The importance of the early years in creating a foundation for school and later success is well documented. Children who live in healthy, safe, and stimulating environments in the first five years of their lives are more likely to succeed than children who have more negative experiences. Hawai'i policy makers, like others across the nation, are debating whether and how to provide more public support for young children and their families. At the time of this writing, the Hawai'i Educational Policy Center, under the auspices of Act 151, is in the act of convening a task force of policy makers and early childhood education professionals to give direction to the future of early care and education in Hawai'i. In this article, the author discusses the challenges facing this task force and state policy makers with regard to the care and education of young children. The author urges the task force and state policy makers to clearly define the problem or problems they are trying to solve, and then deal with issues of accountability, funding, and governance.