This study reports the validity of the hypothesis that students' perceptions of the learning environment of mathematics classroom may predict their attitudes and self-esteem towards mathematics. It examines data from 487 grade 9th students from 14 mathematics classes in 7 Vietnamese lower secondary schools to identify how students' perceptions of the learning environment variables, and the extent to which these predict the attitudes and self-esteem. The results obtained from correlation and multiple regression analyses indicated that if students were satisfied with mathematics learning, and if they found their mathematics class as cohesive, then their self-esteem and attitudes towards mathematics would be positive. In contrast, if students perceived mathematics as difficult, and if they perceived the learning atmosphere as competitive, then their self-esteem and attitudes towards mathematics would be negative. The findings show that a positive learning environment should be created to promote the positive attitudes and self-esteem of students in learning.