Environmental issues are a key driver. The need for better mechanisms to enable discipline hopping/crossover (materials (MEMS), control, fluids). Better sensors and actuators and better communication for these to be developed. Better understanding of the needs of the turbomachinery industry, especially in identifying where flow control can be beneficial (e.g., variable intake geometry). Challenge for flow control to be fail-safe, or to be developed for non-critical control gains (e.g., noise). more detailed information on stage through-flow behaviour (with/without control) increased use of laser interrogation (PIV, PTV, MTV).