first world war when we remain a false turned blue that things shifted. these days blue is for boys and pink is the girls but why. is this a toy for boys or a toy for girls knowing. girls. i know boy. even preschoolers make a clear distinction between boys and girls at around two and a half years old they begin to feel like they belong to one sex and girls play more
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with girls and boys more with boys. marketing toys for either boys or girls as a concept that's been around for a long time like toy cars and doll houses. toyman your factures were among the first to capitalize on this gender marketing strategy since they realized they can sell twice as many products. stevie shmita as a cultural scientist from hamburg who opposes their gender rising of toys she says it reinforces and passes on outdated stereotypes. there was. always have to be strong loud angry active and girls a gentle and caring it's fascinating take kids shower gel or any other kids products the girls are often looking right at you smiling whether it's a cartoon or a real person boys look off into the distance there in the middle of some activity
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you find this everywhere boys are pirates girls are princesses it's fine that the job's a different but it's about the message it sends us sometimes but yet. such representations can cement a child's idea of role models this is an advert from the one nine hundred fifty s. . and if a woman has two questions in life what should i wear and what should i cook. it's amazing how much a man can eat when he's married and it seems like appetite grows with marriage make a young girl yes i'm the most important thing is the custard. by twenty twelve stevie had started to find gender stereotyping so repulsive she set up an organization called pink stinks. we need girls who bang their fist on the table and say i want this salary i want that job. and boys who can say i'm going to sit in the corner and cuddle my pink
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pony think that they get called gay and wrong they get abused and bullied for it and that's what the should. the number of successful women in politics in germany at least is growing and there is some progress in female representation in boardrooms then there's a female referee in the german men's soccer league. but gender stereotypes are far from gone they're the reason we still have typical women's jobs that are paid less and valued less on average women do twice as much housework as man. and. there are children it's usually the woman who takes a part time job. in germany it's more than forty six percent of women and only nine percent of men. girls are more likely to watch programs like germany's next top model there's a huge industry behind out to the show presents what's beautiful desirable and
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successful. i'm. not i'm not i guess. earlier this year pink stinks made an advert called not heidi's girl with a message to end body shaming and the obsession with beauty the important thing it says is to feel good in your own skin and. it was directed by actress laura vicious the feedback she received was largely positive but not exclusively. i got this comment from a man that said hey you're so cute why do you need to voice your opinion. sex. internet that you're good looking what more can i say this. takes on a whole range of topics for pink stinks like beauty. and even bad chat up lines she wants to give girls the courage to fight back and stand up for themselves enough of
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telling girls they have to be sweet kind and pretty. i do theatre work with children i had this example recently when i was assigning the parts and i said ok one is a beautiful princess whatever beautiful me. and the other it's a funny princess we had all these princesses with different characteristics and one of the children's mother said yeah you're definitely the beautiful princess stuff. some parents try to break away from gender stereotypes by giving. boys toys to girls and encouraging them to be loud and wild. but do they give pink girls toys to boys. always are told that's pink are you a girl or what's a girl never has are you a boy saying you softy you girl is meant as an insult to boys and that's degrading
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to girls too. sexist advertising is degrading too there are still plenty of magazines and adverts splashed with sexist messages some studies suggest this type of advertising is actually growing pink stings has developed enough for people to report sexist images. was a study from the us said the more flash a woman shows the less empathy the viewer has the more she seen as an object to be used and that's so dangerous a family. we live in a period of transition traditional gender roles are being called into question and dismantled but with so much money at stake it could be a long time before gender stereotyping disappears from the toy industry. and that wraps up today's show next week we're diving into the world of peevishness
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the rodents don't only build their own homes they create habitats for other species to. join us for that and more until then take a bite. cut . cut cut cut cut cut. cut cut
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cut cut. cut cut cut. cut cut cut cut. cut cut. going to. enter the conflict zones of. follow suit somalis. so is the judge trade shows corruption my guess is him accountable for their soft physiology going for the bomb los santos is a true blue in the focus from i shall be joining the to move those movies from me good to see but does he deserve conflict so few minutes w. folks. told.
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him so must some of the best of luck from opening a festival in northern germany. comment about the show just dozens of newcomers come on the. c.w. and come back for more on a bunch of. fucking open air two thousand and ten stores most are going to dublin to come on. there's no doubt. my managers to no good today. you know the banks want to mind and so what's the language of a bank money. for speaking the truth global news that matters g.w. made for mines. and
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. this is d w news live from berlin turkey ends its two year state of emergency but new anti terror legislation has opposition groups war each paid leave present at one will hughes is sweeping new powers to consolidate the entry chair regime introduced during the state of emergency will go to a stronghold for the latest. on the program as president trump struggles to contain a political storm in washington we get the view from tennessee at the rodeo for giving him an easy right.

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