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tv   Tomorrow Today - The Science Magazine  Deutsche Welle  November 8, 2018 8:30am-9:00am CET

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and the continent of africa on the move stories about motivational change makers taking their destinies into their own hands. d.w. multimedia series from africa. d.w.m. dot com. hello and welcome to tomorrow today coming up. small miracles researchers peek inside thirty million year old insect fossils and unlock secrets from the past. big plans for curing genetic diseases and eliminating hunger will genetic scissors really live up to their promise and great alternatives amaranth and i'm calling weight modern day super foods approved by science.
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but first we take a look at the ground beneath your feet it's not always as solid as you might think some areas are full of hidden underground cabotage over time the earth can suddenly collapse creating a sinkhole often without warning. sinkholes have grown common in the area around the dead sea there are thousands of them there. a new system could now predict where the next is set to appear. the holes are up to forty meters wide and often thirty meters deep. there are over six thousand of them. were at the dead sea the famed body of salt water that lies between israel and jordan over four hundred meters below sea level. an increasing stretch of the israeli side of
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the sea is now cordoned off due to the proliferation of dangerous sinkholes. just four years ago mineral beach was a popular resort that attracted over two hundred thousand guests a year. melvin blount used to manage the resort and was here the day the ground simply gave way. bicycling the show was a bright sunny day on a similar twenty seven twenty fourteen when disaster struck an enormous hole opened up under the parking lot. and we had to close the beach. the whole. i mean like the aftermath of a tsunami. coming here now is like visiting a cemetery. i mean militia. and the sinkholes have taken their toll all over the region which is literally on
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the brink of collapse. some areas of lands look like they've been carpet bombed. geologists mayor abel son and get on base have been examining the sinkholes since they first started emerging in the one nine hundred eighty s. since then the creators have spread along the coast of the dead sea. the rate of their formation accelerates from year to year so if at the beginning there were and if you think all the year then a think of the year now these here the hundreds of thing called each year. the sinkhole problem is related to another dramatic phenomenon the disappearance of the sea itself. the water levels here have fallen by about forty meters since the one nine hundred eighty s. that also means that tourists now have to be driven almost two kilometers out in the constantly receding coastline. the sea is also drying out because israel
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diverts so much water from the jordan river which feeds it. that has consequences that are not immediately apparent as salt levels are also falling in the soil of the shore area. rainwater and additional for. water from the jordan river now dissolved underground layers of salt and eventually the ground above collapses and it's something that can happen anywhere and at any time by the shore of the dead sea. they are and able to and want to set up a system that at least provides some advance warning of a developing sinkhole. there are early indicators before a whole starts to form the ground at that spot will sink slightly although it can't be detected by the human eye the process often begins years before the sinkhole appears. jerusalem and hour's drive from the dead sea it's home to the
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geological survey of israel where the two men are working on their early warning system. a survey satellite conducts a radar scan of the dead sea coast every two weeks. the system enables the scientists to detect areas where the ground has fallen by a few millimeters clear indicators of future sinkholes. highway ninety runs along the western israeli side of the dead sea and straight through the affected area. this was the first test for the early warning system developed by the scientists. for a long time it seems the highway had been spared from sinkholes. for as of september two thousand and twelve we started seeing something like a centimeter of something else every two weeks on the road. they are and ableson
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warned the authorities of the dangers but they refused to listen. cars and buses everything continued driving on the main road and we continued seeing minus up to the one centimeter into with and we could not see anything with your eyes so the road looked as if it's completely stable. one year later cracks began appearing on the road. the authorities eventually responded and took a look underneath the tarmac. where they discovered an uncool lapsed sinkhole nine meters deep in that section of the road closed and the bypass was built the road did eventually collapse at the exact spot predicted by the geologists. because we already saw it in september two thousand and twelve and the only. four years later they had enough time to build the bypass because if it was
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a short warning or no warning then a simple could collapse on the road and then the entire south of the dead sea would be disconnected from the north. the next step in the researchers plan is an automated early warning system that they can hopefully install in other regions that are affected by sinkholes to. craters will continue to open up here as long as the dead sea carries on sinking but at least now they'll be more forseeable. species that have changed a little over millions of years are often called living fossils it's believed they haven't been forced to evolve because. sam perfectly adapted to their ecological niche sorry affair environment doesn't change dramatically neither did a. the stars of our next piece employ a sneaky trick to reproduce and it's not a new one. as
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a toy wast lay their eggs in the larvae of other insects when they hatch the wasp larvae devour their host from the inside the behavior has been around for over thirty million years as shown by this specimen found in a fossil fly paper the ancient fossils are being studied at the karlsruhe institute of technology each individual pupil was put into a special holder they were examined using radiation from the institute's synchrotron source it's a one hundred ten metre long storage ring in which electrons are accelerated leading to the emission of high intensity x. rays that can be used in a kind of c.t. scan to reveal the tiniest of details. samples that were empty all we could see was. we were a bit disappointed but then we suddenly have
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a stone where the wasp was staring right at us and the x. ray image. it wasn't to be the only find in all the scientists examined more than fifteen hundred fossil fly pay fifty five of them can change completely preserved parasites and humorous other samples contained various insect parts after careful analysis the research has identified four different species in various sizes and phases of development it was a sensation the ultimate proof that these insects have exhibited power is a toy behavior since the distant past like one was that over thirty million years ago hunted down hosts for its loving in the soil the adult insect had structures protecting its wings and tennis on legs that are no longer found in modern species this new knowledge is the true treasure the poly intelligence some biologists have found. based on the characteristics we can construct family tree
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to see how structures have changed over the course of evolution which ones lead to very diversified and which to species poor groups what structures have disappeared we hope that this study will give fresh well to this classical field of research. the fossil fly pay have provided a window to the past eliminated by modern technology the scientists will need many more months to analyze all their data but the study has already provided a fascinating look at the last that were apparently toyed more than thirteen million years ago whose modern day descendants still continue to employ the successful strategy. on facebook we asked you if you ever found a fossil of a petrified object. doris lay on gabrielle has she says how lucky necklaces made from one.
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on his farm kenny's kitchen go discovered a stone he thinks was used as a tool back in the stone age. or not a lot of kalinda islam or so found some fossils while walking traps between the different layers of rock thanks for those responses. a revolutionary gene editing method has been making waves in a science world in the last few years crisper cash nine can also d.n.a. very precisely by acting as genetic sensors. it works like this the scissors are a protein. it is assigned a kind of search word for example a g c in this simplified model our d.n.a. is made up of lots of different combinations of codes like these. the series of
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proteins scans the d.n.a. . and when it's found the search word the scissors are activated and they cut the section out. then a different section of d.n.a. like the code t.c.c. for example. complete inserted the method is precise easy and cheap to perform and scientists all over the world a trumpeting its prizes. is for me it's a dream come true because christopher cox has made everything easier than it's the biggest breakthrough in the scientific field in thirty years this is the start of something really big. one of the researches he triggered all that euphoria is in many ways. she deciphered the way bacteria use a kind of gene thers to protect themselves against viruses and turned it into a tool for genome editing now she says nature can be corrected. we
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expose this mckenney zone to make a genetic tool that can and we call the nines genomes specifically of any cell an organism and can trigger some changing some changes on the genome as we can eat in principle with this technology the genome of any sane and organism . when i first heard about it i was bowled over as it was presented in a lecture at a genome engineering meeting about technologies for making genetic changes to d.n.a. . and we immediately thought wow this is interesting what that was a fork it worked in bacteria it's like they discovered a system in bacteria or could very probably be applied to human cells to. mention him said that it's it's an easy programming board system it's more efficient. and it's are slow versatile so and so for different types
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of changes only genomes and their song expression of genes. discovered just a few years ago the method has a ready become a standard technique used in labs all over the world molecular says is a revolutionizing plant breeding biochemists like want to modify crops to feed more people and put an end to hunger. this will make it much easier especially for developing countries to prevent famine will be able to produce plants that are salt resistant and drought resistant which can improve harvests enormously for better. time and his team are using the crispest system on plants and trying to refine the method. but i hate the one feature of crisper is its high officials say at a low price ok this is
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a move in the past creating gene editing scissors might have taken six months i'll cost twenty five thousand euros with crisper we can do it in a couple of days for maybe a hundred euros that's a major difference and it works better if from to get off the sofa to biologists he says we are very powerful tools it's like this we saw me knife. we now have a tool that is so good that we can take a nap. step and use it on patients. seventy five or ten years we'll have new treatments the will help a lot of people. know. tony cattlemen heads the institute for transfusion medicine and gene therapy at the university of fibroids most of his team now works with gene says it's developing new approaches for gene therapy. the humans interact he shares was we missing a technology to act on the d.n.a. in a precise fashion and this is what chris pakistan brings now there is all to bring
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this technology to the right says and to shoes to cure and this is where we see a lot of developments happening. for me it really is a dream come true for the first time gives us a way to change the genome in human cells in a targeted way that opens up infinite possibilities that's what we want to do here in fiber to develop new therapy options for patients with immune deficiencies and patients. i think this is our second green revolution of the first one used the traditional plant breeding techniques and was able to increase yields all over the world i think this will trigger a second green revolution revenue to. curing dangerous diseases overcoming hunger with better crops crisper researches have ambitious plans.
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are you compassionate and thoughtful. ruthless and criminal. are good and bad behavioral traits determined by d.n.a. or does environment have a bigger effect on who we become a viewer from abu dhabi wanted to know. is there such a thing as a criminal gene. from cliff to maniacs to serial killers for centuries people have been researching factors behind criminal behavior environmental and social causes or perhaps even genetic makeup. but the criminal gene question raises a range of moral issues the nazi era is a case in point the nazis exploited dubious notions of genetically inferior criminals with inborn characteristics to justify persecution and genocide.
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new studies however suggest that some gene variants may be connected to aggressive behavior. notorious serial killer charles manson had a mother and uncle who were criminals is that significant. it seems that what our genes influence is not our character but chemicals in the brain violent people may have lower levels of the neurotransmitter sarah tone and too little sarah toning in the brain can lead to uncontrolled aggression. damage to the frontal lobe of the brain can also make people more volatile one famous case is the american railroad worker phineas gage in one thousand nine hundred eighty eight an explosion drove an iron rod through his head gage survived and the bar was removed but his personality changed he suddenly began drinking alcohol and became violent and combative. so it's not just biological factors that dictate criminal behavior traumatic
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experiences like parental neglect or abuse also play a role and in many cases challenge of anxiety has been linked to violent behavior later. it's possible that criminal behavior could to some extent be based on a combination of genetics and personal experience but as far as we know there's no such thing as a natural born criminal. if outlook is read right but only if you have it do you have a science question that you've always wanted answered it with happy to help out send it to us as a video text ovoid smell if we answer it on the show we'll send you a little surprise as a thank you cannot just ask. you'll find as i did of you dot com slash science or drop us a line at d w underscore site tech on facebook d w dot science. there are
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affordable filling and they have a long shelf life of what was once considered food for the rural poor is now growing in popularity ancient grains are making a comeback. they're a hit in the kitchen and another. a number of asian crops enjoy superfit status in the modern world even top chef swear by them like slim country from the academy coming reschooling frank fat he uses keen wa and amaranth to create new recipes that are both delicious and packed with nutrients the stuff in files where he's got a look at the men's gluten free and they've got a great consistency and mark of course all right i think that perforated. penis of plants from the foxtail family and that's most known as pseudo cereals.
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originating from central and south america they've been cultivated for over six thousand years today they're mostly grown in. kenya on amaranth or important crops in both the income tax of allies and. ten thousand kilometers away at the university of one hundred. researches want to understand the nutritional potential hidden inside these ancient plants. several strains of keen one are in full bloom here in the university's test garden . aquaculture old biologist seymour nick i finding out is in charge. under her supervision scientists in the lab have examined the super cereals right down to the smallest molecule. that's how they know that their good reputation is the really deserved. you know what and had seen what has
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a very high protein content it also contains a lot of dietary fiber and minerals especially magnesium and calcium and it contains they need to be taken in regularly through food. that vital in forming muscles and symes and chemical messengers like hormones. and because kenya is gluten free it's a great substitute for people who are allergic or sensitive to beat and a condition that affects millions of people. the coloring school slim country is hard at work. bitchiness ian born chef who has cooked for the likes of the american cutter is preparing the fast course this is keen what beetroot results are keen what is presently out and tell and lends itself to all kinds of recipes. nothing can be eaten sweet also every which is also great it's got a really not too tight. it's close relative amaranth is just as healthy
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and also creating fried. torn hine university they've discovered even more benefits . it has a very very high oil content and contains large amounts of anti inflammatory substances it's especially. was extremely rugged also has a lot of so it's especially attractive for certain groups of people like pregnant women. and is good for baby food but if you take of it. other ancient besides cream on amaranth also gaining in popularity like i'm calling wheat from the german i'm corn meaning single grain. it's one of the oldest cultivated cereals in the world. first grown in the regions of modern day turkey and syria its cultivated origins date back to around seven thousand b.c.
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but because modern wheat varieties get much better yields i'm corn has almost been forgotten. friedrich long as the head of wheat breeding and research at one hundred university he thinks there are lots of reasons we should be growing i'm corn it's not fussy in terms of the soil it requires he says it's resistant to many pasts and prevails over wheat but its biggest trump card is its nutritional value twice i can do no astral for a purpose push it has significantly more minerals than other cereals zinc and so many m are very important for the immune system if it were but also contains vitamin e. and lutea for. lutie in is good for the eyes it boosts vision helps to prevent macular degeneration and it strengthens the entire central nervous system which is kind of coded and that's just been discovered. in the effectively and is currently the focus of intense research what is known is that contains
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significantly more minerals and trace elements than rice or wheat including zinc ion copper and mike museum. it's a new trim bomb that slim country also uses at the frankfurt culling reschooling he's devised an entire menu based around ancient food plants it includes key with gilt helped bring a fresh salad of keen wok apple packer and veal followed by amaranth with your gut fruit and find corn cookie. tastes good and easy to make and it super healthy is look at what. these ancient foods don't just make meals brighter and more delicious they can also make them significantly healthier. said for now but join us again next week when we head out into space with a soho satellite so researchers have discovered that the surface of the sun rotates at different speeds in different places but why and what does it mean for our life
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giving stock. more on that and other exciting stories from the world of science next time on tomorrow today see you that.
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after a year in the hof in town the french president emanuel macro is getting more and more unpopular nothing he does seems to stop the slide my guest here in london is the french m.p. alexander holroyd a member of the president's all mushed party he has a seat on the parliament's finance committee how can the president of boost too soon reach the head of crucial elections to the european parliament next year. oh.
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closely. carefully. don't consume if you need to be a good. match. discover. subscribe to the documentary on. it was a. close of. the first global disaster the twentieth century. the war to end all wars cost millions of lives. world.
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but. some good marks the hundredth anniversary of its. what has humankind learned from the great more. as it might be now but it's real peace and in possibility. but. the body. of one teenage not forgotten w.'s november focus.
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this is deja vu news live from berlin u.s. president trump fires the country's top law enforcement officer jeff sessions one of the president's earliest backers is ousted from his post as attorney general what does this mean for the future of the rusher broke and how will the newly elected democratic house react is one have more from washington also coming up no doubts over the fate of a christian woman accused of blasphemy in pakistan ozzy abebe is out of jail but even after escaping a death zone.

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