The WHO Global Health Promotion Conferences have established the concepts, principles, and action areas, and located health promotion within the wider context of globalization (Ottawa 1986 and Bangkok 2005). They have examined healthy public policy making (Adelaide 1988) and the creation of supportive environments (Sundsvall 1991). They have considered capacity building for health promotion and its role in addressing the determinants of health (Jakarta 1997 and Mexico 2000). They have called for action to close the implementation gap between evidence and its concrete application in health development (Nairobi 2009). The 8th Global Conference on Health Promotion (Helsinki 2013) reviewed the experiences in engaging in the Health in All Policies approach and established guidance for concrete action in countries at all levels of development.
The 9th global conference was held in Shanghai, China (2016) and placed health promotion at the centre of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). Two outcome documents, the Shanghai declaration on promoting health in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Shanghai Consensus on Healthy Cities offer pathways for advancing health promotion and addressing the determinants of health through good governance, healthy cities, health literacy and social mobilization.