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Some in Congress have expressed concern about the government's use of private-sector lead system integrators (LSIs) for executing large, complex, defense-related acquisition programs. LSIs are large, prime contractors hired to manage such programs. Supporters of the LSI concept argue that it is needed to execute such complex acquisition efforts, and can promote better technical oversight and innovation. Two LSI-managed programs-the U.S. Army's Future Combat System (FCS) and the U.S. Coast...
Topics: DTIC Archive, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS WASHINGTON DC CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE, *DEPARTMENT OF...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Jun 25, 2018 Defense Technical Information Center
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Member states of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) contribute to the activities of the alliance in several ways, the chief of which is through the deployment of their own armed forces, funded by their national budgets. Certain commonly conducted activities, however, are paid for out of three NATO-run budgets. These three accounts -- the civil budget, the military budget, and the security investment program -- are funded by individual contributions from the member states. The...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Ek, Carl W, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS WASHINGTON DC CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE, *NATO,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
2017 Defense Technical Information Center
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In the era of technology globalization, the DoD laboratories and engineering and warfare centers (the Labs) continue to fulfill vital missions on behalf of the warfighter. The Labs traditional missions are defined as high quality science, technology transition, and smart acquisition. While these missions remain important and relevant, the rapidly changing technology and threat landscapes dictate the Labs should also adapt their missions to continue serving the warfighter; this includes an...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Defense Science Board Washington United States, department of defense, test and...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Sep 17, 2015 Defense Technical Information Center
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Automations allow us to reduce the need for humans in certain environments, such as auto-pilot features on unmanned aerial vehicles. However, some situations still require human intervention. Adaptive automation is a research field that enables computer systems to adjust the amount of automation by taking over tasks from or giving tasks back to the user. This research develops processes and insights for adaptive automation designers to take theoretical adaptive automation ideas and develop them...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH GRADUATE SCHOOL OF...
While human tutoring and mentoring are common teaching tools, current US Army standards for training and education are group instruction and classroom training, also known as one-to-many instruction. Recently, the US Army has placed significant emphasis on self-regulated learning (SRL) methods to augment institutional training where Soldiers will be largely responsible for managing their own learning. In support of the US Army Learning Model and to provide affordable, tailored SRL training and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD HUMAN RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Apr 13, 2015 Defense Technical Information Center
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After more than a decade of counterinsurgency and stability operations, the strategic security environment is different and the joint force must rebalance military capabilities across the strategic defense framework. However, conflict exists between short-term desires and long-term imperatives. Recent changes in organization and employment by some elements of the joint force, although appearing as a panacea to the next Benghazi-like catastrophe, are merely innovations for innovation s sake and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIV NORFOLK VA JOINT ADVANCED WARFIGHTING SCHOOL, *CRISIS...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Mar 1, 2015 Defense Technical Information Center
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The objective of this research is to create an interface that is tailored to individual Soldiers' cognitive styles, individual differences, and expertise while at the same time reduces the interface complexity perceived by the Soldier. This interface design will improve upon existing adaptive interfaces by going beyond adaptation to the individual's prior actions and tailoring the interface to how each user perceives, processes, and filters information without the added complexity of current...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD HUMAN RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Mar 1, 2015 Defense Technical Information Center
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The tutorial described in this report was conducted at the Interservice/Industry Training Simulation and Education Conference (IITSEC) in Orlando, FL, in December 2014. The purpose of this tutorial is 5-fold: 1) understand the differences between adaptive and adaptable systems; 2) understand the key components of Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs); 3) understand the potential of ITSs as one-to-one tutors and where ITS technologies are most applicable in the training and educational domain; 4)...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD HUMAN RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Jan 16, 2015 Defense Technical Information Center
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Self-adaptive systems overcome many of the limitations of human supervision in complex software-intensive systems by endowing them with the ability to automatically adapt their structure and behavior in the presence of runtime changes. However, adaptation in some classes of systems (e.g., safety-critical) can remarkably benefit by receiving information from humans (e.g., acting as sophisticated sensors, decision-makers), or by involving them as system-level effectors to execute adaptations...
Topics: DTIC Archive, CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIV PITTSBURGH PA SOFTWARE ENGINEERING INST, *REASONING, ADAPTIVE...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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This final overarching report in a series documents research and recommendations RAND offered to the Air Force to help strengthen the development of a new office responsible for monitoring and promoting resilience among Air Force Airmen, civilian employees, and Air Force families. Efforts to boost resilience have become an important military response to suicide and other markers of distress and poor health. The report reviews the concepts and measures of resilience, resilience factors,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, RAND PROJECT AIR FORCE SANTA MONICA CA, *AIR FORCE PERSONNEL, *MENTAL HEALTH,...
For the past two decades, the U.S. Air Force has operated with impunity from air bases that have been relatively safe from attack. This may become more challenging in the future, as U.S. security policy places greater emphasis on ensuring U.S. presence in the Pacific. The rebalance to the Pacific could expose U.S. and allied air bases to significant ballistic and cruise missiles from a near-peer power. Ensuring resilient combat operations in denied environments (CODE) will likely require a mix...
Topics: DTIC Archive, RAND PROJECT AIR FORCE SANTA MONICA CA, *AREA DENIAL, *MILITARY CAPABILITIES,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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This thesis examines the generalship, leadership, and operational art of General James N. Mattis, US Marine Corps by using Task Force 58 in Afghanistan as a formative base and then comparing elements of operational art to the conduct of the 1st Marine Division in Operation Iraqi Freedom, 2003. Mattis draws upon many historical influences that shape his operational design in both campaigns. He puts great effort and focus on ensuring that his commander's intent is understood by all his...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLLEGE FORT LEAVENWORTH KS, *LEADERSHIP, *MARINE...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Oct 14, 2014 Defense Technical Information Center
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Introduction The CERP project aims to create a systems-based model for describing and evaluating resilience, with the expert input of a diverse group of scientists who help to identify metrics and create a testable model of resilience such that it can be applied to the evaluation of resilience, health and fitness in military populations. The specific aims of CERP are to: 1) Review and identify key domains for systems based assessment of health and fitness with particular relevance to military...
Topics: DTIC Archive, SAMUELI INST ALEXANDRIA VA, *MEDICAL RESEARCH, *PHYSICAL FITNESS, *VETERANS(MILITARY...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Oct 1, 2014 Defense Technical Information Center
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Almost 2,400 years ago, Plato wrote, Yet a true creator is necessity, which is the mother of our invention. These words have resonated through the centuries and have transformed to a maxim describing how challenging conditions are often needed to spark innovation, especially in environments reluctant to change. As the wars of this century begin to fade, the US military faces a daunting fiscal environment, personnel drawdowns, and continually altering threats that create ideal conditions for new...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR UNIV MAXWELL AFB AL AIR FORCE RESEARCH INST, *CREATIVITY, *MILITARY...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Sep 1, 2014 Defense Technical Information Center
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This thesis examines four periods of the U.S. Navy s history, each following a major conflict that perpetuated a decline in institutional and strategic focus, and then ending in a rebirth of innovation. The object is to place the events drove the Navy toward stagnation into historical context and identify similarities between the cycles of stagnation and innovation. The central questions this thesis seeks to answer are: (1) Do shrinking budgets and austerity perpetuate stagnation? (2) What are...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *MILITARY HISTORY, *MILITARY STRATEGY, *NAVY,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Aug 1, 2014 Defense Technical Information Center
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The command and control (C2) core function can be somewhat difficult to grasp. For example, consider the service publication Global Vigilance, Global Reach, Global Power for America. This compelling piece lays out concise, one-page descriptions of the original five Air Force core functions: air and space superiority; intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR); rapid global mobility; global strike; and C2.1 The first four core functions have power and clarity. They are the legacy of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR UNIV MAXWELL AFB AL AIR FORCE RESEARCH INST, *AIR FORCE OPERATIONS, *COMMAND AND...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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As the U.S. Army transitions its training strategy to meet the goals of the Army Learning Model (ALM), there will be a commitment to leverage mobile devices for Soldier training and education. The ease of this transition will be determined, in part, by the extent to which Soldiers are already familiar with mobile devices, use them in their daily lives, and their willingness to incorporate them into their professional lives. This paper reports findings on mobile device ownership, usage, and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY RESEARCH INST FOR THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES FORT BELVOIR VA, *ARMY...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Jun 1, 2014 Defense Technical Information Center
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Joint and service doctrine clearly defines supporting, supported, and subordinate command relationships. Recent operations, however, exhibit confusion at the staff officer level regarding these command relationships. The confusion manifests itself in more than a simple misunderstanding of terminology, particularly when air forces are employed as part of a joint operation. Instead, joint staff officers mistake airpower s common role as a supporting force for one of subordination. The difference...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR UNIV MAXWELL AFB AL SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIR AND SPACE STUDIES, *AIR POWER, *JOINT...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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This report was written as part of a project entitled Joint Operational Concepts for an Uncertain Future. The focus of the research became an effort to assess the challenges that U.S. Army airborne forces may face in the future and identify capabilities airborne forces will need to effectively address those challenges. This report summarizes threats to the current U.S. airborne force and explores the concept of an airborne light armored infantry force as a possible means to mitigate those...
Topics: DTIC Archive, RAND ARROYO CENTER SANTA MONICA CA, *AIRLIFT OPERATIONS, *JOINT MILITARY ACTIVITIES,...
Psychological fitness, as part of the Total Force Fitness (TFF) construct, is defined as the integration and optimization of cognitive processes and abilities, behaviors, and emotions to positively affect performance, well-being, and response to stress. These resilience factors can be thought of as antecedents of a complex process whereby individuals deal with stress. As such, they provide the foundation for psychological fitness. This report focuses on three categories of key resilience...
Topics: DTIC Archive, RAND PROJECT AIR FORCE SANTA MONICA CA, *STRESS(PSYCHOLOGY), COGNITION, EMOTIONS,...
U.S. military personnel have been engaged in operations in Central Asia and the Middle East for the past decade. Members of the armed forces also deploy to other regions of the world. Many aspects of deployments have the potential to contribute to individual stress, such as uncertainty about deployment time lines; culture shock in theater; fear of or confrontation with death or physical injury; environmental challenges, such as extreme climates and geographical features; austere living...
Topics: DTIC Archive, RAND PROJECT AIR FORCE SANTA MONICA CA, *AIR FORCE PERSONNEL, *FOOD SERVICE,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
2014 Defense Technical Information Center
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Lieutenant William McCarty Little a war-gaming visionary was truly a man ahead of his time. Although physically sight impaired and medically retired from active naval service, he opted to use his ideational vision and keen mind to support the Naval War College, in Newport, Rhode Island, during its first few years of operation after its founding in 1884. Initially an unpaid volunteer, he was appointed in 1887 as a member of the faculty, where he developed two-sided war gaming at the College a...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL WAR COLLEGE NEWPORT RI, *WAR GAMES, BATTLES, DECISION MAKING, ENVIRONMENTS,...
Military deployment can have profound effects on physical and mental health. Fewstudies have examined whether interventions prior to deployment can improvemechanisms underlying resilience. Mindfulness-based techniques have been shown to aid recovery from stress and may affect brain-behavior relationships prior to deployment. The authors examined the effect of mindfulness training on resilience mechanisms in active-duty Marines preparing for deployment. Eight Marine infantry platoons (N=281)...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER SAN DIEGO CA, *MILITARY TRAINING, *RESILIENCE,...
The ability of soldiers and crews to engage the enemy successfully has been fundamental to the operational success of the U.S. Army since its founding and remains so today. As a result, the Army devotes considerable resources and effort to developing and maintaining weapon-system proficiency. In 2010, over a billion dollars were spent to buy training ammunition, and many dollars were spent maintaining and providing the training aids, devices, simulators, simulations, ranges, and targetry...
Topics: DTIC Archive, RAND ARROYO CENTER SANTA MONICA CA, *ARMY TRAINING, OPERATIONAL READINESS,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Dec 30, 2013 Defense Technical Information Center
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The Bioinformatics Challenge Days were two one-day events sponsored by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) and carried out by MIT Lincoln Laboratory in cooperation with Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC). These events explored the utility of a short-term hack day format for educating interested individuals in bioinformatics issues relevant to the Department of Defense. They also explored to what extent these events could spark innovation in a diverse technical community that...
Topics: DTIC Archive, MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH LEXINGTON LINCOLN LAB, *BIOMEDICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS,...
Research has reported perceived barriers to care in military populations, but there have not been any studies to date that demonstrate the degree to which subjective barriers translate into lack of utilization. Moreover, studies of mental health service utilization have not examined patient beliefs and perceptions, instead focusing on characteristics such as race, gender, and socio-demographic variables. To our knowledge there have not been any systematic investigations into what soldiers...
Topics: DTIC Archive, YALE UNIV NEW HAVEN CT SCHOOL OF MEDICINE, *MEDICAL SERVICES, *MENTAL HEALTH,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Oct 1, 2013 Defense Technical Information Center
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The final report of the Defense Science Board 2012 Summer Study on Technology and Innovation Enablers for Superiority in 2030 is attached. In accordance with its charter, the study reviewed emerging technologies that will enable the next generation of dominant military capabilities anticipated to be in development or fielded by 2030. The review was guided by the January 2012 military strategy guidance entitled Sustaining U.S. Global Leadership: Priorities for 21st Century Defense. This report...
Topics: DTIC Archive, DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD WASHINGTON DC, *INVESTMENTS, *MILITARY EQUIPMENT, *SECURITY,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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The purpose of this analysis is to explore the application of commercial smartphone technology in the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) tactical environment. Based on our research and financial analysis, we conclude that the dual-use potential of smartphones makes their economics more attractive than the existing radios the USMC has available to it. Therefore, the business case for deploying sleeved smartphones in the tactical environment complements the military rationale for adopting this technology....
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS AND PUBLIC POLICY,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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The practice of knowledge management (KM) continues to grow within the Department of Defense; however, while the other services have substantially matured in KM, the United States Marine Corps (USMC) has not. Most organizations today leverage information systems and technology to their advantage for increasing information and knowledge flow, and overall KM. The problem is that USMC units do not appear to be leveraging knowledge as effectively as they could, and as other services do, to address...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT, INFORMATION SYSTEMS,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Sep 1, 2013 Defense Technical Information Center
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The federal government has mandated that agencies consolidate data centers in order to gain efficiencies and cost savings. It is a well-established fact that both public and private organizations have reported considerable cost savings from consolidating data centers; however, in the case of federal agencies, no established methodology for valuing the benefits has been delineated. Nevertheless, numerous federal policies mandate that investments in IT demonstrate a positive return on investment...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *INVESTMENTS, DECISION MAKING, INFORMATION...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Sep 1, 2013 Defense Technical Information Center
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In Backwards Fading (BF), a learner is provided with an initial, complete demonstration of a multi-step task. In subsequent iterations, more and more of the later task steps are completed by the student. Thus, task performance shifts from the instructor to the student. BF can be understood as a systematic means of removing scaffolding across learning trials. Research indicates BF holds promise for effective/efficient training, but the utility of BF in Army settings and with Army tasks needs to...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY RESEARCH INST FOR THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES FORT BELVOIR VA, *TEACHING...
Defense Technical Information Archive
May 1, 2013 Defense Technical Information Center
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The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, it provides an information resource for development of a Combatant Command (COCOM)-focused Knowledge Management (KM) plan and implementation. Second, it gives an overview of KM in the operational part of the Department of Defense along with findings of KM program development at selected COCOMs. The results will serve as a basis for recommendation to the U.S. Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM) in planning and development of a KM program.
Topics: DTIC Archive, SPACE AND NAVAL WARFARE SYSTEMS CENTER PACIFIC SAN DIEGO CA, *KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Apr 15, 2013 Defense Technical Information Center
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The U.S. Marine Corps logistics community fills multiple diverse billets integral to organizational success. This analysis explores enlisted and officer logistics military occupational specialties (MOSs) to determine if negative trends exist. Guiding resources are examined including the MOS Manual, training and readiness events, and promotion guidance and selection results. In all cases, findings demonstrate MOS role diffusion, duplicative responsibilities across multiple MOSs, lack of formal...
Topics: DTIC Archive, MARINE CORPS COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT SCHOOLS CAMP JOHNSON NC, *LOGISTICS, *MARINE...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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Numerous articles and books have recently appeared criticizing the current leadership of the Armed Services and their collective inability to think critically, to adapt, or to innovate quickly, as well as their lack of tactical, operational, or strategic agility. However, the services have not sat idle; their individual doctrines, educational institutions, and professional journals abound with the need to create more adaptive, agile, and thinking leaders, and have done so for quite some time....
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY WAR COLLEGE CARLISLE BARRACKS PA, *COURSES(EDUCATION), *LEADERSHIP, *MILITARY...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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Following the Cold War, the Services sought to redefine themselves in the face of a future operating environment devoid of a singular threat. As this era unfolded the term expeditionary came to the forefront of each service culture and has increasingly dominated discussions over the past decade. The core competencies, capabilities, and conditions that should underpin expeditionary operations are not common across the services and are not codified by DoD policy, joint doctrine, or joint training...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIV NORFOLK VA JOINT ADVANCED WARFIGHTING SCHOOL, *JOINT MILITARY...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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There are very few tasks in the Army more important than developing effective, competent leaders. As a significant part of this effort, the Army provides Field Manual (FM) 6-22, which establishes leadership doctrine and fundamental principles to guide leaders at all levels. In support of this important objective, the manual offers a comprehensive framework for leadership that explicitly outlines the highly valued characteristics and competencies all leaders are expected to aspire to and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY COMBINED ARMS CENTER FORT LEAVENWORTH KS MILITARY REVIEW, *LEADERSHIP TRAINING,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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Modeling human decision making in strategic problem domains is challenging with normative game theoretic approaches. Behavioral aspects of this type of decision making, such as forgetfulness or misattribution of reward, require additional parameters to capture their effect on decisions. We propose a descriptive model utilizing aspects of behavioral game theory, machine learning, and prospect theory that replicates the behavior of humans in uncertain strategic environments. We test the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, GEORGIA UNIV RESEARCH FOUNDATION INC ATHENS, *BEHAVIOR, *GAME THEORY, DECISION...
A program evaluation was conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri to determine the effectiveness of athletic trainers (ATs) and musculoskeletal action teams (MATs) for reducing injuries, reducing medical attrition, and improving physical fitness. The MAT consisted of a physical therapist, physical therapy technician, two ATs, and two certified strength and conditioning specialists. The evaluation involved two groups (MAT & AT), two phases or periods (baseline (B) & intervention (I)),...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY PUBLIC HEALTH COMMAND ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD, *ARMY PERSONNEL,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Sep 27, 2012 Defense Technical Information Center
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On 27 September 2012, West Point's Small Arms Technology Team interviewed a group of current and former battalion and brigade commanders. The focus of the conversations focused on criteria to measure small arms effectiveness, desired small arms capabilities, perceptions of current US Small Arms by US Soldiers, and driving forces or deep trends that will have a major influence on Small Arms over the next 30 years.
Topics: DTIC Archive, MILITARY ACADEMY WEST POINT NY NETWORK SCIENCE CENTER (NSC), *BATTALION LEVEL...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Sep 1, 2012 Defense Technical Information Center
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Defense AT and L is a bimonthly magazine published by DAU Press, Defense Acquisition University, for senior military personnel, civilians, defense contractors, and defense industry professionals in program management and the acquisition, technology, and logistics workforce.
Topics: DTIC Archive, Bell,John R, Defense Acquisition University Fort Belvoir United States, logistics,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Jul 1, 2012 Defense Technical Information Center
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On 23 November 2010, the chief of staff of the Air Force tasked the Air Force Research Institute to review Air Force command and control (C2) to determine whether doctrine and organizational structures require changes to ensure success in uncertain and dynamic future scenarios. The research team's approach began with the assumption that any proposed structure must be adaptable to achieve success across the range of military operations and continue the focus on delivering the right effects at...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR UNIV MAXWELL AFB AL AIR FORCE RESEARCH INST, *AIR FORCE, *COMMAND AND CONTROL...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Jun 6, 2012 Defense Technical Information Center
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The Office of Naval Research invests in innovative operational concepts to develop the science and technology (S&T) that ensures our warfighters always have the technological edge. Many of the innovation efforts are focused on expanding access to ideas and problem solvers.
Topics: DTIC Archive, OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH ARLINGTON VA, *INVESTMENTS, *MILITARY CRITICAL TECHNOLOGY,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
May 17, 2012 Defense Technical Information Center
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The U.S. Army underwent significant doctrinal changes in the years following the Vietnam War. The 1976 edition of Field Manual (FM) 100-5, championed by General William DePuy, attempted to guide the Army's actions necessary to defeat the Soviet Union on a European battlefield by utilizing an active defense. This concept generated vigorous debates internal and external to the Army that ultimately led to the 1982 and 1986 editions of FM 100-5, commonly referred to as the AirLand Battle Doctrine....
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS SCHOOL OF ADVANCED MILITARY...
Defense Technical Information Archive
May 17, 2012 Defense Technical Information Center
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This monograph addresses the fact that most writing on strategy is descriptive rather than explanatory. Describing strategy in terms of categories such as grand strategy, or theater strategy, or by various analogies, does not illuminate what happens when one practices strategy. Strategy is a cognitive process rather than some tangible object that one can point at or manipulate. Accordingly, this is a theory of how strategy is formed and why it works. The process that produces strategy is based...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS SCHOOL OF ADVANCED MILITARY...
Defense Technical Information Archive
May 17, 2012 Defense Technical Information Center
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In the last 10 years, the United States military has dealt with emerging counterinsurgencies in multiple operational theaters. To deal with the complex nature of counterinsurgency, organizational planning and operational processes increasingly focus on learning and adapting to a particular type of threat in a given environment. The developed processes help to increase the speed of the decision cycle in an attempt to retain the initiative and get the inside the insurgent's decision cycle. To do...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS SCHOOL OF ADVANCED MILITARY...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Apr 1, 2012 Defense Technical Information Center
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The great challenge in defeating an insurgency is that the members of an insurgency are often difficult to identify. Biometrics offers a means to remove an insurgent's anonymity and make visible that person's identity to military personnel, the police, border guards, and transportation authorities. An examination of the writings of insurgency theorists and counterinsurgency theorists makes it possible to lay out key principles a system like biometrics must influence to be of value. An analysis...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIV NORFOLK VA JOINT ADVANCED WARFIGHTING SCHOOL, *BIOMETRY,...
In the latter half of this decade, the U.S. Army has been engaged in persistent asymmetric warfare. During this period, army organizations have varied in the degree to which they have innovated doctrinally and technologically to confront this new reality. At the broadest level, the army has innovated considerably. However, at the combat brigade level, we observe variation across medical and logistics units, critical for providing support for combat operations. This thesis explains this...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *ARMY PLANNING, *MILITARY MEDICINE, ARMY...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 9, 2012 Defense Technical Information Center
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In order to address the needs of tomorrow s National Airspace System (NAS) users, the Federal Government is implementing the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The success of NextGen will rely, in part, on the ability to provide the right information to the users that need it, when they need it. NextGen is implementing a net-centric environment to ensure that relevant, accurate, timely, and well-understood information is available to any authorized consumer and irrelevant...
Topics: DTIC Archive, JOINT PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT OFFICE WASHINGTON DC, *AIR TRANSPORTATION,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
2012 Defense Technical Information Center
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All the military services train their members on general military topics, such as the Code of Conduct (CoC) or suicide prevention. Individual services direct some topics, and some are stipulated by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). Typically, military members receive instruction on these topics at some designated frequency, e.g., annually. This instruction competes for time and other resources with topics specific to a given service. General military training (GMT) requirements are the same...
Topics: DTIC Archive, RAND NATIONAL DEFENSE RESEARCH INST SANTA MONICA CA, *MILITARY TRAINING, COSTS,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Oct 1, 2011 Defense Technical Information Center
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One capability that is increasingly important to military leadership is effective negotiation skills. This report provides a comprehensive review of negotiation performance, outcomes, and antecedents, and presents a model describing the major linkages between key categories of variables. These include the proximal antecedents of declarative and procedural knowledge, as well as the more distal antecedents of individual difference variables (e.g., cognitive ability, personality) and psychological...
Topics: DTIC Archive, PERSONNEL DECISIONS RESEARCH INST INC ARLINGTON VA, *ARMY PERSONNEL, *CROSS...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Sep 1, 2011 Defense Technical Information Center
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This research examines organizational theory to gain understanding about the tradeoffs organizations are required to make to adopt innovations. As a framework for identifying gaps in current processes, the eight practices identified by Denning and Dunham's The Innovator's Way, Essential Practices for Successful Innovation (2010) are introduced. The eight practices are also provided as a tool to improve communications, focus, and methods for achieving innovation adoption within an organization....
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA DEPT OF INFORMATION SCIENCES, *BARRIERS,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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Search is becoming the primary way in which people get information. In 2010, global Internet usage was over two billion people, with 92% of online adults using search engines to find information. Most commercial search engines (Google, Yahoo, Bing, etc.) provide their indexing and search services at no cost. The DoD can achieve large gains at a small cost by making public documents available to search engines. This can be achieved through the utilization of important design components and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *DATA STORAGE SYSTEMS, *INTERNET, COMMERCE,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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In 2007-08, we began an investigation of problems, issues, and opportunities that arise during the acquisition of software systems that rely on open architectures and open source software. The current effort funded for 2009-10 (funding received in 2010) seeks to continue and build on the results in this area while refining its focus to center on the essential constraints and tradeoffs we have identified for software-intensive systems with open architecture (OA) and continuously evolving open...
Topics: DTIC Archive, CALIFORNIA UNIV IRVINE INSTITUTE FOR SOFTWARE RESEARCH, *COMPUTER PROGRAMS, *MILITARY...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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Marine Corps forces have deployed repeatedly with limited time between deployments. At their home stations, combat training centers, and other locations, units have focused their limited training time on training for counterinsurgency operations. Prior to deploying, units also conduct a large scale exercise referred to as a culminating training event. With the drawdown of forces in Iraq, the services have begun to resume training for a fuller range of offensive, defensive, and stability...
Topics: DTIC Archive, GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE WASHINGTON DC, *SKILLS, *MARINE CORPS TRAINING,...
A Joint Terminal Attack Controller (JTAC) is the link between Marine ground units and the aircraft supporting them. This Marine must be capable of unsupervised, creative action in pursuit of his duties. Historical examples of terminal control in die ate an extremely complex and fluid task that requires depth of personal expertise to perform adequately. The more dispersed operating environment since 9/11 prompted the USMC to train and assign nonaviator JTACs, in addition to aviator Forward Air...
Topics: DTIC Archive, MARINE CORPS COMMAND AND STAFF COLL QUANTICO VA, *AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS, *MARINE...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 22, 2011 Defense Technical Information Center
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The United States Army War College (USAWC) provides an educational network for students attending Senior Service College (SSC) commensurate with the networks of any other Army installation. The resident educational network limits discourse to only Common Access Card (CAC) carrying individuals within the Department of Defense. This restricts traditional university academic discourse and prohibits the use of personally owned or military issued mobile devices to access educational content in the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA, *ARMY PERSONNEL, *OFFICER PERSONNEL,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 1, 2011 Defense Technical Information Center
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This work is in support of a multi-year project to evaluate people-centered aspects of computer-based training (CBT) or technology assisted instruction. The core component of the work will be developing a longitudinal database that will include individual difference measures of non-cognitive characteristics (e.g., personality, temperament, interests) of students, student engagement and satisfaction with instruction, student outcomes, and early job satisfaction and performance. This report is a...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVY PERSONNEL RESEARCH STUDIES AND TECHNOLOGY MILLINGTON TN, *NAVAL PERSONNEL,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
2011 Defense Technical Information Center
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The Air Force spends approximately $750 million per year on IST, plus an unknown amount for on-the-job and other types of training. This training has arguably helped make the U.S. Air Force the best air force in the world. However, current training methods may not be as efficient and effective as emerging alternatives. This study looks at educational approaches that would customize training to individual characteristics with the intent of minimizing the trainee s time in training, focusing the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, RAND PROJECT AIR FORCE SANTA MONICA CA, *AIR FORCE PERSONNEL, *AIR FORCE TRAINING,...
The Enlisted Entry-Level Training (EELT) pipeline is a complex network that is of vital importance to the U.S. Marine Corps' ability to maintain a balanced force and serve as the nation's force in readiness. This report provides an allinclusive description of the EELT pipeline by identifying the fundamental steps in the supply chain, analyzing the supply chain's critical characteristics, and providing informed recommendations related to operations and supply chain management in an effort to...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *MARINE CORPS TRAINING, *LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Dec 1, 2010 Defense Technical Information Center
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In Innovate or Die Dr. Robert Spulak advances a concept for enhancing the rapid innovation that enables Special Operations Forces (SOF) to stay ahead of our adversaries on the battlefield. He takes a look at how SOF might innovate in ways that are different from conventional forces and emphasizes that innovation for SOF is a function of the attributes of SOF personnel and culture. Whereas the conventional General Purpose Forces must seek innovation within large organizations--often merely...
Topics: DTIC Archive, JOINT SPECIAL OPERATIONS UNIV HURLBURT FIELD FL, *MILITARY REQUIREMENTS, *MISSIONS,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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It was not until the fall of 2009 that counterinsurgency became the centerpiece of US strategy in Afghanistan. Yet coalition troops have been fighting an insurgency there since at least 2003, before the outbreak of violence in Iraq and the development of the new Counterinsurgency Field Manual. Soldiers and Marines in Afghanistan made many mistakes. But they also employed many sound practices learned through hard experience. This book captures some of those practices and the unique conditions...
Topics: DTIC Archive, CNA CORP ALEXANDRIA VA, *COUNTERINSURGENCY, *AFGHANISTAN, *POLITICAL SCIENCE,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Sep 1, 2010 Defense Technical Information Center
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A Futures Conference was held in accordance with the directions of the Joint Service Small Arms Program (JSSAP) from 17-19 November 2009, at the Battelle Memorial Institute in Columbus, OH. The conference attendees were recruited from Battelle staff and primarily JSSAP personnel. The participants were broken into three groups under the guidance of a group leader who had small arms expertise. The areas for discussion were: Energy: Supplying power for the warfighter's individual weapon system to...
Topics: DTIC Archive, BATTELLE MEMORIAL INST COLUMBUS OH, *TARGETS, *SMALL ARMS, *ENERGY, *WEAPON SYSTEMS,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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The Army's and Marine Corps' major training facilities -- Army and Marine Corps combat training centers and Army mobilization training centers -- have focused on training units for counterinsurgency missions in Iraq and Afghanistan. As troop levels decrease in Iraq and increase in Afghanistan, larger numbers of forces will be training for Afghanistan. To meet future requirements, the services plan to adjust training to train forces on a fuller range of missions. The House report to the National...
Topics: DTIC Archive, GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE WASHINGTON DC, *ARMY TRAINING, *MILITARY...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Jul 1, 2010 Defense Technical Information Center
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Thanks to the public and low cost availability of wireless high speed internet access students are increasingly equipped with mobile internet enabled devices to connect to university services like Learning Management System (LMS). But the applications services like LMS are still unable to adapt themselves to modern mobile devices with restrictions like reduced display size. By recognizing the device and its restrictions it is possible to optimize the LMS interface. Additionally by using device...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ROSTOCK UNIV (GERMANY) COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPT, *COMPUTER AIDED INSTRUCTION, *MOBILE...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Jun 18, 2010 Defense Technical Information Center
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Current combat operations have uncovered some disturbing issues regarding ground combatants' mental and physical ability to withstand the extreme demands of continuous combat operations in harsh environments, such as those found in Iraq and Afghanistan. These issues are creating significant problems for the U.S. militarys ability to sustain a healthy force that is able to handle the countrys most difficult tasks. This research paper takes a critical look at the Service physical fitness programs...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIV NORFOLK VA JOINT ADVANCED WARFIGHTING SCHOOL, *MILITARY...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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The role of software ecosystems in the development and evolution of open architecture systems has received insufficient consideration. Such systems are composed of heterogeneously licensed components, open source or proprietary or both, in an architecture in which evolution can occur by evolving existing components or by replacing them. But this may result in possible license conflicts and organizational liability for failure to fulfill license obligations. We have developed an approach for...
Topics: DTIC Archive, CALIFORNIA UNIV IRVINE INSTITUTE FOR SOFTWARE RESEARCH, *SOFTWARE ENGINEERING,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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Invariably, every issue concerning command and control evolves into a discussion of information reliability and validity. How much should commanders trust the data they perceive? How much data should they trust if they perceive it indirectly through hardware and software? Answering them well will determine how an advanced command concept will emerge. Yet they reflect one of the oldest philosophical questions known to humans: how does one know? This paper provides insight by describing the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL WAR COLL MONTEREY CA, *COMMAND AND CONTROL SYSTEMS, *PHILOSOPHY, *ONTOLOGY,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Apr 1, 2010 Defense Technical Information Center
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Topics: DTIC Archive, COLLABNET INC BRISBANE CA, *DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, *SOFTWARE ENGINEERING,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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The Urban Combat Advanced Training Technology (UCATT) Task Group (TG) was established within the NATO Modelling and Simulation Group (NMSG), in 2003 as MSG-032 TG-023. The UCATT TG was tasked to exchange and assess information on Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) facilities and training/simulation systems with a view toward establishing best practice. In addition it was required to identify a suitable architecture and a standard set of interfaces that would enable interoperability of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NATO RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATION NEUILLY-SUR-SEINE (FRANCE), *TRAINING,...
Good afternoon Madam Chairwoman, Ranking Member Miller. I am pleased to be here today on behalf of the dedicated men and women working in the Department of Defense, Research and Engineering (DDR&E) enterprise who discover, develop, engineer, and field the critical technologies for our Service Members, and civilians deployed in the defense of our Nation. I would like to thank the members of Congress for your continued support of the Department's science and technology (S&T) program and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF DEFENSE RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING WASHINGTON DC, *TECHNOLOGY...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Mar 1, 2010 Defense Technical Information Center
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Naval doctrine is the foundation upon which our tactics, techniques, and procedures are built. It articulates operational concepts that govern the employment of naval forces at all levels. A product of more than 218 years of U. S. Navy and Marine Corps experience in warfighting, it incorporates the lessons of history, learned in both the flush of success and the bitterness of failure. This publication outlines the principles upon which we organize, train, equip, and employ naval forces. It...
Topics: DTIC Archive, OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF NAVAL OPERATIONS WASHINGTON DC, *MILITARY DOCTRINE, *NAVAL...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Mar 1, 2010 Defense Technical Information Center
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This study was conducted for the Office of the Director, Cost Assessment and Program Evaluation (CAPE) to develop methodologies for estimating force requirements for large-scale stability operations. The goal of the study was to provide Department of Defense (DoD) leadership with a rough idea of the capabilities and limitations of the programmed ground force structure to conduct stability operations in a broad range of countries. The estimates from this study are intended for use in force...
Topics: DTIC Archive, INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES ALEXANDRIA VA, *UNCONVENTIONAL WARFARE,...
To sustain progress toward injury reduction and other health promotion goals, public health organizations need a systematic approach based on data and an evaluation of existing scientific evidence on prevention. This paper describes a process and criteria developed to systematically and objectively define prevention program and policy priorities. Military medical surveillance data were obtained and summarized, and a working group of epidemiology and injury experts was formed. After reviewing...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY CENTER FOR HEALTH PROMOTION AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Nov 1, 2009 Defense Technical Information Center
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This report describes an experiment examining combat identification (CID) decision making and the impact of cue uncertainty on subjects' decision accuracy. Subjects played the role of a dismounted infantry soldier in a first-person perspective environment and engaged a series of simulated targets. Subjects attempted to engage (i.e. shoot) only those figures that were enemies. Friendly and enemy forces were distinguishable by differences in uniforms, equipment, and whether they are identified as...
Topics: DTIC Archive, DEFENCE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT TORONTO (CANADA), *IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Sep 1, 2009 Defense Technical Information Center
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The challenges and risks to US ground forces in the contemporary operational environment (COE), particularly with respect to Irregular Warfare, are well known. It is believed that virtual simulation, with proven effectiveness in training Airmen and Sailors, can improve the safety and effectiveness of Marines and Soldiers by aiding them in developing complex and intuitive decision skills under conditions of stress. Additionally, the phenomenon of strategic compression, pushing responsibility for...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL RESEARCH ADVISORY COMMITTEE ARLINGTON VA, *COMBAT SIMULATION, *TRAINING...