How can universities be more successful in recruiting and promoting the professional success of women in their science-related departments? This study examines selected pieces of the puzzle by examining actual salary and space allocations to 282 faculty members in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) and the social and behavioral science (SBS) departments of a research-active university. It also examines the perceived satisfaction of the faculty members related to equity and procedural justice for allocations of salary and space. The analyses of data collected suggest that the university studied is successfully reducing gender-based inequality. Other results suggest that perceived equity is an important influence on satisfaction, that the point at which procedural justice is emphasized may need to be re-examined, and that differing reactions by men and women can be difficult to predict. While the study shows that female and male faculty members tend to receive similar compensation and similar office and research space, and females even indicated a higher satisfaction with their space allocations, it points out that universities must go beyond equalizing the distribution of resources by paying careful attention to perceptions of equity and procedural justice and by striving to improve multiple aspects of their overall climate if they wish to recruit, retain and promote female faculty members.