Women continue to be outnumbered by men in science leadership in most OECD countries. While they are over-represented as PhD students in some science disciplines, there are few senior women scientists. In 2014 women accounted for 63 per cent of applications for the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council's (NHMRC's) early-career fellowships, but just 11 per cent of its most senior and experienced fellowships. Research has identified how women experience both direct and indirect discrimination in science laboratories. To understand better the factors that impact on women's careers in science, this author undertook a case study in collaboration with the Equality in Science Committee at the Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health in Melbourne, analysing the workforce profile over a five-year period and interviewing 40 research scientists at all levels. The four main findings of this research, "Keeping Women in Science," were: a passion for "doing science;" entrenched male leadership and its impact on women research scientists; generational change and gender; and new inclusive models that are emerging. The author concludes that, if there is a seriousness about keeping women in science research in Australia, there needs to be a strong indication from the federal government that it understands the risk to its innovation agenda of fewer women in science, and that it can demonstrate a strong commitment to a raft of new measures that are needed to ensure women are valued and can have rewarding science careers.