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in the mosque at the time stay with fox news channel throughout the evening, thank you so much for watching fox news, fox news sunday is next, see yo >> from the white house and the office of the president of the united states, we present an address by dwight d. eisenhower. this is the farewell address for president eisenhower, whose eight years as chief executive come to an end at noon friday. mr. eisenhower has chosen this time for his final speech. ladies and gentlemen, the president of the united states. >> good evening, my fellow americans. [ dramatic music plays ] in the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. >> the military-industrial complex -- it's one of the most famous phrases ever spoken by a united states president. >> the sky rained a teeming
downpour of destruction. >> google it, and you will get millions of results. >> i do worry about america's military-industrial complex using any excuse to ramp up the war machine again. >> in the more than half century since president eisenhower said it, it's been regularly invoked by all sorts of people in all sorts of places. but for all its use, is it truly understood? >> i would not trust anything being said by the military-industrial complex of this great country. >> indeed, the meaning has changed through time and continues to change. >> he said, "beware the military-industrial complex." >> i don't believe that the question
of the military-industrial complex was quite the phrase, even after the speech, that it is today. in other words, i think it grew. >> the line was part of eisenhower's farewell address, delivered three days before john f. kennedy took office. in it, he was trying to offer some hard-won wisdom. >> now, bureaucracies take on... they have interests. they will try to force choices on the american people. it's a very powerful speech, as you know. the sadness of the -- what went wrong in the 20th century really permeates the speech in many ways. >> the power and depth in this speech are part of why i decided to take my own look at the man in his final days in office in my new book, "three days in january: dwight eisenhower's final mission." eisenhower was a forward-looking man who'd seen a lot. and as meaningful as the speech was then, it still speaks to us today.
>> in your grandfather's farewell speech, who was he reaching out to, do you think? >> the last paragraph of that speech is my absolute favorite thing that's ever come out of his mouth. it starts, "we pray the peoples of all faiths, all races, all nations have their great human needs satisfied." you know, and it goes on. i think he was really appealing to the world. i think he was really hoping that everybody could find a way to -- to live in peace. >> eisenhower, by draining the swamp, so to speak, of crisis, he intended to restore a sense of well-being and normalcy in america. and that was something that he was pursuing as a republican. he felt this was an alternative to the democratic program. >> the eisenhower era is often painted as a sleepy time where most americans lived quiet, prosperous lives. but in fact, it was a roiling time
in american history. the cold war had begun. and the nuclear age was upon us. for all the surface calm, it was an age defined by anxiety. no one knew if another war would start, one that could end humanity. throw in domestic issues, civil rights and recessions, and the '50s weren't always the happy days some think they were. and that is why those three days in january, a transition from eisenhower to kennedy, from republican to democrat, from the old guard to the new frontier, were a crucial time in our history. >> the turnover, the keys to this closet probably gave him some pause. he didn't know kennedy very well. and there was a lot of rhetoric during that campaign that led him to be concerned about perhaps the beginning of a period where fear would play a much bigger role in national life.
>> the times were indeed changing. and that was both a promise and a threat. >> ike's farewell speech has gone down in history as, i think, a caution to those who listened. the struggles that america had, talking clearly about russia, but also the struggles within america that were brought about by technological revolution that was occurring and the lack of balance. >> i thought that it was just ordinary speech. like many people thought about president eisenhower, not of one of the greatest world leader but just the president who could just play golf. and now i thought -- think that it is one of the wisest speech. >> perhaps it's time for a new look at eisenhower, warrior, president, american, a man whose words and actions still have something to teach us. >> he was leaving a legacy in that speech. and i think every -- every person
who's the slightest bit interested in our civic culture should read it. >> there's a great deal of resonance in the farewell, address. it almost works every time there's an administrations change. there is a very big temptation just to do your job, leave on a high note, and leave it all for the next guy to clean up and sort out. ♪
his parents, david and ida, called him ike, a nickname that would stick. the family moved to abilene, kansas, in 1892. they moved into this home in 1896. for years, there was no running water or indoor plumbing. >> he learned to like the archetypical american. he never had a elitism or sense of snobbery about him. to the contrary, he was somebody who really liked the type of the hardworking american. >> he graduated from high school in 1909, and in 1911, after scoring well on an entrance exam, was accepted to west point. out of 164 students, ike finished 61st academically and a dismal 125th in discipline. but he was very likable. and one commander after another would see his potential as he rose through the ranks.
his first assignment, in 1915, was at fort sam houston in san antonio, where he trained enlisted men. it was also the place where he met 18-year-old mamie doud from denver. they married in 1916. ike was assigned, in 1919, to fort mead in maryland. there, tragedy struck. ike and mamie's first child, doud, or icky, as they called him, died of scarlet fever at the age of 3. as ike moved from one assignment to the next over the years, he became known as one of the most efficient and hardworking officers around. december 7, 1941, pearl harbor, america joined world war ii. eisenhower was called to washington, where he soon distinguished himself as a good strategic thinker. just six months later, he went to london, where he planned operation torch,
the invasion of north africa. >> he was a good man, tough man, you know. i mean, he tried to treat everybody the same. i was on duty. i had to go and take my weapons with me just in case anybody gets fresh, you know. >> in december 1943, president roosevelt informed eisenhower he would command operation overlord, a direct invasion of france. this was the make-or-break moment for the war in europe. all the heavyweights -- fdr, churchill, de gaulle -- were putting their faith in ike. the responsibility for d-day, as it was popularly known, rested on his shoulders. he scribbled this "in case of failure" note if the invasion turned out badly. it concluded by saying, "if any blame or fault attaches to the attempt, it is mine alone."
he accidentally dated it july 5th. >> general eisenhower would take responsibility for failure. he would manage failure if failure happened in a way most helpful for political leadership. >> june 6th. almost 4,500 men died that day. and many more were wounded. but the allies gained a foothold. and it turned out to be decisive. within a year, victory was achieved in europe. ike got a ticker-tape parade when he returned to the united states. >> that's the first time i'd seen so -- so many military uniforms and eisenhower's five stars, which we all counted. it was just one of the most thrilling days of my life. >> politicians quickly urged eisenhower to run for the white house. >> eisenhower would say, "i'm not a politician." but he had ability
to bring people together in a kind of calm and unified way. there was nothing acerbic about him. >> dealing with the -- the ego-management issues involved with people like field marshal montgomery and -- and de gaulle and patton and bradley and all these... these are giants striding the earth at that particular time. and i think those kinds of experiences stand one in very good stead when it comes to exercising strategic leadership. >> in 1947, president truman encouraged ike to run for president, promising to step aside. eisenhower, who did not even have a party affiliation, declined. he did accept one offer. tired of being army chief of staff, in 1948, he became president of columbia university. >> i have come to columbia as a new recruit, or here, i believe, the term would be freshman.
>> eisenhower, no longer on active duty, was not involved in the korean war, which started in 1950. but upon president truman's request, he became the supreme commander of the recently formed north atlantic treaty organization, or nato. meanwhile, the calls for eisenhower to run for the white house grew louder. ike decided to run for president in march of 1952. and he immediately resigned his position as nato commander, highly sensitive about any possible mix between politics and the military. he also formally retired from the army. >> nobody knew really whether he was a democrat or republican. in the end, he chose the republican party. he chose it because, at heart, he was a fiscal conservative. he was, however, a republican internationalist, not an isolationist. >> the man from abilene. out of the heartland of america, out of this small-frame house
in abilene, kansas, came a man, dwight d. eisenhower. >> he had a tough fight getting the republican nomination because robert taft represented the hard conservative wing of the republican party. they slugged it out a little bit. but in '52, eisenhower, of course, gets the nomination. >> for president of the united states, dwight david eisenhower. [ cheers and applause ] >> as his running mate, ike chose someone to balance the ticket, senator richard nixon of california, young and fiercely anti-communist. >> ♪ you like ike ♪ i like ike ♪ everybody likes ike ♪ for president >> eisenhower, facing his democratic opponent, adlai stevenson, won in a landslide. >> so help me god. >> on inauguration day, eisenhower came walking down. and i said, "mr. president, may i take a picture?" the flashbulb didn't work. he stopped. and he said, "fix the flashbulb
and take the picture." and i did. this was a very kind and caring man. >> 1953 beckoned. ike had run world war ii. but he'd never held office before. america held its breath and wondered what would happen next. ♪ if you have moderate to severe ulcerative colitis or crohn's, and your symptoms have left you with the same view, it may be time for a different perspective. if other treatments haven't worked well enough, ask your doctor about entyvio, the only biologic developed and approved just for uc and crohn's. entyvio works by focusing right in the gi-tract to help control damaging inflammation and is clinically proven to begin helping many patients achieve both symptom relief as well as remission. infusion and serious allergic reactions can happen during or after treatment.
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>> in world war ii, america had joined with the soviet union to defeat fascism. >> gi joe gets along famously with red army ivan. and the russian way to make friends is with a toast. >> but soon, relations between moscow and washington sour into a struggle of superpowers. >> we sense with all our faculties that forces of good and evil are masked and armed and opposed as rarely before in history. >> the great threat now was communism, godless communism. thus, in eisenhower's first term, he signed a bill that added "under god" to the pledge of allegiance and another declaring "in god we trust" the national motto. in general, the prospect of a nuclear confrontation between the soviet union and the united states consumed eisenhower.
his "atoms for peace" speech at the united nations in december 1953 led to the creation of the international atomic energy agency, or the iaea. >> the united states pledges before you and, therefore, before the world its determination to help solve the fearful atomic dilemma. ♪ >> i interviewed his grandson david on ike's farm in gettysburg, which became the eisenhower family compound. the prospect of nuclear weapons, of nuclear war, was always looming -- >> oh, absolutely. >> over your grandfather. did you get a sense of that? >> very much so. they definitely recognized the special character of these weapons, that they really could not be used. but there's an expectation that they can be used. everybody's in a hurry to acquire them. >> granddad was not in favor of building a bomb shelter. he just sort of passed it off and said, "it isn't gonna do us any good if we ever have a nuclear exchange." and he also didn't want to set an example of creating
a sense of fear with the american population. >> dwight eisenhower was an extremely popular president. in 1955, the gallup poll had him over 70 percent approval rating by the american people. these are unheard-of numbers. why? peace and prosperity. >> but in september of 1955, he suffered a heart attack. as he recovered, many speculated he would not run for a second term. >> if my doctors want to, they can call in a doctor from every university in the united states. if there's anything wrong with me, i'd like to know it. >> but by the beginning of 1956, he was back leading the country. ike ran again in a rematch with adlai stevenson. >> the most profoundly dedicated man of our time, dwight david eisenhower. >> eisenhower won by an even bigger landslide. >> the next four years will be even more full than the past... with faith in ourselves, in our country, and in the creator, who is father of us all.
♪ >> back in 1956, the hungarian government had tried to escape moscow's iron curtain by withdrawing from the warsaw pact. but soviet leader nikita khrushchev sent in the red army to crush the revolution. ike protested but did not intervene. in 1957, he did, however, send troops to lebanon to support that pro-western government from the pan-arab revolution led by soviet ally egyptian president abdel nasser. >> each time, when americans tried to press soviet union, soviet union reacted very strongly. 1957, americans try to overthrow the new regime in syria. and soviets make the exercise. and americans step back. it was too crisis around the berlin -- it is about recognition.
>> in berlin, administered by the allied forces since the war, khrushchev threatened to force out us, british, and french troops stationed in west berlin if soviet-run east germany was not recognized. >> my father told, "you have to recognize east germany as a state." and of course, americans answered, "no, we don't -- don't recognize you as a state." in berlin, he told, "i will kick you out of berlin." >> the standoff ultimately led to the construction of the berlin wall. >> the epical scientific achievement by soviet russia in beating the united states of america in the race to launch the first man-made moon has all humanity staring heavenward. >> in 1957, when the soviets launched sputnik, a 23-inch polished metal sphere that orbited the earth, it created a panic. >> i can remember the weekends that we spent here in gettysburg under the starlit skies and looking for the sputnik.
>> sputnik prompted eisenhower to create nasa. the space race was underway. and it helped fuel the arms race. >> my father, he understood soviet economy three times smaller than american economy. so he tried to threaten americans that, "we have more missiles than you," or, "we can build them like sausages." and i told, "what are you talking about all these things? we have only six missiles." and he told, "i am not care how many missiles we have. i want americans to believe that we are very strong." >> the arms race, in many ways, was an effort to stockpile so many weapons that the other side wouldn't even think about it. this is also accompanied by determined efforts to try to bring this race under control and to achieve understanding at a certain level where we recognized that we had profound mutual interests in our mutual survival. >> which is why your grandfather reaches out to nikita khrushchev -- >> yes. >> and, in fact,
invites him here. >> right. >> in 1959, khrushchev, joined by his wife and son, sergei, made the first visit by a russian leader to the united states. eisenhower escorted the soviet leader and his wife through the nation's capital amid maximum security and thousands of onlookers. there were meetings at the white house and visits to washington, d.c., landmarks. these home videos give a rare glimpse of the soviet leader's "get to know america" tour that continued on to new york city, los angeles, and even had a stop at a farm in iowa, then back to camp david for private talks with president eisenhower, followed by a visit to ike's home and family in gettysburg, pennsylvania. this is where you would've met the soviet premier? >> right here. mm, right there, shook his hand right here. by simply knowing people is what all entities must do
if they are going to put you at war with them. and that is to dehumanize the other side. i suddenly saw this man as a human. >> the trip went well. there was talk of eisenhower visiting moscow the following year. but then on may 1, 1960, the soviet union shot down an american spy plane over one of their missile sites. >> gary powers was shot down in the u-2. and that pretty much puts a halt to that relationship, it seemed, that your grandfather was building with khrushchev. >> yeah. what the u-2 allowed khrushchev to do, or forced him to do, was to really think hard about how much the soviets really wanted a thaw at that point. >> and your grandfather didn't apologize or -- >> that's right. in the sense that he was made to feel that he should apologize, this is probably a measure of the collapse of this effort altogether. >> of course, it's khrushchev's hurdle into the cold war. >> eisenhower had worked for two terms
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>> so in this, my last "good night" to you as your president, i thank you for the many opportunities you have given me for public service in war and in peace. >> 1960. senator john f. kennedy narrowly defeated vice president richard nixon in a hard-fought battle to win the white house. while america prides itself on the peaceful transfer of power, the transition from one president to the next, especially when they come from different parties, can sometimes be prickly. in 1953, the transition from truman to eisenhower had been challenging.
>> truman said, "eisenhower knows no more about politics than a pig knows about sunday." >> in fact, relations between the democrat and the republican were so cold that the eisenhowers chose to sit in their car instead of accepting an invitation to come into the white house for a pre-inauguration cup of coffee. now eisenhower would be welcoming another democrat, the young, vital john f. kennedy. and he hoped to set an example in handing over the presidency -- not that the president liked everything kennedy had said. in particular, he was offended by kennedy's claim of a missile gap with the soviets. eisenhower not only felt there was no truth to the claim but suspected that kennedy was simply playing politics,
trying to make the eisenhower administration appear weak. nevertheless, the outgoing president wanted to work with kennedy and prepare him for the job ahead. >> it was great when kennedy won the -- the election, that eisenhower approached him and saw to it that he was thoroughly indoctrinated about what was going on. >> kennedy, he thought, was just a junior senator from massachusetts who was a novice, who knew nothing about the world at large. this is general eisenhower. and kennedy was just a young, you know, lieutenant in the navy. this was a kid coming into the white house, from eisenhower's perspective, a kid vastly unprepared. ♪ >> the world was now a different place. nuclear warfare changed all the equations. ike's feelings came across quite clearly to those who saw him in action. for instance, he held informal
weekly meetings with congressional leadership. >> they were discussing nuclear weapons and what we needed. people were just talking, talking, talking, talking. and after maybe five to ten minutes of this -- he was famous for having very large hands -- he brought his right hand down on the cabinet table with a resounding crash. and they all came to instant attention. and he said, "god damn it. how many times can you kill a man?" >> [ chuckles ] >> on that point, i mean, that issue loomed large for him, and that atomic bomb and what it meant for the world. >> i always felt that he was very much aware of what the nuclear issues, questions were, and had decisive ideas about the need to restrain 'em and to try and put them on ice,
so to speak. ♪ >> ike used his final days in office to ensure kennedy was briefed as thoroughly as possible regarding the world situation. but on top of that, he planned to give a speech, a final speech, one that would be filled with words of advice for the new president. this was not a sudden idea. he had been preparing this speech for the past two years, well before he knew who'd be running, much less who'd be president. >> eisenhower was somebody who did not simply take speeches or drafts that other people prepared for him and then deliver them. he put his stamp on every one of them. you see a lot of typewriting. but you see even more handwriting. and all of it is eisenhower's. >> eisenhower knew it was going to be big because you don't do 21 drafts on a speech for a farewell address if you didn't want to make a very great statement.
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to deliver his farewell address on january 17, 1961, it was his last chance to speak to all of america as president. >> this evening, i come to you with a message of leave taking and farewell. >> from beginning to end, it was just about 16 minutes. but it expressed a lifetime of experience. >> we yet realize that america's leadership and prestige depend not merely upon our unmatched material progress, riches, and military strength but on how we use our power in the interest of world peace and human betterment. >> after seeing jfk warn of a missile gap, ike felt he had reason to fear this young president might commit our military to unworthy goals, perhaps even be itching for a fight. >> disarmament with mutual honor and confidence is a continuing imperative. >> one thing eisenhower and khrushchev
had agreed upon was, no one could win a nuclear war. and eisenhower was desperate to move america off any path that would end in such destruction. >> as one who knows that another war could utterly destroy this civilization, i wish i could say tonight that a lasting peace is in sight. but so much remains to be done. >> then came the moment in the speech that is most remembered. >> we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. >> it was all the more powerful coming from the general who had run world war ii. ike had seen a new industry rising up alongside america's powerful military. the suppliers of submarines, missiles, jet fighters, radars, and so on had their own interests. >> until the latest of our world conflicts, the united states had no armaments industry.
american makers of plowshares could, with time, and as required, make swords as well. we have been compelled to create a permanent armaments industry of vast proportions. >> this is a point many miss who use "the military-industrial complex" as a rallying cry against both sides of the phrase. ike understood not only that we had a large military and corporations to supply it but that this arrangement was necessary. the problem -- whether there was undue influence. the goal -- proper balance. with the phrase "military-industrial complex," ike was saying something subtle and measured, not simply a slogan. america had, in the past, feared a large standing army becoming its own power base. but now the nation had to reconcile itself to a new era. >> only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper
meshing of the huge industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods and goals so that security and liberty may prosper together. >> further, the threat was not just the military and the arms industry. government and science also presented a tricky relationship. >> the prospect of domination of the nation's scholars by federal employment, project allocations, and the power of money is ever present and is gravely to be regarded. we must also be alert to the equal and opposite danger that public policy could itself become the captive of a scientific-technological elite. >> so this complex eisenhower referred to was actually more complex than many thought, sort of a military-industrial- congressional-scientific complex. >> he didn't say congressional because he was probably
persuaded not to, even though he felt it, i would say. congress would not have appreciated that one bit. and yet that's where it was. >> in its day, ike's farewell address did not receive anywhere near the fanfare of the new president's inaugural address. but his speech was meant for the ages, not just for the headlines. he wanted jfk to hear his warning, certainly. but he had expressed a vision not merely for the days ahead but for the decades. ♪ i don't want to live with the uncertainties of hep c. or wonder whether i should seek treatment. i am ready. because today there's harvoni. a revolutionary treatment for the most common type of chronic hepatitis c. harvoni is proven to cure up to 99% of patients... ...who've had no prior treatment.
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i pray that the coming years will be blessed with peace and prosperity for all. >> eisenhower had delivered his speech. but did it sink in? >> anytime a country is in, you know, in some peril, facing a powerful adversary, there's always concern about who's coming next. >> so help me god. >> when jfk gave his extraordinary inaugural address just three days later... >> ask not what your country can do for you. ask what you can do for your country. >> ...ike's speech already seemed like old news. was there a sense that -- that the incoming administration was -- kinda thought they knew what was gonna happen, and then they had a -- a steep learning curve? >> they were very cocky. but, you know, they'd won. they found out, as they went on, that running the country took more
than might have been thought. ♪ >> fidel castro had taken control of cuba in 1959. the country had developed a working relationship with the soviets. and eisenhower favored the overthrow of their new leader but knew the plans were in the earliest stages. jfk agreed with the goal and, in 1961, fast-tracked the bay of pigs invasion, headed by a group of cuban exiles trained by the cia. >> eisenhower, keep in mind, never did green-light the bay of pigs invasion. so it was a plan that was being really seriously thought about. >> it was a disaster, ending in a quick surrender and a huge pr victory for castro. >> well, americans invaded cuba on april 17, 1961. it was my father's birthday. and it was his birthday present. ♪ >> april 22, 1961,
president kennedy called for eisenhower to meet him at camp david. ike, the man who planned d-day, questioned the new president about the operation. he felt kennedy needed to do more than simply sign off on a plan recommended by the cia and the joint chiefs of staff. even worse, kennedy had called off air support, hoping to conceal american involvement. eisenhower told him people would know the us was involved once such a plan was set in motion. the only thing to do was see it through. us-soviet relations continued to deteriorate during the crisis of october 1962 when the soviets placed nuclear missiles in cuba. during this white-knuckle period, kennedy once again sought out eisenhower. >> is the general on air? >> okay, sir.
>> ultimately, the situation was resolved peacefully. on november 22, 1963, president kennedy was assassinated. eisenhower, shocked and saddened, remained engaged, advising his successor, lyndon johnson. >> ho, ho! >> as domestic protest against the vietnam war mounted, ike sympathized with lbj. and he wrote this to you --
"no one could hate war more than i, but i get very upset when i find people who are quite willing to enjoy the privileges and rights afforded by this country but publicly announce their readiness to flout their responsibilities." you remember receiving that -- >> yes, i do. >> and thinking about it? >> and i'm certain i know what it meant, which was, "there you are in the middle of it, you know, in college and so forth, and you know, so don't even think about it." >> the vietnam war ended in 1975. eisenhower did not live to see it. from 1955 to his death, he had seven heart attacks. he finally succumbed to congestive heart failure on march 28, 1969. >> when they put his casket on the train to go out to kansas after the ceremonies here in washington for his funeral, i couldn't sleep that night.
and i looked out the window. this is about 2:00 in the morning. and there standing next to the railroad track is a man saluting this train, standing there all by himself. nobody could see him. he wasn't doing it for show. and that always stayed with me. >> you were with your grandfather in the hospital when he passed. >> mm-hmm. >> can you tell me what that day was like? >> this powerful man becomes frail. and yet the inner light or something never dimmed. the thing that impresses me about him was really his matter-of-fact courage, the way he faced his frailty and his mortality. and i had no experience with this at all. it was profound to be with him, truly. >> eisenhower's legacy lives on. and that one phrase
continues to be heard throughout our political debate. >> the military- industrial complex. >> military-industrial complex. >> the military-industrial complex. ♪ >> those who know president eisenhower's story believe his lessons need not just to be remembered but, more importantly, applied. >> i think that his futuristic and prophetic thoughts need to be passed on. they're just as appropriate today as they were then. and the best we can do is share the knowledge with the young people today so that maybe a shred of those values will come back through. >> can you imagine eisenhower in our current time and how he would deal with some of the challenges that -- that we have as a country? >> decisively and fairly. >> he was a man that we wish we had today, who was considerate of others,
willing to listen to the other point of view. >> i think, when you look back and assess the period of his presidency and, indeed, his actions as president, they stand up in very impressive fashion. >> if we kind of paid attention to what he thought and envisioned and hoped for, i think we'd be in a lot better shape than we are right now. >> every president deals with the most critical problems of the time. and the decision of how to tackle them comes from their own perspective. the one question aides said ike always asked -- "is it good for america?" let's hope that question drives most discussions inside the white house and that our new president remembers the paperweight on eisenhower's oval office desk, which read, "gently in manner, strong in deed." that's our program. thanks for watching. whatcha doin'?
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