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tv   Global 3000  KCSMMHZ  April 7, 2012 5:00am-5:30am PDT

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>> hello and welcome to global 3000 -- today we look at economic migration from europe to africa. and here's what's coming up. meet the ex-pats who seek a new future in angola. don't look back -- how the financial crisis has changed portugal and alternative fuel -- cambodia is cracking coconuts to save its forests much of europe's well-educated work force is struggling with the effects of the financial
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crisis. in the face of high unemployment and public spending cuts, young people in portugal are losing faith in a better future. since the crisis began to bite, some 100 000 portuguese have already set up a new life in angola -- a nation still recovering from its civil war past. the country is run by president jose eduardo dos santos, africa's longest serving leader. only libya's muammar gaddafi ruled longer. under dos santos firm grip, angola has seen an economic boom fuelled by its mineral wealth. unusual stream of economic migrants from europe -- jacques has traded his car for a motor scooter, and now he can drive to work in half the time. and he rarely has to worry about the weather. in the angolan capital luanda, traffic is getting heavier as
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more and more vehicles clog the narrow streets. this seventh-floor apartment in the city center has a market value of a million u.s. dollars. jacques is the lead architect -- at age 32. and he's taken on larger projects than this. his life back in lisbon and barcelona looked very different. >> the principal reason why i came to angola, i'm going to show you why is because in europe we don't have anything more to build or almost anything. there are a few things, but not enough work for all the architects and here if you just have a look at the view you'll understand why because everywhere you look, it's a construction site.
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>> luanda's economic boom began about ten years ago, driven by crude oil and diamonds. this is where the country's wealth is being spent. new construction is everywhere. there's more than enough work. engineers and architects like jacques are in high demand, and they command salaries every bit as high. in portugal, jacques was lucky to have a job, at all. here, he earns 5,000 u.s. dollars a month, practically tax-free. that's more than three times what he'd make in europe. the construction firm jacques works for has hired three other portuguese, as well. it's expanding, and the economic refugees from angola's ex-colonial master are on board. >> generally, europeans, and of course, the portuguese, are highly educated and well versed in technology. and then, there's the language factor. in angola, it's quite simply easier to work with someone from a portuguese background.
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>> many of the europeans here get together at this beach club on thursdays. starting at eleven p.m., they can dance and party the night away. about half are from portugal. >> we wouldn't be able to afford this in portugal -- it would just be too expensive if you didn't have a job. but here, the friends and the weather are great! >> portugal and the euro debt crisis are 6 thousand kilometers away. us dollars are the currency of choice here. and ricardo sees his future here. he opened luanda's first shop for baby articles. he started as a construction logistics expert and decided to try his luck in retail.
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his location in the business district brings in lots of customers. >> a country that's growing as fast as this one offers tremendous opportunities for a businessman, and at the same time, you're doing your part for the development of this wonderful place. >> within just ten years, the economic boom transformed angola from a civil war country into a serious economic player in the region. -- just the right place for young entrepreneurs. there are still relatively few regulations -- something ricardo has learned to appreciate the past two years.
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>> the market is so new, it's easy to find customers, and there are no restrictions on imports -- unlike the case in europe. >> his wife's children are still in portugal, living with their grandparents. they talk over skype every day. they miss each other, but the children will be following soon. they see their future in angola, too. >> this is the only way we can finance a good education for our kids. and even if a lot of people don't believe it, the quality of life here in angola is so much better than in portugal. >> one thing that adds to the quality of life for people like jacques is that the company pays his rent. if it didn't, luanda would be
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out of reach even for him. and he, too, plans to stay. >> it's difficult to see me in another place, or back to europe again. i don't see a good perspective in that way, because things are kind of stuck in europe. everything's on the move in luanda -- even on the boardwalk. it's been freshly renovated by portuguese planners -- economic refugees, like jacques, who've fled the financial crisis afflicting angola's former imperial master. we just saw sonia on a skype call to her children. now we're about to visit her parents who are taking care of the kids in portugal. the privileges enjoyed by angola's ex-pat community are in stark contrast to what most of them left behind. portugal remains on the receiving end of european
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financial assistance. lisbon has been pledged some 80 billion euros and nobody knows how long this will keep the country afloat. faced with years of planned budget cuts the younger generation has little faith in the future and pensioners feel cheated of the fruits of their labour. we visit the other half of ricardo and sonia matos' family who are trying to make ends meet back home. rui has a slight fever. he's got to keep taking his medicine. mama gives him whatever motherly love she can from 6 thousand kilometers away. ever since their mother moved to angola, rui and his elder brother ricardo have been living with their grandparents in coimbra, about a hundred kilometers south of porto. now they only ever see their mother on the monitor. >> yes, they often cry, because mama's not here. >> before the crisis hit, the grandparents, both retired,
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were getting along nicely, but now they have to scrimp and save. meanwhile, their daughter in angola is earning hand over fist. >> after you've worked your whole life, you'd like to be able to go out now and then. i took early retirement, because i had cancer and a lot of operations. now i wear a prosthesis. and my husband is retired. we could've been enjoying life a little, but now we can't. >> rosy's husband anthony managed a filling station for thirty years. now he draws a monthly pension of 12 hundred euros. rosy receives the minimum pension of almost 500 euros. soon, they'll have to pay taxes on these benefits. the cost of living is rising, and fewer and fewer medicines are covered by insurance. every day, more government austerity measures are announced. >> i didn't think it was funny, at all, when the politicians
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said we'd been lazy. they can't say that! hard words like that in our situation! >> they ripped us off for thirty years -- and i voted for them, too! now i don't go to vote any more. >> many portuguese, especially the old and the less-educated, have resigned themselves to the inevitable -- even in a college town like coimbra. many young people live here. of the 140 thousand residents, twenty thousand are students. many have plans to go abroad -- leaving portugal with a potentially massive brain-drain. >> it's frustrating. there were few jobs as it was, but for us young people, there are none at all now. >> i don't see any future -- not in portugal.
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>> of course, i hope i can stay in portugal after i graduate, but if there isn't anything, i'll just have to go to another country. >> even portuguese prime minister pedro passos coelho said anyone who could go abroad should. rosy almeida's daughter did just that. now she sends money back to her mother regularly. more and more young emigrants are sending money to their parents -- taking on a function that the state can no longer perform. >> living conditions in portugal are no good any more. you can hardly feed your family now. but still, it's not good that so many are having to leave and go far away from their families. that's especially bad because of the children. >> ricardo and his brother rui will be joining their mother as soon as they can -- in angola. rosy and her husband will stay behind. no matter how tough the going gets, portugal is their home, and they're not leaving. and now we want to tap into your local knowledge.
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we regularly task our reporters to bring back recipes of no-fuss foods enjoyed around the globe. so -- do you have a global snack we should be picking up on? then please go ahead and share it with us and the entire global 3000 community -- here's how. >> savory or sweet. heavy or light. what's your take-away of choice? send us a photo of your favorite snack. and win our global snack apron. send your photo by post or e- mail to global 3000 at dw-dot- de. best of luck! >> now we are all climate sinners. and every one of us who steps on a plane is sure to exceed the annual co2 limits our planet can cope with per person. most cambodians live way below this limit. and yet they are forced to think about their climate footprint.
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wood is the major source of fuel in cambodia. and for a long time deforestation has been taking its toll on the environment. a french ngo has set out with a simple and effective way to cut down demand for wood across asia. it says coconut shells are part of the answer -- so here's an example of how a small idea can have great effect. len is out with his whole family in their tuktuk. he makes the rounds of phnom penh's markets. he's collecting coconut shells. coconut flakes are an ingredient in many cambodian dishes.
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so there are lots of shells left over at the markets. len can earn money with them. a factory on the outskirts of phnom penh is willing to pay for coconut shells. here, they're not waste -- they're a raw material. >> the idea is to provide cambodia with an environmental friendly product, since deforestation is a big issue here in cambodia. so our charcoal is out of complete recycled organic waste so we dont cut any trees to produce charcoal. >> cambodians use lots of wood -- for construction, furniture- making -- and for fuel. even large textile factories like this one use wood as an energy source. the storage area is fully stocked. jeans production for overseas contractors can swallow up entire forests.
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cambodia's woodlands have shrunk by about 20 percent over the past ten years. there's hardly any rain forest left, at all. no trees have to be felled for the coconut shells. chopped into manageable size, they form the basic material for green briquets. they also create jobs -- this factory now has 15 permanent employees. the finely chopped shells are packed into an oven and set alight. the factory workers developed this method themselves. >> this comes from a cooking stove. it was a cooking stove working with wood pallets. and we have upscaled it to char the coconut shells. so it's a very innovative idea and i think we are the only ones that have this in the world...
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degrees celsius, the 45 kilos of shells have been reduced to ten kilos of charcoal. this is gound up fine and pressed into the 'green briquets' -- charcoal without coal. the factory sells its fuel to restaurants and private customers who use it mainly for cooking. cambodia numbers among the world's poorest countries. this street barber tries to attract customers with music. simple street restaurants line the sidewalks. they all use charcoal. it's always been the cheapest fuel. this japanese barbecue restaurant has switched from conventional charcoal to the
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'green briquets'. they cost the same and don't give off nearly as much smoke. the factory needs more customers like this one. the proprietor likes the briquets so much, he's put up an advertizement for them. >> actually, when i found it, i was very surprised. that there is a product, charcoal like this. i want to use it. it is eco friendly, very important. >> more and more small shops are also discovering the benefits of the 'green briquets'. this shop-owner has been selling them -- and already ordered more. >> the green briquets burn longer than charcoal and don't give off many sparks. they sell quite well.
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>> the factory needs more customers. it's up to the promotion team to win them over. every morning, tuktuks drive in from the country loaded with charcoal -- quite often made from timber illegally cut in cambodia's last remaining rain forests. "come by and see us," says the promoter. "the factory's right around the corner." the boys from the country have never seen briquets like these before. >> they look really odd. maybe we could try them sometime. >> but they have no time to drop by the factory -- they have customers waiting for delivery. they have no other way to earn their money -- even if they do worry about the environment. >> it's not easy getting a new product accepted by a market rooted in tradition.
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the green briquets factory was started by french non- governmental organizations in 2010. now it's up to industrial engineer carlo talamanca of spain to make it profitable. >> i started working in this factory 6 month ago, in july, 2011. in the last six month, we succeeded to increase our sales from an average from 2 tons a month to 8 tons a month. and to reduce the costs. but sustainability is still a long way to go. >> the factory will have to sell twice as much to turn a profit. but word about the green briquets is spreading -- among customers and suppliers both. and they're realizing that throwing away coconut shells means throwing away a good source of cheap, clean energy. >> as we just heard there,
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getting a business going takes some investment. that's the traditional role of banks -- to provide liquidity and thereby foster economic development. but many people in developing countries don't have access to banking services. that's where micro-credit schemes come into play. in northern pakistan a small region has set up its own banking system. here a co-operative decides who gets a loan and on which terms. instead of relying on outside funding, this system represents development from within the community itself. the co-op bank has been running for eight years and has laid the foundations for many small successes. >> life is hard in the mountains of kashmir. and it's hard to find the money to try something new that might make life easier. in northern pakistan's autonomous territories, banks are few and far between. even if someone did find a bank, it's unlikely they'd get a loan -- they could hardly keep up with the interest payments. people here live mostly from
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what they grow themselves. >> i come from a poor family. as a child, i had to work to pay for my own education and support the family. we had to struggle hard. >> but it's even harder for women. >> in remote areas like this, we women hardly have any possibilities to find work. >> over the past eight years, things have been changing. with support from the international fund for agricultural development, the village founded a cooperative. the residents pooled their money and started granting what are known as micro-credits. who gets how much money and at what interest rate is decided by a democratic process. >> as to uplift the community and to reduce the poverty, and for this, the basic tool for the reduction of poverty is the
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availability of credit -- the micro-credit. >> one such loan went to yasmen akhtar, a mother of four. she used it to substantially expand her vegetable garden. now she supplements the family income by selling fruit and vegetables. >> it's such a good feeling to be able to change things on your own instead of just sitting around doing nothing. now i don't have to beg anyone for money -- i'm independent. five women from the area have followed my example. they come to me to buy seeds or get advice on how to grow certain kinds of vegetables. >> the micro-credit idea helped the villagers to help themselves. two years ago, the region didn't even have an infirmary, and the nearest hospital was far out of reach for emergency patients. muhammad nadeem had medical training, but no medications or supplies.
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a micro-credit from the cooperative financed the construction of a clinic. now, nadeem sees up to 45 patients a day. >> of course, i'm happy. if i didn't have the medications, things would look very different. now i can help people and even earn money doing it. i make them well again! i can't imagine anything more gratifying than someone getting well again with my help. >> during a cholera epidemic last year, nadeem saved many lives. when ibrar husein shah applied for a micro-credit, the community set the condition that he would have to get training. so he got training to be a plumber. and he received a loan to start his own business. today, five years later, he's got four apprentices of his own. without the micro-credit, he says his life would've gone very differently.
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>> i'd probably be breaking rocks for road construction. i'd have a pick and a shovel in my hands. none of my brothers would've been able to have any kind of training. >> shah had his debt completely paid off within a year. in fact, almost everyone who's taken out loans under the project has paid them off on time. a key factor is the shared responsibility. each individual's success or lack of it is shouldered by the entire village. >> when the community is empowered -- when they are empowered to think about things by themselves, they are better judges and their decisions are always good. at this time -- if the micro- credit is available in pakistan, especially to the poor people, they can -- i think so -- put our economy back on the right track. >> now, the people here are getting by without outside help. as long as the micro-credit project continues, they'll likely be able to create greater prosperity for their families.
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a better life -- that's also what the women in the villages of bangladesh's shatkira district are striving for. next week, in our climate report we'll show you how a bengali organizsation is teaching the locals to make the most of their lands that have been flooded by sea water. they can't grow crops so the women here have switched to farming crabs. this new income is also helping overcome a social taboo as many muslims -- who avoid eating crustaceans -- have taken up crab farming. so more on that next week, but for now from me and the entire global team here in berlin -- thanks for watching and bye bye! captioned by the national captioning institute
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