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Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 21, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has experienced complex warfare that has involved various neighboring nations since the mid-1990s. In particular, the protected presence of armed groups has been a major obstacle to peace. Based on the best practices in Disarmament, Demobilization, Reintegration (DDR) programs, this thesis constructs an analytical framework and uses a longitudinal case study of the DRC to analyze four DDR programs initiated in the DRC from 2002 to 2009, with the goal of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Hakimu,Badura A, Naval Postgraduate School Monterey United States, demobilization,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 21, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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Contemporary Russia has shown an increasing preference for using Cold Warera political warfare techniques, which are deeply rooted in its doctrine and foreign policies. To date, the U.S. response comprises the conventional military aspects of the Cold Warera deterrence and containment rather than political warfare strategies. Exploring previous U.S. experience in political warfare activitiesunder the broad categories of strategic influence, support to political, social, and counter-government...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Alexander,Nicole M, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA MONTEREY United States,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 21, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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As the champion of the current liberal world order, the United States has institutionalized democracy promotion as a central theme of its foreign policy. The chaotic aftermaths of the Iraq, Afghanistan, and Libya campaigns, however, demonstrate that the unqualified promotion of democracy via military force can work counter to American political and security interests. Furthermore, in a unipolar world, the character of the hegemon and its subsequent actions portend unprecedented implications to...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Sotiriadis,Jacob S, AIR UNIVERSITY,SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIR AND SPACE STUDIES MAXWELL...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 21, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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This study analyzes the evolution of Airpower doctrine from 1920-1962. The key event in 1962 is the presentation of the nuclear war plan, known as the Single Integrated Operational Plan (SIOP), to President Kennedy. The SIOP integrated the various military service plans and created a master plan for the nation in time of nuclear war. However, when the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff briefed President Kennedy on SIOP-62, the president rejected the plan as unusable due to its lack of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Wyrick,David J, AIR UNIVERSITY,SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIR AND SPACE STUDIES MAXWELL AIR...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 21, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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Relations between Russia and NATO have deteriorated dramatically since 2008. Unfortunately, traditional explanations emphasizing historical continuities and power politics are insufficient to understand the current dynamics. A sociological approach to international relations, emphasizing intergroup interaction, offers an alternative perspective and can help us better understand recent trends of Russian behavior toward the West.
Topics: DTIC Archive, Labadie,Anne E, AIR UNIVERSITY,SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIR AND SPACE STUDIES MAXWELL AIR...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 21, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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This study explores the role of ethics in American arms transfer policy to determine whether the Just War traditions jus ad bellum framework can help policymakers through a complex decision-making process. The author analyzes three significant arms transfer cases involving combat aviation assets since 9/11, and identifies the rationale for the approval or denial of each proposed transfer. Next, the author uses the jus ad bellum criteria of competent authority, just cause, right intention,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Arnett,Rob, AIR UNIV MAXWELL AFB AL MAXWELL AFB, ethics, national politics, national...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 21, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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This study tells the story of General John D. Lavelle's dismissal as Commander, Seventh Air Force, during the Vietnam War. Tracing the life and career of General Lavelle prior to outlining the events surrounding his 1972 dismissal, the author then outlines the trajectories of the Lavelle case. The Lavelle affair represented to some a negative example of civil-military relations; to others, it represented a case study in ethical transgressions.
Topics: DTIC Archive, Ellis,Kristina, AIR UNIVERSITY,SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIR AND SPACE STUDIES MAXWELL AIR...
U.S. covert interventions in Iran (1953), Guatemala (1954), and Cuba (1961) represent one path dependent event sequence whereby institutions adopted pathological characteristics that carried the U.S. national security apparatus into the failed invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs. Likewise, the U.S. overt intervention in Iraq (2003) represents a similar institutionally driven event sequence that carried the United States to war with Iraq under dubious justification. Through analyzing systemic...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Thompson,Matthew K, Naval Postgraduate School Monterey United States, national...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 20, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) leaves Iran with residual capabilities that positions it for the rapid development of nuclear weapons should it abandon the deal. This thesis examines how the JCPOA affects Saudi Arabia and what actions the Saudis are likely to take. The Saudi premise of whatever they have, well have in regard to Iran leans toward a Saudi Arabian nuclear hedging strategy, but is it feasible? This thesis proposes a model that explores the interaction of threat,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Holloway,William F, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA MONTEREY United States,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 20, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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The Mongolians have debated a potential declaration of permanent neutrality since September 2015.These debates have contained little or no consideration of the potential effects on Mongolias defense cooperation with foreign military. Mongolia has developed defense cooperation with Russia, China, and other countries in order to enhance military capability and interoperability. The countrys defense cooperation allows Mongolias contribution to global peace and stability activities as a vital...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Dorj,Myagmarjav, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA MONTEREY United States,...
Since 9/11, securing U.S. borders in order to prevent another terrorist attack became priority one for government agencies involved in processing and issuing travel documents as well as inspecting foreign visitors. Reasons for stringent identification and record-keeping of entries/exits of foreign travelers included the broad goals of minimizing homeland vulnerability and increasing national security. However, in the Pacific U.S. territories of Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Partin,Kelly M, ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLLEGE FORT LEAVENWORTH KS FORT...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 17, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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What would be the implications of a major European power leaving the European Union (EU)? Political movements in two of the most influential member states, the United Kingdom and France, have courted an EU withdrawal for decades. In recent years, however, the potential for a withdrawal has increased drastically due to the rise of two populist political partiesBritains United Kingdom Independence Party and Frances National Front. A British or French withdrawal from the EU would have security,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Walsh,William R, Naval Postgraduate School Monterey United States, international...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 17, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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This thesis examines the rationales behind Russian President Vladimir Putins decision to intervene in Ukraine through the lenses of neoclassical realism and prospect theory. The risk-acceptant decision to employ hybrid warfare in Crimea was fundamentally due to Putins loss aversion. Since Putin frames his political decision-making reference point in the realm of losses, his decision sought to prevent the imminent losses of Ukraines Russian-oriented government, Russias influence in Ukraine, and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Thomas,Kevin T, Naval Postgraduate School Monterey United States, national politics,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 17, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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Despite four decades of astonishing economic growth, Chinas authoritarian government remains firmly entrenched in power. This fact challenges modernization theory, which anticipates that as countries become wealthier they will also become more democratic. This thesis proposes that middle-class consumption is a missing variable in the causal chain for democratization in Northeast Asian countries under authoritarian control. The study examines the effects of consumption in a cross-country...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Marmino,Marc E, Naval Postgraduate School Monterey United States, international...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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The proliferation of emerging and disruptive technologies such as additive manufacturing continues unabated. Such trends vastly increase the likelihood of a pernicious non-state actor acquiring weapons of mass destruction in the near future. In addition, these emerging novel threats have proved particularly vexing for the existing U.S. bureaucracies. Absent the major restructuring of the government, significantly higher levels of proactive inter-agency collaboration will be required to...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Lothringer,Derek W, Naval Postgraduate School Monterey United States, WEAPONS OF MASS...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 17, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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Italy boasts the fourth-largest military establishment within the European Union and the sixth-largest in NATO, so Italian national security efforts and collective contributions have trans-European and even global significance. Italy has historically been an avid supporter of European integration, but nationalist movements promoting euroscepticism or isolationism threaten to alter both the Italian and the European security landscape. Three major political parties in Italythe Northern League,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Lindsay,Timothy B, Naval Postgraduate School Monterey United States, foreign...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 17, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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Nations in the Asia-Pacific region are modernizing their naval fleets, and many are choosing to use submarines as the centerpiece of these plans. China, one of the most influential nations in the region, has upgraded its submarine force, and it is important to analyze the impact this modernization effort will have on the stability of the region. India, Japan, and the United States are closely watching the Peoples Liberation Army Navys (PLANs) submarine force to understand better Chinas...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Kiser,David E, Naval Postgraduate School Monterey United States, naval operations,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 17, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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The United States remains the leading economic, diplomatic, and strategic partner of Latin America. However, the hegemonic geopolitical influence the United States once exerted is arguably fading, and Beijing offers an alternative to Washingtons policies that have been encouraged throughout Latin America. Current research indicates a growing Chinese interest in Latin America that has driven tighter economic and organizational involvement in the region. Arguably, this growing relationship has...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Geary,Shaun M, Naval Postgraduate School Monterey United States, foreign policy,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 17, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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Comparing Soviet ties with Cuba and Sandinista-led Nicaragua during the Cold War to Russian ties with Cuba and Nicaragua today, this thesis finds that Russias reengagement with former Soviet allies in Latin America does not portend a return of the Soviet bear to the U.S. periphery. Daniel Ortegaled Nicaragua and the Castro regime in Cuba have indeed again become politically close with Russia and have each developed some security and economic ties with Russia since at least late 2008. Their...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Cox,David M, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA MONTEREY United States, russia,...
Under what conditions do the Association of Southeast Asian Nations members use peaceful means to resolve their maritime disputes? Why do they resort to military action in some cases, and compromise peacefully in others? This thesis answers these questions by investigating two variables that influence the course of such disputes: the presence of natural resources and disputes over sovereign control of maritime features. This thesis examines four cases of maritime dispute resolution: maritime...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Ciptadi,Andromeda W, Naval Postgraduate School Monterey United States, Southeast...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 17, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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Germany in 2016 finds itself in the midst of a political and diplomatic revolution, the meaning of which is unclear for United States policy other than this process constitutes a break with custom and tradition in statecraft. This thesis analyzes the evolution of German foreign policy and security policy since revival of statecraft in 1945 and the changes in policy determinants since 1990. This evolution can be separated into phases beginning with the policy of reconciliation associated with...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Ballard,Joseph T, Naval Postgraduate School Monterey United States, international...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 14, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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Sectarian violence in the Middle East has continued to rise amid regional turmoil and transition. Though violence perpetuated along sectarian identities has occurred at times during the Middle Easts long history, it is not a constant or normal state of events. This thesis explains the rise in contemporary sectarian violence through comparative analysis and literature on Middle Eastern sectarianism and ethnic violence theory. This thesis has identified four primary independent variables as...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Strand,Breanna C, Naval Postgraduate School Monterey United States, SECTARIAN...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 13, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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Throughout history, the Aegean Sea has been a sea of crisis. Today, Turkey and Greecethe two countries surrounding the Aegean Seacontinue to dispute several issues regarding the Aegean. The most significant dispute is over the sovereignty of several islands. This research presents a method to produce an arbitration solution to allocate these disputed islands between the two countries. We identify 39 disputed islands and six important attributes for each island, including perimeter, area,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Salin,Samet A, Naval Postgraduate School Monterey United States, arbitration, turkey,...
In Pakistan, the process of public procurement procedure standardization started in 2002 with the establishment of the Pakistan Public Procurement Regulatory Authority (PPRA), based on the 1994 United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Model Law. PPRA rules allow four types of procurement procedures but limit the ability to conduct financial negotiations. PPRA rules are aimed at implementing a unified procurement regime for federal and provincial organizations to ensure a...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Rafique,Abdul B, Naval Postgraduate School Monterey United States, international...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 13, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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How has China used economic policy to create leverage in its relationships with its Asian neighbors? Through comparative case studies of Chinas political and economic relationship with the Philippines and its political and economic relationship with Cambodia, this thesis supports the notion that China uses cooperative economic policy to entice political support from its poorer, lesser developed neighbors while using coercive economic policy to extract political concessions from its more...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Fiecoat,Jarrod J, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA MONTEREY United States,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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As a conflict management strategy, mediation has offered a way to abate or resolve conflicts, and it is a solid alternative to escalating hostilities. Most academic works analyze mediation by studying the mediators roles and behavior, and such study is facilitated by the use of categories or typologies. This thesis seeks to identify an additional method known as the styles of mediation. Because international mediation has been used in terrorism conflicts, this thesis explores the styles of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Henon,Santiago A, Naval Postgraduate School Monterey United States, international...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 7, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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The comprehensive nuclear accord (Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, or JCPOA), finalized on July 14, 2015, provides Iran broad relief from U.S., U.N., and multilateral sanctions on Irans energy, financial, shipping, automotive, and other sectors. Sanctions were suspended or lifted upon the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) certification on January 16, 2016, that Iran had complied with the stipulated nuclear dismantlement commitments under the agreement (Implementation Day). On...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Katzman,Kenneth, Congressional Research Service Washington United States, Iran,...
Rule of law assistance is an important component of U.S. efforts to build the capacity of foreign partners to support international peace and security. DIILS is DODs lead global resource for providing professional legal education and assistance to foreign military personnel and civilian defense officials on core rule of law issues. Such issues include military justice, anticorruption, and professionalization of the military. In addition, DIILS provides defense institution-building assistance...
Topics: DTIC Archive, U.S. Government Accountability Office Washington United States, foreign relations,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 2, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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This study examines Chinas economic, political, and security roles in the Middle East, focusing on Chinas relations with Saudi Arabia and Iran. The study explores what China is doing in the Middle East and why. Once considered by Beijing as a peripheral and relatively insignificant region of the world, the Middle East now looms much larger in Chinas national security calculus than ever before. Beijings unprecedented interest and involvement in the Middle East raises the question of what is...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Scobell,Andrew, RAND Corporation - Arroyo Center Santa Monica United States,...
Recent analysis of Chinas military modernization effort has focused heavily on the Peoples Liberation Armys (PLA) development of concepts and capabilities to deter or delay foreign forces responding to crises along Chinas periphery. However, China developed these capabilities within the context of broader strategic requirements. This study describes Chinas national and security strategies and its approach to war and escalation control; summarizes its capabilities developments; and reviews its...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Heath,Timothy R, RAND Corporation -National Defense Research Institute Santa Monica...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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The phenomenon of global jihad, a transnational conflict often emerging from intra-state insurgency, highlights a weakness in states' security apparatus that non-state actors have exploited. In this study, I examine insurgencies that widen their objectives from nationalist or regional focus to transnational violent extremism a process of scale shift under conditions of state repression. My study shows that scale shift accelerates when state security forces repress and co-opt nationalist...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Visel,Thomas C, US Army Command and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth United...
Transnational criminal organizations pose a threat to US national security as well as the security of the global commons. Their activities lead to the corruption of government actors, erosion of human security, and the disruption of globalization. Transnational criminal organizations are able to operate with impunity because their actions reside in what is deemed the gray zone; the empty space between peace and war. Unfortunately, state institutions have historically attempted to combat...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Spade,Kyle M, US Army Command and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth United...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 2, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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Carl von Clausewitz contemplates the civil-military relationship when he states, The first supreme, the most far reaching act of judgment that the statesman and commander have to make is to establish by that test the kind of war on which they are embarking; neither mistaking it for, nor trying to turn it into, something that is alien to its nature. This monograph explores civil-military relations and their relevance to theater strategy and operational art within the context of the Korean War....
Topics: DTIC Archive, Smith,Andrew L, US Army School for Advanced Military Studies Fort Leavenworth United...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 2, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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This monograph aims at sharpening the US Army's thinking about Chinese military threats and informing future research efforts that explore contingencies against the People's Liberation Army (PLA) in the land domain. By looking at the interrelated factors of doctrine, personnel quality, force structure, and technological capability, it contributes to a deeper understanding of the PLA and how its ground forces have prepared to fight high-tech wars beyond China's periphery. The pace and extent of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Powell,James S, US Army School for Advanced Military Studies Fort Leavenworth United...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 2, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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Using the structure of the Long Telegram by George Kennan published in 1946, this monograph organizes unclassified and open source information into a contemporary understanding of Russian behavior. The analysis of the sources of Russian behavior provides a better understanding of the threat posed by a contemporary Russia. This monograph does not argue current policy or recommend new policy. The analysis here draws on current events and publications that meet the spirit of the original telegram.
Topics: DTIC Archive, Nash,Amy L, US Army School for Advanced Military Studies Fort Leavenworth United...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 2, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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The current US counter-ISIL strategy from the White House is to degrade and destroy ISIL in Iraq and Syria. This strategy is a military focused strategy that fails to account for the deep complexity involved in the region, of which ISIL is only a part. In effect, only the symptom of a problem is being addressed instead of the getting at the core of the problem. Looking at ISIL through the lens of complexity makes it clear that military intervention should only be part of a much broader, more...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Nacin,Ryan, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, military...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 2, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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This monograph explores the effectiveness of the American occupation of Korea in 1945. In 1945, the United States assigned the XXIV Corps to the occupation of Korea instead of the Tenth Field Army. The tactical nature of the corps' doctrine, structure and leadership were incompatible with the operational nature of the occupation. The XXIV Corps was effectively an independent corps responsible for negotiations with the Soviet occupied north and establishing Korea as an independent nation. By...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Kroells, Ryan R, US Army School for Advanced Military Studies Fort Leavenworth United...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 1, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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The 2007 Merida Initiative marked a major shift in Mexico-US commitment to address transnational organized crime. The organized crime networks view international borders as opportunities, making a profit by operating both as multinational corporations and violent armies. Yet the US-Mexico boundary frustrates law enforcement and military organizations, which suffer from overlapping jurisdictions and competing authorities. This monograph proposes the US-Canada organization of North American...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Bielling, Patti, ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLLEGE FORT LEAVENWORTH KS FORT...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 1, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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This monograph explores how tension between operational artists and policy makers in limited war is resolved. Wars with limited aims frustrate political and military leaders as they try to reconcile different conceptions of political and policy risk and military effort. Doctrine does not ease this frustration. This monograph shows how strategy in limited war emerges from the negotiation between policy makers and operational artists over means. This emergence aligns different views of risk and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Bandi, Matthew W, US Army School for Advanced Military Studies Fort Leavenworth...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 1, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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This report briefly outlines the history of the establishment of the U.S. naval station at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, during the first decade of the twentieth century, its changing relationship to the community around it, and its heightened importance with military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. It also explains in detail the legal status of the lease of the land on which the naval station stands, the statutory and treaty authorities granted to the President with regard to any potential closure...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Elsea,Jennifer K, Congressional Research Service Washington United States, Cuba,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 1, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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The comprehensive nuclear accord (Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, or JCPOA), finalized on July 14, 2015, provides Iran broad relief from U.S., U.N., and multilateral sanctions on Irans energy, financial, shipping, automotive, and other sectors. Sanctions were suspended or lifted upon the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) certification on January 16, 2016, that Iran had complied with the stipulated nuclear dismantlement commitments under the agreement (Implementation Day). On...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Katzman,Kenneth, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS WASHINGTON DC WASHINGTON DC United States, iran,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Feb 1, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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In 1966, Leonard Beaton, a journalist and strategic scholar, published a short book that asked: Must the bomb spread? Mr. Beatons query reflected the profound alarm with which proliferation was viewed shortly after the Cuban Missile Crisis. Today that alarm is all but absent; now, not only is proliferation increasingly viewed as a given (more of a fact than a problem), but some security experts actually see advantages in nuclear weapons spreading or, at least, little harm. Cultivation of this...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Sokolski,Henry D, ARMY WAR COLLEGE CARLISLE BARRACKS PA CARLISLE BARRACKS,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Jan 31, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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In February 2014, the Kremlin-supported government of Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych collapsed. The demise of the regime was brought about by bitter protests that had erupted in Kyivs Maidan Square in late 2013 over the governments decision to reject closer relations with the European Union (EU) and by civil societys reaction to a brutal government response to the Maidan protestors. In the wake of the turmoil of the Maidan, the country saw the emergence of a pro-Western government...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Morelli,Vincent L, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS WASHINGTON DC WASHINGTON DC United States,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Jan 31, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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Congresss and the American publics ability to oversee and understand how intelligence dollars are spent is limited by the secrecy that surrounds the intelligence budget process. Yet, total spending on the Intelligence Community (IC) programs discussed in this report equates to approximately $70 billion dollarsroughly 10% of national defense spending. This report is designed to shed light on the IC budgetin terms of its programs, management, and enduring issuesusing unclassified materials...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Miles,Anne D, Congressional Research Service Washington United States, intelligence...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Jan 26, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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The Army War College Review, a refereed publication of student work, is produced under the purview of the Strategic Studies Institute and the United States Army War College. An electronic quarterly, The AWC Review connects student intellectual work with professionals invested in U.S. national security, Landpower, strategic leadership, global security studies, and the advancement of the profession of arms. TOCs: Laws of Unintended Consequences: The Leahy Laws; The Islamic State: Terrorists or...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Lee,Derrick, ARMY WAR COLLEGE CARLISLE BARRACKS PA CARLISLE BARRACKS United States,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Jan 19, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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Pakistans nuclear arsenal probably consists of approximately 110-130 nuclear warheads, although it could have more. Islamabad is producing fissile material, adding to related production facilities, and deploying additional nuclear weapons and new types of delivery vehicles. Pakistans nuclear arsenal is widely regarded as designed to dissuade India from taking military action against Pakistan, but Islamabads expansion of its nuclear arsenal, development of new types of nuclear weapons, and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Kerr,Paul K, Congressional Research Service Washington United States, NUCLEAR...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Jan 19, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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Libyas political transition has been disrupted by armed non-state groups and threatened by the indecision and infighting of interim leaders. After an armed uprising ended the 40-plus year rule of Muammar al Qadhafi in late 2011, interim authorities proved unable to form a stable government, address pressing security issues, reshape the countrys public finances, or create a viable framework for post-conflict justice and reconciliation. Elections for legislative bodies and a constitutional...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Blanchard,Christopher M, Congressional Research Service Washington United States,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Jan 12, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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The Arctic region has traditionally been trapped by the coverage of seasonal ice, but by 2030 the area is predicted to become a new frontier for humanity. Mankind will undoubtedly bring with it all the varying levels of environmental impacts associated with increased human presence such as shipping, exploration, research, tourism, military patrols, and unfortunately the potential for conflict. So far, climate change, diplomacy, and economic factors have been the major driving factors in shaping...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Zaiko,Michael J, NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIV NORFOLK VA NORFOLK United States, arctic...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Jan 12, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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As far back as the first deployment of the U.S. Navy in 1789 to secure free passage of commercial shipping through the Strait of Gibraltar, the United States has sought the maintenance and expansion of its international commerce as fundamental to its national interests. Today, due to its strong economy, the U.S. enjoys the most influential position in world affairs. However, a strong U.S. economy provides more than a powerful military to protect our national security. The U.S. economy provides...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Joint Forces Staff College Norfolk United States, national security, foreign...
In 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping unveiled a plan for Chinese economic expansion known as the One Road One Belt plan. This modern day silk road would connect the PRC via seaport to the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean in one route, and from Chinas coast through the South China Sea to the South Pacific in the other. This thesis assesses the Chinese One Road One Belt economic plan through the historic imperial experiences of Great Britain in the nineteenth-century, Japan in the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Haley,Jay W, NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIV NORFOLK VA NORFOLK United States, economics,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Jan 11, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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Several U.N. Security Council resolutions required Iran to cooperate fully with the International Atomic Energy Agencys (IAEAs) investigation of its nuclear activities, suspend its uranium enrichment program, suspend its construction of a heavy-water reactor and related projects, and ratify the Additional Protocol to its IAEA safeguards agreement. However, Tehran has implemented various restrictions on, and provided the IAEA with additional information about, its uranium enrichment program and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Kerr,Paul K, Congressional Research Service Washington United States, IRAN, nuclear...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Jan 6, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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The Department of Defense (DOD) estimates that Congress has appropriated $1.6 trillion for war-related operational costs of the DOD since the terror attacks of September 11, 2001. When combined with an estimated $123.2 billion in related State Department and Foreign Operations appropriations, the DOD, Department of State (DOS), and U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) have received an estimated $1.7trillion for activities and operations in support of U.S. response to the 9/11...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Epstein,Susan B, Congressional Research Service Washington United States, contingency...
This report describes how Russia, China, and Iran have used measures short of war to exploit and stretch U.S. strategic thresholds for high-order conventional or nuclear conflict in eastern Europe, east Asia, and the Middle East. Measures short of war include every action and tool at a nation-states disposal that might further the states interests without crossing the threshold into high-order and often-unmanageable interstate war. These range from simple negotiation to assassination to the use...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Connable,Ben, RAND Arroyo Center Santa Monica United States, foreign relations,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Jan 6, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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The Sultanate of Oman has been a strategic ally of the United States since 1980, when it became the first of the Persian Gulf monarchies to formally allow the U.S. military to uses bases there. The facilities access accord represented a long-term Omani shift from reliance on Britain for its security, although Oman continues to maintain close military ties to Britain. Oman has hosted U.S. forces during every U.S. military operation in and around the Gulf since then, and it is a partner in U.S....
Topics: DTIC Archive, Katzman,Kenneth, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS WASHINGTON DC WASHINGTON DC United States,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Jan 6, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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The kingdom of Saudi Arabia, ruled by the Al Saud family since its founding in 1932, wields significant global influence through its administration of the birthplace of the Islamic faith and by virtue of its large oil reserves. Close U.S.-Saudi official relations have survived a series of challenges since the 1940s. In recent years, shared concerns over Sunni Islamist extremist terrorism and Iranian government policies have provided a renewed logic for continued strategic cooperation. Political...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Blanchard,Christopher M, Congressional Research Service Washington United States,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Jan 6, 2020 Defense Technical Information Center
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In February 2014, the Kremlin-supported government of Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych collapsed. The demise of the regime was brought about by bitter protests that had erupted in Kyivs Maidan Square in late 2013 over a decision by the government to reject closer relations with the European Union. What followed the turmoil of early 2014 was the emergence of a pro-Western, pro-reform government and an energized public generally anxious to lessen Moscows influence, committed to addressing...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Morelli,Vincent L, Congressional Research Service Washington United States, UNITED...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Dec 31, 2019 Defense Technical Information Center
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U.S. efforts to build the capacity of foreign partners have a long history. The United States exported arms to allies during World War I, enacted the Lend Lease Act in 1941, and cooperated with security forces around the world to counter the expansion of communism during the Cold War and strengthen democratic principles after communisms collapse. While Department of Defense (DoD) efforts in security cooperation had been evolving to meet a changing postCold War global security environment,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Thaler,David E, RAND National Defense Research Institute Santa Monica United States,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Dec 30, 2019 Defense Technical Information Center
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After having actively conducted Arctic research for many years, China now seeks greater access to and involvement in the Arctic and Arctic affairs. Chinas quest for full membership in the Arctic Council is significant. This study reviews Chinas historical activities in the Arctic and argues that recently intensified Chinese initiatives are driven by two considerations: a search for natural resources and a desire to secure new maritime trade routes. The paper offers recommendations for enhancing...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Miller,Larry D, Army War College Carlisle United States, contingency operations...
The United States has used primacy as its grand strategy for some time now. While this strategy has ensured US hegemony, it has also fiscally drained American power and left the United States with a poor global standing. As such, the United States should rethink its grand strategy in order to maintain its relative position in the twenty-first century. The United States is poised to pivot eastward to meet the demands of China as a rising challenger. The question I raise here is, how viable would...
Topics: DTIC Archive, McClam,Reginald J, School of Advanced Air and Space Studies Maxwell AFB United...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Dec 29, 2019 Defense Technical Information Center
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This report provides background information on Turkey and discusses possible policy questions and considerations for Members of Congress. U.S. relations with Turkeya longtime North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) allyhave evolved over time. Turkeys economic dynamism and geopolitical importance underpin its regional and global influence. Although Turkey still depends on the United States and other NATO allies for political and strategic support, and has close economic links with the European...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Zanotti,Jim, Congressional Research Service Washington United States, UNITED STATES...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Dec 27, 2019 Defense Technical Information Center
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Corruption in Conflict: Lessons from the U.S. Experience in Afghanistan is the first in a series of lessons learned reports planned to be issued by the Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). The report examine show the U.S. governmentprimarily the Departments of Defense, State, Treasury, and Justice, and the U.S. Agency for International Developmentunderstood the risks of corruption in Afghanistan, how the U.S. response to corruption evolved,and the effectiveness of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Sopko,John F, Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR)...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Dec 23, 2019 Defense Technical Information Center
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Libyas political transition has been disrupted by armed non-state groups and threatened by the indecision and infighting of interim leaders. After an armed uprising ended the 40-plus year rule of Muammar al Qadhafi in late 2011, interim authorities proved unable to form a stable government, address pressing security issues, reshape the countrys public finances, or create a viable framework for post-conflict justice and reconciliation. Elections for legislative bodies and a constitutional...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Blanchard,Christopher M, Congressional Research Service Washington United States,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Dec 23, 2019 Defense Technical Information Center
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U.S. sanctionsand U.S. attempts to impose multilateral and international sanctionshave been a significant component of U.S. Iran policy since the 1979 revolution. The objectives of U.S. sanctions have evolved over time. In the 1980s and 1990s, U.S. sanctions were intended to try to compel Iran to cease supporting acts of terrorism and to limit Irans strategic power in the Middle East more generally. Since the mid-2000s, U.S. sanctions have focused on ensuring that Irans nuclear program is for...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Katzman,Kenneth, Congressional Research Service Washington United States, foreign...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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A look into the enduring bilateral alliances the United States utilizes for strategic influence and forward military presence to preserve Asian-Pacific regional stability. Resulting from the 1951 San Francisco Conference, the informal network of alliances formed a U.S. led hub-and-spoke system designed to contain Soviet Imperialism and the spread of Communism. Today, regional states seek to strike a balance between the allure of rising Asian economic markets and strategic mistrust in the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Shelton,Robert A, NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIV NORFOLK VA NORFOLK United States, china,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Dec 23, 2019 Defense Technical Information Center
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Free trade often results in economic gains that exceed the sum of its parts, and in most cases, provides a mutually beneficial outcome to the trading partners. This universally shared interest in economic gain positions the U.S. at a significant advantage internationally in its ability to leverage its domestic markets in order to achieve market access for U.S. businesses in partner nations. The U.S. economic advantage also positions the U.S. to lead negotiations, designing the international...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Kropp,Allysa A, National Defense University, Joint Forces Staff College Norfolk...
This paper examines both current and future Chinese capability for naval power projection compared to that of current U.S. capability and potential in Southeast Asia. Furthermore, it provides recommended courses of action which will support the growing developments in Southeast Asia, and in particular in the critical South China Sea. A critical element of these recommendations is the expansion of U.S. fueling capability. Current fueling sites within the region do not provide an adequate...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Elliott,Chip S, National Defense University Joint Advanced Warfighting School Joint...
From its inception in December 1950, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) has been the bedrock of European security and a strategic foundation of the United States foreign policy to the European region. Following the fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of the Cold War many were quick to argue that NATO had become obsolete. Additionally, these same pundits contend that NATO is out of date with current U.S. foreign policy. However, this thesis asserts that NATO continues to afford the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Counihan,Sean F, National Defense University Joint Advanced Warfighting School...
Chinas meteoric rise has captured the attention of the United States. Adding to the complexity is China has successfully made inroads in Latin America. This reality has strategists and policy-makers at odds with one-another with respect to formulating a policy for addressing the growth of Chinese influence in Latin America. The concern is whether the rise of China and its increasing presence in Latin America signals a challenge to the influence of the United States in the Western Hemisphere....
Topics: DTIC Archive, Barron,Benito J, Joint Advanced Warfighting School Norfolk United States,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Dec 23, 2019 Defense Technical Information Center
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The Defense Business Board is honored to provide our observations and recommendations designed to inform and assist the 2017 Presidential change of administration at the Department of Defense. Our four chapters address distinct issues: Items requiring immediate attention Near-term obstacles that could hamper long-term success Organizing the Department for sustained change Necessities for a successful legacy A good deal of the beginning chapters focus on establishing the elements of a smooth...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Defense Business Board Washington United States, department of defense, military...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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This study examines the counterterrorism and counterinsurgency campaign against al Shabaab in Somalia. It concludes that, while al Shabaab was weakened between 2011 and 2016, the group is by no means defeated and may resurge if urgent steps are not taken to address the political, economic, and governance challenges at the heart of the conflict. In the past year, Somalia has made only halting progress on the political front, the security situation seems to be backsliding, some international...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Jones,Seth G, RAND National Defense Research Institute Santa Monica United States,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Dec 20, 2019 Defense Technical Information Center
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The situation in Northern Uganda has improved since the cessation of violence in 2006 but stability remains tenuous at best, and at the highest level, reconciliation efforts have failed to address underlying issues that contributed to the rise of the Lords Resistance Army (LRA) and its subsequent conflict. While the U.S. State Department is critical of crime rates and assesses the political and security environments as relatively stable, experts interviewed for this study, particularly those...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Pearson,Kristin M, United States Air Force Academy Colorado Springs United States,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Dec 19, 2019 Defense Technical Information Center
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US Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV) logisticians and logistics advisors faced a difficult problem set in transferring operational-level logistics tasks to the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces (RVNAF) after US President Richard Nixon announced his Vietnamization Policy. US logisticians had to sustain combat operations while retrograding US personnel and equipment, transferring materiel to the RVNAF, and handing over logistical tasks. The RVNAF grew rapidly in size and complexity...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Betson,Andrew P, US Army Command and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth United...
Defense Technical Information Archive
Dec 15, 2019 Defense Technical Information Center
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Since Israels founding in 1948, successive U.S. Presidents and many Members of Congress have demonstrated a commitment to Israels security and to close U.S.-Israel cooperation. Perceptions of shared democratic values and religious affinities have contributed to strong bilateral ties. The question of Israels security regularly influences U.S. policy considerations regarding the Middle East, and Congress provides active oversight of executive branch dealings with Israel and other actors in the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Zanotti,Jim, Congressional Research Service Washington United States, Israel,...
During the lame duck session, the 114th Congress is expected to consider various provisions in the annual defense authorization bill that address U.S. security sector cooperation. If enacted, the FY2017 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) could significantly alter the way in which the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) engages and partners with foreign security forces. Policy Debate in Context.Successive U.S. Administrations have emphasized the importance of strengthening foreign military...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Rosen,Liana W, Congressional Research Service Washington United States, national...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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Since 2002, the United States, through programs initiated by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Department of Defense (DOD), has spent approximately $2.8 billion building and maintaining Afghanistans road infrastructure, while working to implement more than $150 million in other road-related programs to improve the Afghan Ministry of Public Works (MOPW) management of road construction and maintenance. The objectives of this audit were to determine the extent to which...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction Arlington United States,...