tv Tomorrow Today - The Science Magazine Deutsche Welle November 4, 2018 10:30pm-11:01pm CET
no this simply means to me is to begin. to. discover who. subscribed to delete documentary on you tube. hello and welcome to tomorrow today coming up. small miracles researchers peek inside thirty million year old insect fossils and unlock secrets from the past. big plans for curing genetic diseases and eliminating hunger will genetic scissors
really live up to their promise and great alternatives amaranth and i'm calling wheat modern day super foods approved by science. but first we take a look at the ground beneath your feet it's not always as solid as you might think some areas are full of hidden underground cabotage over time the earth can suddenly collapse creating a sinkhole often without warning. sinkholes have grown common in the area around the dead sea there are thousands of them that. a new system could now predict where the next is set to appear. the holes are up to forty meters wide and often thirty meters deep. there are over six thousand of them. we're at the
dead sea the famed body of salt water that lies between israel and jordan over four hundred meters below sea level. an increasing stretch of the israeli side of the sea is now cordoned off due to the proliferation of dangerous sinkholes. just four years ago mineral beach was a popular resort that attracted over two hundred thousand guests a year. melvin blau used to manage the resort and was here the day the ground simply gave way. by slowing the ship was a bright sunny day on a similar twenty seven twenty fourteen when disaster struck an enormous hole opened up under the parking lot. and we had to close the beach. so i go the whole. i mean all the like the aftermath of a through nami. coming here now is like visiting a cemetery when you would look for any militia may get
a bit cold. and a sinkholes have taken their toll all over the region which is literally on the brink of collapse. some areas of lands look like they've been carpet bombed. geologists mayor abel son and get on have been examining the sinkholes since they first started emerging in the one nine hundred eighty s. since then the creators have spread along the coast of the dead sea. the rate of their formation accelerates from year to year so if at the beginning there were and if you think all the year then i think all of the year now the here the hundredth the finke or each year. the sinkhole problem is related to another dramatic phenomenon the disappearance of the sea itself. the water levels here have fallen by about forty meters since the one nine hundred eighty s.
that also means that tourists now have to be driven almost two kilometers out of that constantly receding coastline. the sea is also drying up because israel diverts so much water from the jordan river which feeds it. that has consequences that are not immediately apparent as salt levels are also falling in the soil of the shore area. rainwater and additional fresh water from the jordan river now dissolved underground layers of salt and eventually the ground above collapses you know it's something that can happen anywhere and at any time by the shore of the dead sea. they are and able to and want to set up a system that at least provides some advance warning of a developing sinkhole. there are early indicators before a hole starts to form the ground at that spot will sink slightly although it can't
be detected by the human eye the process often begins years before the sinkhole appears. jerusalem and hour's drive from the dead sea it's home to the geological survey of israel where the two men are working on their early warning system. a survey satellite conducts a radar scan of the dead sea coast every two weeks. the system enables the scientists to detect areas where the ground has fallen by a few millimeters clear indicators of future sinkholes. highway ninety runs along the western israeli side of the dead sea and straight through the affected area. and this was the first test for the early warning system developed by the scientists. for a long time it seems the highway had been spared from sinkholes. i think as of
september two thousand and twelve we started seeing something like a centimeter of something then every two weeks on the road it's a. barrier and ableson warned the authorities of the dangers but they refused to listen and. cars and buses everything continued driving on the main road and we continued seeing minus something of a one centimeter into a wave and you could not see anything with your eyes so there are looked as if it's completely stable. one year later cracks began appearing on the road. the authorities eventually responded and took a look underneath the tarmac. where they discovered an uncool lapsed sinkhole nine meters deep in that section of the road closed and the bypass was built the road did eventually collapse at the exact spot predicted by the geologists. because we
already saw it in september two thousand and twelve and the only craft four years later they had enough time to build the bypass because if it was a short warning or no warning then a sinkhole could collapse on the road and then the entire south of the dead sea it would be disconnected from the north. the next step in the researchers plan is an automated early warning system that they can hopefully install in other regions that are affected by sinkholes to. craters will continue to open up here as long as the dead sea carries on sinking but at least now they'll be more forseeable. species that have changed a little over millions of years are often called living fossils it's believed they haven't been forced to evolve because. perfectly adapted to their ecological niche sorry a fair environment doesn't change dramatically neither do that. the stars of our
next piece employ a sneaky trick to reproduce and it's not a new one. it. is a toy dwarfs lay their eggs in the larvae of other insects when they hatch the wasp larvae devour their host from the inside the behavior has been around for over thirty million years as shown by this specimen found in a fossil fly paper the ancient fossils are being studied at the karlsruhe institute of technology each individual pupil was put into a special holder they were examined using radiation from the institute synchrotron source it's a one hundred ten metre long storage ring in which electrons are accelerated leading to the emission of high intensity x. rays that can be used in a kind of c.t. scan to reveal the tiniest of details. samples that were empty
all we could see was stones. we were a bit disappointed but then we suddenly have a stone where the wasp was staring right at us and the x. ray image. it wasn't to be the only find in all the scientists examined more than fifteen hundred fossil fly. fifty five of them can change completely preserved parasites and you miss other samples contained various insect pounds after careful analysis the research has identified four different species in various sizes and phases of development it was a sensation the ultimate proof that these insects have exhibited power as a toy behavior since the distant past like one was that over thirty million years ago hunted down hosts luvvie in the soil the adult insect had structures protecting its wings and tennis on legs that are no longer found in modern species this new
knowledge is the true treasure the poly intelligence some biologists have found. based on the characteristics we can construct family trees to see how structures have changed over the course of evolution which ones lead to very diversified and which to species poor groups what structures have disappeared we hope that this study will give fresh well to the classical field of research. the fossil fly pay have provided a window to the past illuminated by modern technology but the scientists will need many more months to analyze all their data but the study has already provided a fascinating look at the last that were apparently toyed more than thirteen million years ago whose modern day descendants still continue to employ the successful strategy. on facebook we asked you if you ever found a fossil of
a petrified object. doris lay on gabrielle has she says how lucky necklaces made from one. on his farm kenya kitchen go discovered a stone he thinks was used as a tool back in the stone age. or not allowed or colin breslin morse found some fossils while working trapped between the different layers of rock thanks for those responses. a revolutionary gene editing method has been making waves in a science world in the last few years crisper cas nine can also d.n.a. very precisely by acting as genetic sensors. it works like this the scissors are approaching. it is assigned
a kind of search word for example a g c in this simplified model our d.n.a. is made up of lots of different combinations of codes like thieves. the series of proteins scans the d.n.a. . and when it's found the search word the scissors are activated and they cut the section out. then a different section of d.n.a. like the code t.c.c. for example. can be inserted the method is precise easy and cheap to perform and scientists all over the world are trumpeting its praises. it's for me it's a dream come true mccoy crisper carr says made everything easier than it's the biggest breakthrough in the scientific field in thirty years this is the start of something really big. one of the researches who triggered all that euphoria is in many ways. she deciphered the way bacteria use
a kind of jinxes to protect themselves against viruses and turned it into a tool for genome editing now she says nature can be corrected. we expose the snake any zone to make a tool that can and we call the nines genomes specifically of any seven organism and can trigger some changing some changes on the genome a so we can eat in principle we stick nucci the genome of any sane and organism. when i first heard about it i was bowled over as it was presented in a lecture at a genome engineering meeting about technologies for making genetic changes to d.n.a. . for us and we immediately thought wow this is interesting that was a pocket that worked in bacteria it's like they discovered a system in bacteria could very probably be applied to human cells to. mention said
that it's it's an easy program a board system it's more efficient. and it's are small versatile so and so for different types of changes only genomes and their song expression of genes. discovered just a few years ago the method has a ready become a standard technique used in labs all over the world molecular says as a revolutionizing plant breeding biochemists like want to modify crops to feed more people and put an end to hunger. this will make it much easier especially for developing countries to prevent famine will be able to produce plants that are sort resistant and drought resistant which can improve harvests enormously for better. time and his team in using the crispest system on plants and trying to refine the
method. because protecting at the one feature of crisper is its high officials say at a low price. rises in the past creating gene editing scissors might have taken six months i would cost twenty five thousand euros with crisper we can do it in a couple of days or maybe a hundred euros that's a major difference and it works better if i'm tryna get off the sofa to biologists this is really a very powerful tool it's like this we saw me knife that he it's the we now have a tool that is so good that we can take the next step and use it on patients. seventy five or ten years we'll have new treatments that will help a lot of people if you have them. tony cattlemen heads the institute for transfusion medicine and gene therapy at the university of hi borg most of his team now works with change sensors developing new approaches for gene therapy. the
humans interact he shares it was we me seeing the technology to act on the d.n.a. in a precise fashion and this is what chris pakistan brings now there is out to bring this technology to the right says and to shoes to cure and he says swear we see a lot of developments happening. for me it really is a dream come true for the first time chris because it gives us a way to change the genome in human cells in a targeted way that opens up infinite possibilities that's what we want to do here in fiber to develop new therapy options for patients with immune deficiencies for hiv patients. i think this is a sharing in a second green revolution of the first one used traditional plant breeding techniques and was able to increase yields all over the world i think this will trigger a second green revolution revenue to. curing dangerous diseases overcoming
hunger with better crops crisper researches have ambitious plans. are you compassionate and thoughtful or ruthless and criminal. are good and bad behavioral traits determined by d.n.a. or does environment have a bigger effect on who we become a viewer from abu dhabi wanted to know. is there such a thing as a criminal gene. from kleptomania. serial killers for centuries people have been researching factors behind criminal behavior environmental and social causes or perhaps even genetic makeup. but the criminal gene question raises a range of moral issues the nazi era is a case in point the nazis exploited dubious notions of genetically inferior
criminals with inborn characteristics to justify persecution and genocide. new studies however suggest that some gene variants may be connected to aggressive behavior. notorious serial killer charles manson had a mother and uncle who are criminals is that significant. it seems that what our genes influence is not our character but chemicals in the brain violent people may have lower levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin to little sever tone in the brain can lead to uncontrolled aggression. damage to the frontal lobe of the brain can also make people more volatile one famous case is the american railroad worker phineas gage in one thousand nine hundred eighty eight an explosion drove an iron rod through his head gage survived and the bar was removed but his personality changed he suddenly began drinking alcohol and became violent and combative.
so it's not just biological factors that dictate criminal behavior traumatic experiences like parental neglect or abuse also play a role and in many cases challenge of anxiety has been linked to violent behavior later. it's possible that criminal behavior could to some extent be based on a combination of genetics and personal experience but as far as we know there's no such thing as a natural born criminal. if outlook is read right but only if it matters to you have a size question that you've always wanted answered we're happy to help out you send it to us as a video text ovoid smell like we answer it on the show we'll send you a little surprise as a thank you cannot just ask. you'll find as i did of you dot
com slash science or drop us a line at d w underscore site tech on facebook d w dot science. they're affordable feeling and they have a long shelf life of what was once considered food for the rope or is now growing in popularity ancient grains are making a comeback. there are a hit in the kitchen one and another. a number of crops enjoy superfit status in the modern world even top chef swear by them like slim come true from the academy cone reschooling frank fact he uses king walk around to create new recipes that are both delicious and packed with nutrients the stuff in files where he's got a look at a man's gluten free and they've got a great consistency unlike of course all right i think that perforated. c
p me on the arm around the plants from the foxtail family and that both known as pseudo cereals. originating from central and south america they've been cultivated for over six thousand years today they're mostly grown in. kenya and i'm around they're important crops in both the income tax of a license. ten thousand kilometers away at the university of one hundred in stuttgart researches want to understand the nutritional potential hidden inside these ancient plants. several strains of keen one are in full bloom here in the university's test garden. aquaculture old biologists the morning is in charge. under her supervision scientists in the lab have examined the suitor's cereals right down to the smallest
molecule. that's how they know that they're good reputation is the really does a. newer and has seen one has a very high protein content it also contains a lot of dietary fiber and minerals especially magnesium and calcium and it contains essential amino acids which we can't get from other grains to the same extent. essential amino acids can't be produced by the human body so they need to be taken in regularly through food. that vital in forming muscles and sometimes and chemical messengers like hormones. because gluten free it's a great substitute for people who are allergic or sensitive to a condition that affects millions of people. slim count church is hard at work. between asean born chef who has cooked for the
likes of the american cutter is preparing the first course this is keen what beetroot results are the key in what is presently out and lends itself to all kinds of recipes. it can be eaten sweet also every is also great it's got a really not your taste and. it's close relative amaranth is just as healthy and also creating free. torn hine university they've discovered even more benefits . it has a very very high oil content and contains large amounts of anti inflammatory substances it's especially squirrelly was extreme bar and also has a lot of iron so it's especially attractive for certain groups of people like pregnant women. and is good for baby food but if you take a hint. of that ancient hops besides cream on amaranth also gaining in popularity
like i know corn wheat from the german i'm corn meaning single grain. that's one of the oldest cultivated cereals in the world. first grown in the regions of modern day turkey and syria it's cultivated origins date back to around seven thousand b.c. but because modern weaker righties give much better yields i know corn has almost been forgotten. friedrich long and as the head of wheat breeding and research at one hundred university he thinks there are lots of reasons we should be growing i'm corn it's not fussy in terms of the soil it requires he says it's resistant to many pasts and prevails over wheat but its biggest trump card is its nutritional value twice are going to. go to fish it has significantly more minerals than other cereals zinc and so many m are very important for the immune system you think and it also contains vitamin e. and for. lucienne is good for the eyes it boosts vision helps to prevent macular
degeneration and it strengthens the entire central nervous system which is kind of coded and that's just been discovered. in the effectively and is currently the focus of intense research what is known is that contains significantly more minerals and trace elements than rice or wheat including zinc and copper like museum. it's a new foam that slim come church also uses at the front for culling recycle use devised an entire menu based around ancient food plants it includes key with gilt help green and fresh salad of keen walk apple packer and veal followed by amaranth with your gut fruit and fine corn cookie. tastes good i thought easy to make and it's super healthy looking for. these ancient foods don't just make meals brighter and more delicious they can also make them significantly healthier.
said for now but join us again next week when we head out into space with a soho satellite sotto researchers have discovered that the surface of the sun broke tates a different speeds in different places but why and what does it mean for life giving star. more on that and other exciting stories from the world of science next time on tomorrow today see you there.
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get a. job. in the house if you don't know. where i come from but all of that to get to cisco or to just like with chinese foods doesn't matter where i am it was reminds me a cold after decades of living in germany chinese food is one of the things i miss the most but by taking a step back i've seizing the need to look different in knowledge. and of the words of person to go nations that exist the other part of the world haven't been implemented in china that's new but i'm not to china to have one domain if their forty's and say to each other people have a right to another place and ready it is this is the job john understand why how i see it doesn't why i have nothing my job because i tried to do it except maybe an
hour a day. by name of the uninsured and i work i added up you. leave . this is news live from berlin flooding in italy leaves us dead as heavy rains claim more lives across the country rescue divers and emergency teams are racing to locate survived and officials warn that noise stream weather could be on the way. also coming up islamists on the streets of pakistan are issuing fresh