tv Doc Film - Dream Babies Deutsche Welle July 26, 2018 7:15am-8:01am CEST
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since the dawn of time humans have reproduced through natural means. but might be active conception through physical intercourse become an outdated concept in the not too distant future. the story began forty years ago in britain with three magical letters. in vitro fertilization a revolutionary technique to help sterile couples. the british public was shocked by a science that could substitute for nature when louise brown the first test tube baby
was born in the minds of many back then artificial conception would inevitably produce munster's lead deformed babies. born how if you cried. forty years on and i v.f. is now practiced daily across the globe today about three hundred fifty thousand children are born every year as a result of assisted reproduction technologies. three percent of all births in western countries three in a thousand in the rest of the world. it's a market projected to be worth twenty billion dollars by the year two thousand and twenty. medically assisted reproduction is increasingly
widespread in india it's less expensive than in the west and as such far more widely affordable. this is one of the world's top clinics. its founder dr nayana patel renamed the facility meaning desire for which. there's a very breakout of the fed feeding that for you. every set the laser assisted. i think technology does need to think asian technology with the biggest freezer that's of the limit the lid to find the exit news foams everything everything what one would expect and. this word to have been in for today because. dr patel and her team use the technology to perform about a thousand in vitro fertilization is
a year to create the embryos we need to do i.v.'s and normally she would have one naturally in a natural cycle yardwork for do idea if we need a good cohort of six to seven a. good friend. list . this is really far exceeded agonist promised. you can see them draw us bombs on the edge off the dock let. their money. this is. with the help of the stores with the warning engine go down.
and. says. this is embraced or. this is the time lips left and it insists on looking for six fish and one booking for five six fish and slate at that time and as the school this is a video of all who are there look mental from view. this thing you know we can see so will eventually the patient. how did b.b. little nothing to do last weekend c. h one by one or so we can judge which him do you always want that we love them but you. two will and we can see let me get into you for us.
it takes an average of four attempts at in vitro fertilization to achieve a pregnancy a success rate comparable to that in nature. a fertile couple aged twenty five who have regular sex also has a one in four chance in each menstrual cycle of conceiving a baby. dr patel with her state of the art equipment of chains of pregnancy on every second attempt. on your part bessie. let him sleep there to sleep by a bed that bed. so it will to sleep no. over the years medical techniques have evolved for treatments for female
infertility and also male sterility the methods now enjoy widespread acceptance. when a couple can't reproduce with their own game mates their eggs in sperm they can resort to donors. the world's largest sperm bank is in our host denmark cryo receives a huge number and range of applications. and demand is by no means limited to heterosexual couples. single women and lesbian couples can now also have their own child. the proliferation of options has. led to a booming market. cryo is hold sperm from hundreds of donors and has an impressive online catalog. is easier than the paper's photos of the dome and you can browse through the mole. and then you can go and see. if i screw up. race cook asian ethnicity danish english
french height one ninety one weight one hundred kilo build an elliptical shoe size forty five closing size. most intelligent quotations ninety nine. if you see how the handwriting is this the reader might get an. idea about what kind of personality is behind that don't here we even have making this me on a website so you can pick them favorite and then you can retrieve your favorites again and then narrow them to one so small is the same as in real life and then if you found the right one been true some. this is a donor speaking. we have probably somewhere between insurance at five thirty thirty five. samples in a check like this year. but still four thousand children here keep in the cold
we could not even minus one hundred ninety six degrees old biological activity has stopped so this material can be kept here for flavor. the cheapest one is anonymous donor from the basic profile of the most expensive use astral from an anonymous donor with six. only ten percent of them don't come to this have question which can be approved. people are searching for themselves. and.
it's difficult to attract. admissions she's. charged. we could increase on for instance where all. this is a market and those of them on the planet and if you're too much of something. this nation. in the united states on the other hand almost everything is permitted provided you have the financial means sperm banks are in greater demand than ever and there's a flourishing market for egg cells as the extraction process can be problematic and painful donors can sell their eggs for up to twenty five thousand dollars. i decided to become an egg donor. actually with a friend joking around by how fertile i was and said you know you should probably
just donate the eggs and make some money to help pay for your bills while you do it . and it was a joke and we laughed and later i looked more into it it was almost like a god inside of my head and wouldn't go away where i was two and a half years ago was a single mom of three heads putting myself through school and juggling a job and trying to figure out how i was going to afford everything how i was going to take care of the kids and there is a an amount that they pay you for doing it and so it ended up being kind and. this interesting situation where i was able to pay off all my student loans and created a pretty good life for my kids. the procedure itself is you go for your initial exam with the doctor and then. they do it on tristan around
they count your follicles to see how many you have and where you are in your cycle and then after some time you start the injections i had to do two per day for think it was seven days and then i had to do three a day for i think it was three days and then on day ten or eleven depending on how your body responds to the medication you give yourself another shot which are called a trigger shot. and then your retrieval is normally twenty four hours after that and there's about two or three days where you are uncomfortable and. just a little bit sore for.
her. head is showing. showing smith founded the first bank in the us twenty seven years ago the image during sore own sites of three hundred young women are now available in her catalogue. it all began when she herself had to turn to a donor after losing a baby. you know. i think my own case. you know the sadness that i felt when i lost my child and the seven years i spent trying to get pregnant after that really affected me and to this day i feel wonderful when i can give people hope back in their lives i know from having had my own children what it meant to me to become a mother and how grateful i am to the donor all the time so if someone comes to us
from plants or germany they have no options they can't do this at home. so they come to the end donor cowperwood who are out of california and for the donors there is that idea that this part of your spirit is going out across the world to help someone who's really a stranger and yet that passion for having a child that desire that yearning is was the same for every human being on the planet it doesn't matter is what their religion is it doesn't matter what their skin color is doesn't matter what their culture is steve and hearing their story and and being part of that and they let you into a really special almost private part of their life that nobody else really gets besides the doctors and them gets to be a part of so it was a world they never knew existed and once i got to be a part of it i just love being
a part of it now and it's very well said. i think going into it you really have to mentally prepare for the fact that this is not my child so i never went into it with someone else was having my child or this is. someone out in the world has my children and they have their children and i was just able to help them make that a reality or you know. oh. technological progress also leads to the temptations of selecting the embryo to be implanted of choosing the gender of the child for example. so where is the borderline between self comfort and medical treatment to. canada like schools the united states is about fifty fifty england likes girls
a little bit more than voice spain like sports south america largely boys china mostly all boys so every country france is a little bit more for girls than boys. dr jeffrey steinberg was one of the first to see the future importance of the tailor made baby for years he has given couples the possibility of choosing their child's gender and that's just the beginning. we are world leaders in the selection of gender. every single one of these charts has come in with a request for a boy or girl and requests for genetic normalcy so to make things easy we label the boys blue we label the girls pick same price boy or girl about nineteen thousand dollars total. this is an embryo we're about to perform a biopsy we're going to remove one of the cells each cell in the embryo has the
same genetics as every other cell so by taking out one cell you can get all the genetic information about the entire embryo it's a very delicate process the embryos are very fragile. this isn't it hence one of the form assumes that came from one cell and what we've done is we've lived up the x. and y. chromosomes we have x. y. which means this is a male embryo if we had two x.'s two greens that would be a female member. and then we allow people to add on additional things that they want we're allowing them to start screening for eye color there's an additional cost. i remember when we first announced i color and allowing couples to choose the i called the baby we actually got a call from the vatican they were very very nice they were scientists at that but they expressed their concerns and expressed the fact that perhaps society wasn't
quite ready for this and asked us to go very slowly and very carefully which of course we always do. there's a huge number of things that we're going after obesity is one of the ones everything else as far as we know is far more complex skin complection very very complex and no one's really identified exactly what causes all of skin what causes white skin what causes black skin and everything in between so we're looking at it but we're not approaching it at this point i.q. is not going to happen in my lifetime it's tremendously complex and we're not sure exactly where it comes from clearly people with high i.q.'s have been studied for years and years and years including einstein himself and we haven't yet put our finger on where it's a. lab. and
yet in the one nine hundred eighty s. certain scientists couldn't help playing the sorcerer's apprentice by sorting donors according to their i.q. . more than two hundred children were born with the aid of the so-called genius sperm bank like lee and around. today they're in their thirty's. my dad and me. after a show. my dad was infertile so what happened was actually my mother's mother. was so my grandmother was watching a talk show and on this talk show was this little boy named door and blake and his mother and they were talking about the genius sperm bank and how this boy was born this way and so my grandmother thought oh my gosh this is a perfect idea so she called my mom and she said i know how you can still have
a family i found the perfect solution for you so my parents checked it out and it looked great the sperm was like fed exed from california to new york a big tank arrived and i was conceived. he wanted in a nutshell that's what i've. basically my parents picked donor clear from a catalog of different donors that were available and this is all the information i have that he is outstanding intellect with exceptional athletic ability so my parents told me when i was very young that i was born from this they told me when i was maybe one or two years old so it's always been a part of me i've never known any other way of existing. home so for me it's very very normal and it's nothing strange and it's totally who i am and i couldn't even tell you what it feels like because i don't know what it's like to
feel a different way. i mean i think that it nature has its way of giving us the perfect baby genes come into play just definitely and i think it's just one ingredient in like many things that make up easily being and how their lives plays out. most of our donors have an i.q. over one thirty. one sixty one seventy two if i recall correctly and there in person so sickle health splendid. where you take us all the tour of your laboratory here dr graham and shows he. proudly shows how what goes on here there isn't much to show because sperm are not very photogenic but. for two decades dr robert graham used this freezer to store the sperm of three
nobel prize winners and about twenty other donors with exceptional i.q. news before his establishment closed following his death. i read you to my group emerging leader and regroup through the book and remarks from zero in each of the we write a letter proposing would you be opposed. and one or two percent of the mood responded you did that group of. this girl goes in search of beautiful child and show gift to everybody when. no one has no wife not only becomes a mother which you dearly want to be or she has the very wealthiest brightest child she could carry through the purchase of paying him constructive procreation is one of the most meaningful things we can do. the key to human improvement is to add
more had been painted. she moves to the human gene pool. this is. good. in spain the biomedical company economics offers its clients the possibility of choosing from numerous genetic characteristics before implanting an embryo this includes gender selection which is banned in india for example as well as many other countries. the process is called p.g.d. pre-implantation genetic diagnosis or recipe to create a perfect child in perfect health. the first step involves compatibility testing with a donor. piece
in my locale say school in our system we analyze and combine the diagnoses performed on patients with those performed on donors to offer optimal fertilization of a fair one of the must see all of the miami so will so to prevent the transmission of any possible anomaly that could cause deformities in a fetus or a people that understand it or there's a tendency i'll take that position is that a mutation if it's positive for fifty years it. just has to get punished by the new dental and that this equipment enables us to obtain within the space of about eight hours around four hundred million radius of human genome sequences where you know there can only. be an embryo number one whose normal body is. number sixty.
six that can't really get in this patient has suffered through. three miscarriages none of her pregnancies reached full turn it in your honeymoon that they'd been on for months and on my side you know you didn't see only. that it was the same day on its own planet two embryos visibly normal way not us without us i don't know that paul didn't anyway and that's a good result for a thirty nine year old patient up here and the case of this forty three year old patient however we've analyzed two embryos be on itself what on earth of them unfortunately appear abnormal and that's why it's so important to analyze the embryos with mothers over the age of thirty six and beyond if we had implanted these two embryos it could have caused a miscarriage or a child with a chromosomal abnormality. the new technologies are huge we can do everything nowadays it some believe of all how their knowledge has
revolutionized everything in the eighty's what matters was the patient became pregnant we used to transfer three or four embryos we think they got mates where there's the embryo transfer to the mother now the most important thing is one of the baby at home. if you want to have a baby is going to be the second revolution go to the professional and you would have a healthy baby and leave the sex for. in some cases scientists invent what nature has not allowed. remarkable developments have been made in recent years. it's now possible to conceive a child from more than the traditional two parents. it's a technology that requires the d.n.a. from three different parents. mitochondria which provide energy for the body's cells also possess their own d.n.a.
. researchers remove the nucleus of a defective ovum from the biological mother and injected into the healthy ovum from a donor already with its own nucleus removed. this extremely difficult operation transferring the nucleus from one over to another is directly inspired by cloning. the next step comprises classic in vitro fertilization the future baby will thus possess three different types of d.n.a. those of its two parents plus that from the mitochondria of the donor. mice a contrary all the family small fragments in each cell now body that is essential to sing in the gene way people think about ms really are the power stations or the factories that really put you see and if you are or how cells need to work and we know is that this mitochondrial d.n.a. is specifically passed down the mother's jewels and what we want to try and do
is try and prevent luncheons machine by transferring over the new theatre nothing material from the net which has gone to the fact of mitochondrial d.n.a. into a neck which is gone healthy mitochondria. what's really important is that this sort of technology can have a major impact on future generations because if we can prevent the disease actually in the in the off spring training. but could be counted on from the german. editing the human germline is a hugely controversial issue in genetics and yet in february twenty fifteen the british parliament crossed that line and made the country the first to give the go ahead for three parent babies. for. the audience for the right three hundred eighty two news for the left one hundred twenty or.
so the oh is that it the oh you stop it oh. babies will soon be born in britain using the technique in the meantime an american team has already helped to produce the world's first three parent baby at a clinic in mexico where the law is more permissive than in the u.s. . to preempt criticism before passing such a groundbreaking law of the house of lords in britain consulted numerous specialists in the field. among them the philosopher john harris lord alliance professor of bioethics at manchester university. in the case of. science who is. applying a sort of you containing framework you have to ask the question. will polluting this science to develop to the point where we know whether it is safe or not
in humans. will this benefit humankind or will it be to the detriment of humankind but is the moral question. the three parent label for mitochondrial. is misleading. there is a sense in which it's true basically the. d.n.a. the mitochondrial d.n.a. contains less than one percent of the total it does not transmit any of the normal things that we think of in connection with the n.a.a. so it doesn't transmit phenotypical traits. cetera but they do come from a third party but. i mean. you might say two parents good three parents. and it's possible to go even further much further as seen on the other side of the
atlantic. one american company over science has been working for years on rejuvenating aging eggs to allow women to effectively turn back their biological clocks and extend their childbearing years. over science it's a company that's working on cutting edge treatments but we're discovering technologies to make it all. by injecting the mitochondria. by. cells that are very supportive. in the future what we want our medicines that you can say just take a pill for a week and suddenly a woman gets back her fertility and even saw a woman that's been many theoretically we think that we can bring back total
fertility to. the really exciting work that seems like science fiction but we're almost there that's called over sure so what have we got here might. have some very. important but in the right environment. we believe you so have the ability to make human eggs. so let's have a look at these under the microscope. they're beautiful. yeah. so are these the ones that you're a screening for a genetic defects that's correct and tested and these are the stem cells from a woman that we grow in the lab we've been growing these for now a couple of years and we're learning to turn these cells into eggs and those will eventually become children.
that would be a real revolution not only because we could have hundreds of healthy eggs from a single simple operation but because we could also screen. for genetic errors and even one day correct those genetic errors before we even develop an egg or an embryo. move. without mary ellen parar do run is examining a sixty six day old humans for matters oid.
has this chemist made a breakthrough in the treatment of male sterility. visible face. these are designed we used hydrogen as materials in a tube uniform and these hydrogen tube. it's turned out to be an excellent bioreactors for in showing the maturation of spermatozoa it's from the south this is us throughout much of us feel this don't let us leave this in the jungle. said he went to team work for twenty three years to attain this result the first spermatozoa we obtained was from a rat. news that we moved on to humans do ha no get on the best. man. now we have to show that the spermatozoa is our fertile. the focal i still
we have to all stay reasonable and understand that there's still lots of work to be done it's not a transgenic mouse that we're setting out to make so little human beings in it he says until. we get lots of sterile men contacting us who want to see if we can help them these families want to know how our research is progressing along with going on their dinner she. was over the phone some couple send us their photos on a human level that's really touching so if we can help them become parents i personally would be extremely happy and i find the idea extremely moving. there are still some idealists out here. for a long time researchers have known how to identify and alter genes in d.n.a. what they have not yet managed however is to obtain the efficiency and speed at low
cost offered by a natural mechanism called d.n.a. scissors recently discovered inside bacteria. then able the bacteria to target the d.n.a. of an intruding virus and cut it up to prevent it from reproducing. these molecular scissors have been given a code named christopher cass nine boast. unrivaled precision they have been used by geneticists to cut and replace any segment of d.n.a. in any living organism. the discovery of the gene scissors saw in the new rochelle poncho instantly catapulted into the elite group of potential nobel prize winners the max planck institute in berlin has since rewarded her with a golden opportunity to continue her revolutionary work as director of the renowned research organization. just waiting for evolution or insisting on the genes that he does being picked up
by. numerous labs around the word to. perform precise you need teach the knowledge number of cyrus and albany times and that is just when you technology is at the semantic tool so we treat disease prior to be used for. and what if scientists were to cross the line and genetically edit human embryos that's exactly what a team did at a chinese university. by using crisper managed to correct a d.n.a. mutation responsible for a blood disease the modified embryos were never intended to be reimplanted but the experiment shocked the world because it opens the door to the concept and conception of genetically altered humans. to the question of mistaken only gee isn't fully developed it better still failure
so it won't be usable for humans for a number of years but it will be by twenty twenty five or twenty thirty so we must anticipate the ethical questions that will arise because technologies like this will be able to multi find d.n.a. the chromosomes of babies and also their physical and even into law. troll characteristics these will be the principal tools for making babies and the world needs to reflect on these issues but for once we have the time to reflect on what we're going to do with the existence of this extraordinary power regarding our genetic and biological nature because. their range of reproduction tools continues to grow from i.d.f. to crisper casts nine three parrot baby food and game mates made from stem cells. it seems that the dream of the tailor made baby will soon become reality.
i believe on his first as a technology not being used to treat human child nines and i know so personally quite restrictive was read out as you said of the technology for your mind over use and just because when you start to manipulate all satirists you cross easy to your line of an hour or so but he said it taken machines not radians not specific enough in nine old days to be used. in any case. while qusai kits many are concerned and think that the genetic modification of embryos is a red line that must be crossed merely to reality is subtle red lines always shift over time the pill abortion i.d.f. the artificial heart all of these were considered unacceptable a few decades ago we no longer see them as arm crossed red lines as absolutely indispensable innovations shortly want to so we can't exclude the possibility of embryonic genetic modification becoming commonplace that they'll no longer be
a red line in your eyes. this genetic heritage which is a pivotal part of our diversity and uniqueness is the basis of esther foxx. his work. the artist would most likely not have survived the embryo selection stage. this is a condo as well. it's the new case of what i've made to be installed in the science museum looking at genetic testing and thinking about the value of human life and whether we're going down the road to that we haven't really thought about the fast implications for society. it's not that i'm completely and the progress that's being made with the internet.
in some cases i think it might be very useful for treatment of cancer for instance when it's a life threatening condition but what concerns me is the idea of saying somebodies life is less valuable somebody else and i think currently the debate which is coming mainly from the medical profession is that they are making judgments about the quality of somebody's life without any experience themselves of actually living with is a genetic condition i feel my own experience is that i have a very full life i'm extremely busy probably too busy really and i'm very happy to have a full family life. and i don't see that my quality of life is limited at all but i know that the medical side of my condition would be seen as a condition that people wouldn't want to wish on their child but i think that's where i'm trying to rebalance that debate with.
something said to me. you know we could change your life if you could have been been through it i know how i feel condition but you might not be the person that you are today. that makes. life very difficult but there are still many valleys that leave fight night. and it's not the condition that makes you stop but it's often the surroundings that will be asked to change that you face. is that if we can start adjusting those well living and let's get back to kate good people maybe we could have a much fuller life case bit by bit by bit and i think we need to start thinking
about humanity. ventured the conflict zone confronting the powerful twenty years ago the good friday agreement paved the way and two decades of bigger conflict in the law but the results have been mixed my guest this week here in dublin is. for my irish prime minister just how fine job is the process now of the. sega assess the conflicts of. thirty minutes.
i pass on on the ground and they will not succeed in dividing us so that i'll not succeed in taking the people off the streets because we're tired of district. to show. taking the stand global news that matters. made for mines. climate change. sustainability. environmental. globalization. biodiversity species monsour vision exploitation. human rights displacement to load the global and current local larger. global three thousand.
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