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Geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) evolved rapidly after the mid-1990s because of advances in technology. Joint doctrine attempted to respond to the advances in technology and the growing power of geographical information system (GIS) tools. However, the doctrine changes did not address the planning requirements for GIS. Planners need guidance of what to specify for the GIS analyst to exploit GEOINT. Exploiting GEOINT supports timely and accurate decision-making across the range of military...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLLEGE FORT LEAVENWORTH KS SCHOOL OF ADVANCED...
Since current diagnostic tools fail to detect breast cancer (BC) metastatic spread at a very early stage, we proposed a new approach for the early detection of metastatic disease in BC patients using cancer cell derived particles known as exosomes as a guide. We hypothesized that exosomes tagged with appropriate radionuclides could be used as molecular imaging probes to study and non-invasively image metastatic spread, and to detect pre-metastatic niches using single-photon emission computed...
Topics: DTIC Archive, CORNELL UNIV MEDICAL COLL (WEILL) NEW YORK, *BREAST CANCER, *CELLS(BIOLOGY),...
Topics: DTIC Archive, WISCONSIN UNIV MADISON, *DIESEL ENGINES, *HEAT TRANSFER, *PISTONS, COMBUSTION,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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This research effort explored the development of active engineered cells that exist as a self-contained electromechanical unit, with sensor/actuator, drive electronics, and battery embedded within a spherical elastomer housing. These building blocks will ultimately enable the creation of articulated structures in a straight-forward molding process: a large number of inexpensive, independently functioning sub-centimeter actuator units ('cells') are cast en masse as aggregate and joined via a...
Topics: DTIC Archive, YALE UNIV NEW HAVEN CT, *ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICES, ACTUATORS, CELLS, ELASTOMERS
The potential to leverage existing and planned efforts to produce intra-seasonal to seasonal and interannual climate predictions, by U.S. national laboratories participating in the National Multi- Model Ensemble (NMME) project and by U.S. Navy research and operational entities, for the purpose of advising and enhancing Navy operations will be exploited. The proposed work will build on a review of the existing and planned efforts at the relevant U.S. Navy centers and will enhance existing...
Topics: DTIC Archive, GEORGE MASON UNIV FAIRFAX VA CENTER FOR OCEAN LAND ATMOSPHERE STUDIES, *CLIMATE,...
On September 14, 2001, Congress passed the 2001 Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF). Over the past 13 years, the AUMF has served as the primary legal foundation for the use of force against terrorist organizations and other counterterrorist operations. Since its passage, threats facing the United States have evolved and new groups have emerged. Yet, Congress has failed to reexamine the statute. This thesis examines whether the AUMF serves as the proper foundation for addressing...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *COUNTERTERRORISM, *MILITARY OPERATIONS,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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This paper analyzes military retirement reform; comparing the current retirement plan, HI-3 adjusted annually by CPI-W, to proposals that change base retirement pay and/or COLA indexing. The proposed changes to base retirement pay are a HI-4 or HI-5 plan and changes to COLA indexing are to use Chained CPI or CPI minus 1 percent. The plans were modeled to estimate the present value from the perspective of the government and retiree. By implementing HI-4 or HI-5 Chained CPI the government can...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *MILITARY PERSONNEL, *RETIREMENT(PERSONNEL),...
This thesis investigates how to design in different levels of autonomy to improve the resilience of an unmanned aerial system (UAS) by applying the Function-specific Level of Autonomy Tool (FLOAAT) developed by NASA. This tool helps to define the levels of autonomy human-operators are comfortable with as well as assists designers in understanding how to design in that level of autonomy. The thesis begins by reviewing past literature about resilience in engineered systems, defining terms...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA DEPT OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, *AUTONOMOUS...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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Module topics: The goal of performance management. What is a performance measure ? What do we measure? Step through of review comments. Motivation: Accountability for performance has become increasingly critical. It is necessary for VA to understand the key drivers behind its performance and demonstrate the value of its work. Results provide information on how VA s current programs and activities are working and how resources can be allocated to optimize effectiveness. Focus on the use of data...
Topics: DTIC Archive, CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIV PITTSBURGH PA SOFTWARE ENGINEERING INST, *ACCOUNTABILITY,...
Marine mammals face potentially dramatic changes in the environment, as well as continued disturbances of their ocean habitat from shipping, sonar, fisheries, oil exploration and other ocean activities. To predict and quantify how marine mammals will respond to natural and anthropogenic stressors, it is essential to understand their physiological limits, the potential plasticity of their diving physiology, and their physiological responses to stress. The typical mammalian startle or stress...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AARHUS UNIV (DENMARK), *EXPOSURE(PHYSIOLOGY), *NOISE(SOUND), *PORPOISES,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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Recently, gigahertz RF performance has been demonstrated in zinc oxide (ZnO) TFT. However, the need arises for sub-micron channel length (Lc) dimensions to extend these results into X-band frequency range of operation. This thesis is a pioneering effort identifying device access materials to be selectively etched to ZnO via plasma-assisted etch (PAE) to avoid processing limitations from traditional optical lithography channel definition methods. A subtractive etch process using CF4/O2 gas...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH GRADUATE SCHOOL OF...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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Plan recognition is the task of predicting an agent's top-level plans based on its observed actions. It is an abductive reasoning task that involves inferring plans that best explain observed actions. Most existing approaches to plan recognition and other abductive reasoning tasks either use first-order logic (or subsets of it) or probabilistic graphical models. While the former cannot handle uncertainty in the data, the latter cannot handle structured representations. To overcome these...
Topics: DTIC Archive, WASHINGTON UNIV SEATTLE OFFICE OF SPONSORED PROGRAMS, *LEARNING MACHINES, ARTIFICIAL...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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As part of an Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase I project, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) evaluated an Environmental Control Unit (ECU) that uses an integrated PCM Heat Exchanger (PHX) to provide thermal energy storage. By storing thermal energy during the hottest part of the day and rejecting this stored energy during the coolest part of the day, the PHX can reduce the power consumption of an ECU by up to 10% over a 24 hour...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ADVANCED COOLING TECHNOLOGIES INC LANCASTER PA, *ENERGY STORAGE, ENERGY, ENERGY...
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During the fourth year of this project, we have made significant progress in several of our proposed tasks. We found that TUSC4 is a potent tumor suppressor gene in breast cancer; its deficiency alone can sufficiently transform normal breast epithelial cells and promote tumor growth in mice. We further demonstrated that mechanistically TUSC4 protects BRCA1 protein from degradation by interfering its binding to Herc2 E3 ligase. In addition, we have validated the in vivo effects of MEK inhibitor,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, M D ANDERSON CANCER CENTER HOUSTON TX, *BREAST CANCER, *NEOPLASMS,...
This is a basic research project designed to understand the role of mechanically sensitive excitatory ion channels (MSC) in the pathology of chronic pain, and the use of a small peptide inhibitor of these channels called GsMTx4 to treatment peripheral pain. The first aim of this project is to understand the mechanism of inhibition of a peptide inhibitor of caution selective mechanosensitive ion channels (MSCs) called GsMTx4 insertion depth in the mutagenisis. In aims 2 and 3 the goals are to...
Topics: DTIC Archive, STATE UNIV OF NEW YORK AT BUFFALO AMHERST, *PAIN, AMINO ACIDS, INFLAMMATION,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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There has been much controversy particularly within professional circles regarding the adequacy of US stabilization and reconstruction (S&R) doctrine over the past decade of its practice most notably in Iraq and Afghanistan. This monograph seeks to answer the question does current S&R doctrine capture the best theory and understanding of practice as offered by the literature? It will use the functions of security, rule of law and private property rights to determine the degree to which...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLLEGE FORT LEAVENWORTH KS SCHOOL OF ADVANCED...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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Comprised of exo- and trans-atmospheric trajectory segments, atmospheric re-entry represents a complex dynamical event which traditionally signals the mission end-of-life for low-Earth orbit spacecraft. Transcending this paradigm, atmospheric re-entry can be employed as a means of operational maneuver whereby aerodynamic forces can be exploited to create an aeroassisted maneuver. Utilizing a notional trans-atmospheric, lifting re-entry vehicle with L/D =6, the first phase of research...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH GRADUATE SCHOOL OF...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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For the past decade, the U.S. Army has been engaged in extended overseas conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. These conflicts tested the technologies the military developed during the preceding Cold War and post Cold War periods in many unanticipated ways. The wartime1 operational pressures revealed gaps in the Army s capabilities, and spurred an urgent drive from both the Army and the Department of Defense (DoD) to fill those gaps with new technology solutions. What followed was a period of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, RAND ARROYO CENTER SANTA MONICA CA, *ACQUISITION, *ARMY OPERATIONS, *COMMAND AND...
Aptitude for successful military service in the enlisted ranks includes the ability to succeed in at least one of many military occupational specialties, career fields, or ratings, and the ability to adapt to and thrive in a military lifestyle of good order and discipline. The Department of Defense screens military applicants for these qualities using the Armed Forces Qualification Test from the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery, physical and moral standards, and educational...
Topics: DTIC Archive, RAND NATIONAL DEFENSE RESEARCH INST SANTA MONICA CA, *APTITUDE TESTS, *ATTRITION,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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As we proposed originally, the major objective of this project was to synthesize novel light-driven chiral molecular motors or switches targeted specifically for the development of large tuning range, passive agile filters as counter-DE materials. Now this project has accomplished all the proposed objectives and beyond. The team led by PI Quan Li has conceptualized the design and synthesis, and characterized many novel functional light-driven chiral molecular motors or switches using the three...
Topics: DTIC Archive, KENT STATE UNIV OH, *OPTICAL MATERIALS, FILTERS, LIQUID CRYSTALS, MOLECULES, MOTORS,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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The United States uses lethal force to kill individuals it believes pose an imminent terrorist threat to its citizens and interests, as well as those of its allies and partners. This lethal force is often, though not always, successful in killing the individuals being targeted. But it can also kill civilians it did not intend to target. In addition to the human tragedy of these unintended deaths, operations that cause civilian casualties reduce the overall effectiveness of the U.S....
Topics: DTIC Archive, CENTER FOR NAVAL ANALYSES ALEXANDRIA VA OPERATIONS AND TACTICS ANALYSIS GROUP,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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Jobbik, an ultra-nationalist party in Hungary, was founded in 2003. By 2010, this party had secured national parliamentary representation and sent three representatives to the European parliament. In its manifesto and public speeches, Jobbik has called for Hungary to leave the European Union and possibly the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and to forge relations with, among other Eastern countries, Russia, China, and Iran. Meanwhile, the group rattles sabers and nerves on Hungary s uneasy...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *COSTS, *EUROPE, *HUNGARY, ECONOMICS, EUROPEAN...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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Following the disputed 2009 Iranian Presidential elections, the Green Movement demonstrated reformist insurgency potential. Capable movement leadership mobilized resistance groups, tempered participant violence, and espoused objectives compatible with strategic US interests. Despite undisputed constitutional authority, Supreme Leader Khamenei and the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps' vicious response to protests highlighted systemic weaknesses vulnerable to non-violent political struggle....
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLLEGE FORT LEAVENWORTH KS, *GOVERNMENT(FOREIGN),...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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The objective of this work is to identify areas in which it may be efficient to substitute some civilian personnel for military, provide rough estimates of potential savings, and consider impediments to substitution. There has been pressure to cut civilian staff in DoD, some of it incorporated into legislation. DoD policy states that inherently governmental functions that are not military essential should be carried out by the most efficient performer. DoD's instruction on full costing of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES ALEXANDRIA VA, *PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, CIVILIAN...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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Develop and experimentally confirm robust self-adaptive algorithms for coherent communications between a source and a towed array at very long ranges in deep water. Experimentally confirm that robust coherent acoustic communication is feasible between a source and receiving array at speed and depth at long ranges in deep water with separations as long as 2000 km.
Topics: DTIC Archive, SCRIPPS INSTITUTION OF OCEANOGRAPHY LA JOLLA CA MARINE PHYSICAL LAB, *ACOUSTIC...
The Department of Defense (DOD) spends an enormous amount of money on maintenance. For fiscal year 2011, the DOD spent almost $80 billion. Of this amount, the Navy spent almost $5.5 billion on ship depot maintenance. Going forward, the amount of money available for all DOD activities is expected to be reduced because of budgetary pressures. Unlike the budget, the need for deployed units and the maintenance to keep them operating is increasing. Given this challenge, the Navy needs to find ways...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *COST REDUCTION, *LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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Conscription is a centuries-old manpower procurement policy that continues to be used by many countries today; however, in the last few decades, the trend is for developed countries to transition toward all-volunteer forces. Reasons to implement conscription include the presence of a clear military threat and authoritarian intentions, among others, but many nations have since reduced or abolished conscription as they shift toward stable, democratic late-modern prosperity. Singapore adopted...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA CENTER FOR CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS, *MILITARY...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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There is a need to have secure information sharing in the industry and government sectors. For example, countries within the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) often have a common goal requiring them to communicate, but they lack a technological platform for fast information sharing, especially if the countries have different access rights to the information. Thus, the same information that an organization wants to share with multiple partners needs to be securely shared at multiple...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *CLOUD COMPUTING, *INFORMATION EXCHANGE,...
From United States Air Force (USAF) doctrine, Air Force Instruction 1-1 lists three purposes for the USAF Enlisted Evaluation System. The first purpose is to provide feedback to individuals on how well they are meeting expectations. The second purpose is to provide a cumulative record of performance and potential based on observations. The third purpose is to identify the best qualified personnel. However, current Air Force leadership has expressed a need to revamp the enlisted appraisal...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH GRADUATE SCHOOL OF...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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Given the recent worldwide political developments of nations, Armenia's future involvement in peacekeeping and multinational operations requires constant analysis of the events, facts, processes, and plans of the key actors in the region. The research includes how Armenia, as a small country, should take advantage of unique national capabilities and prioritize the resources for integration in multinational formations in accordance with existing geopolitical situation and planning...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLLEGE FORT LEAVENWORTH KS, *JOINT MILITARY...
The long-term goal of this work is to develop techniques for tracking marine mammal sounds in range and depth from a single mooring or platform (e.g. glider), by exploiting the propagation effects of the deep-water sound speed channel. Most listening platforms currently use a single hydrophone to detect events, making no effort at localization. For beaked whales (which have a limited detection range of about 5-7 km), detection may be sufficient to determine whether an animal is close to...
Topics: DTIC Archive, CALIFORNIA UNIV REGENTS LA JOLLA CA SCRIPPS INST OF OCEANOGRAPHY, *CETACEA,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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We have developed novel, effective, robust algorithms that were subjected to mathematically rigorous analyses and extensive computational testing for uncertainty quantification problems of several types that involve high a high number of random variables as inputs to complex systems described by partial differential equations. The approaches developed result in superior means for science-based risk assessment and policy decision making, for simulating fluid flows and structures and other...
Topics: DTIC Archive, FLORIDA STATE UNIV TALLAHASSEE, *PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, STOCHASTIC...
The purpose of this project is to study the immunomodulatory effect of Listeria on human dendritic cells (DCs) to optimize Listeria-based DC cancer vaccines. The project aims are: 1) Compare the activation and maturation of different human DC subsets in response to Listeria infection. 2) Define the induction of CD4+/CD8+ T-cell and NK cell responses to Listeria-activated DCs presenting a melanoma tumor-associated antigen. 3) Augment the immunogenicity of Listeria-activated DCs by inhibiting the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, SLOAN-KETTERING INST FOR CANCER RESEARCH NEW YORK, *CELLS(BIOLOGY), *LISTERIA,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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Magnesium alloys are of interest due to their potential for significant light-weighting in both vehicle and personnel related applications. In this report, a relatively new alloy obtained from Japan was evaluated for its mechanical and electromechanical properties. Although the alloy displayed promising mechanical properties, the corrosion resistance of the alloy was found to fall well below that of other magnesium alloys recently evaluated at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory/Weapons and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD WEAPONS AND MATERIALS RESEARCH...
The intention of this thesis is to explore the factors that led to the success of two Latin American revolutions in Cuba (1959) and the Sandinista Revolution in Nicaragua (1979). While insurgent movements have proliferated in Latin America since the Spanish conquest, these are the only two that, in the post-World War II era, have taken power by overthrowing the incumbent regimes by force of arms. Understanding the most prominent factors that led to the success of these revolutions will aid in...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *CUBA, *INTERNATIONAL POLITICS, *INTERNATIONAL...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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The current study will identify D-methionine (D-met) dose and delayed time otoprotective response from steady state and impulse noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The second year was dedicated to determining the latest time D-met may be administered for efficient protection. Groups of Chinchillas laniger (n = 10) received five intraperitoneal D-met (200 mg/kg/dose) every 12 hours beginning 7, 9, 12, 18, 34, 36, or 48 hours after steady state or impulse. D-met otoprotection was assessed by...
Topics: DTIC Archive, SOUTHERN ILLINOIS UNIV SCHOOL OF MEDICINE SPRINGFIELD, *HEARING, *NOISE, AUDITORY...
Operation Torch, invasion of North Africa, was the United States military's first major offensive campaign in the European Theater during World War II. It demonstrated the consequences of an Army marginalizing logistics. The operation included an amphibious assault, followed by a ground attack to seize Tunisia. Three factors limited its success. By marginalizing logisticians, leaders failed to achieve unity of effort in conducting operations. The negative bias towards logisticians influenced...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLLEGE FORT LEAVENWORTH KS SCHOOL OF ADVANCED...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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Current 802.11 networks do not typically achieve the maximum potential throughput despite link adaptation and cross-layer optimization techniques designed to alleviate many causes of packet loss. A primary contributing factor is the difficulty in distinguishing between various causes of packet loss, including collisions caused by high network use, co-channel interference from neighboring networks, and errors due to poor channel conditions. In current 802.11 networks, there are two adaptations...
Topics: DTIC Archive, CALIFORNIA UNIV BERKELEY DEPT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCES,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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There is no effective imaging tool currently available for prostate cancer detection; needle biopsy is the current practice for diagnosis of the disease, aiming randomly in the prostate. Transrectal ultrasound has been used as a guiding tool to direct tissue needle biopsy for prostate cancer diagnosis; it cannot be utilized for detecting prostate cancer due to lack of sensitivity. Recent studies show that the combination of light and ultrasound may lead to a new imaging device that can be used...
Topics: DTIC Archive, TEXAS UNIV AT ARLINGTON, *DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), *FLUORESCENCE, *PROSTATE CANCER,...
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by Defense Technical Information Center
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Through various environments a factor influencing AP chemical activity is the propensity of coarse AP to produce porosity formation within its crystals. Porosity formation in coarse AP seems similar although at differing rates due to pressure and temperature influences in both isolated crystals and solid propellant combustions. Consolidated coarse AP crystals appear to be chemically unstable so that pure consolidated crystals cannot be made. Natural and accumulated trace impurities are...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB EDWARDS AFB CA ROCKET PROPULSION DIV, *AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE,...
There exists a gap within the Psychological Operations (PSYOP) Regiment's ability to implement consistent engagement of Foreign Internal Defense (FID) initiatives in order to identify long-term strategic partnerships, establishment of global inform and influence networks, and enhancement of Security Cooperation (SC). A consistent model of FID operations would assist United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) with continuity of overt PSYOP conducted during peacetime, contingencies, or...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLLEGE FORT LEAVENWORTH KS, *JOINT MILITARY...
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by Defense Technical Information Center
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The purpose of this research is to identify underlying unity in optimization methods, and to use the resulting insights to combine methods so as to exploit complementary strengths. In particular, we propose strategies for the integration of mathematical programming, constraint programming, dynamic programming, and heuristic methods. We report achievements in seven specific approaches to unification: high-level modeling, finite-domain cuts, bounds from decision diagrams, primal heuristics from...
Topics: DTIC Archive, CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIV PITTSBURGH PA, *OPTIMIZATION, INTEGRATION, MATHEMATICAL...
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by Defense Technical Information Center
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The Arctic Ocean is currently undergoing dramatic changes, including reductions in the extent and thickness of the ice cover and extensive warming of the intermediate layers. The multiyear ice is melting. Ice keels are getting smaller. With more open water, the internal wave energy level and therefore acoustic volume scattering are likely increasing, at least during summer. What was learned about acoustic propagation and ambient noise in the Arctic during the Cold War is now obsolete. The...
Topics: DTIC Archive, SCRIPPS INSTITUTION OF OCEANOGRAPHY LA JOLLA CA, *ACOUSTIC WINDOWS, AMBIENT NOISE,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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Current prostate cancer (PCa) management calls for identifying novel and more effective therapeutic approaches. Self-renewing prostate tumor-initiating cells (TICs) hold intrinsic therapy-resistance and account for tumor relapse and progression. BMI-1 (Bcell- specific MMLV insertion site-1) regulates stem cell self-renewal, thus, impairing BMI-1 function for TICs-tailored therapies appears to be a promising approach. During the first year of this award, we developed a combined immunophenotypic...
Topics: DTIC Archive, RUTGERS - THE STATE UNIV NEW BRUNSWICK NJ, *NEOPLASMS, *PROSTATE CANCER, *STEM CELLS,...
Industry Day: Aerospace Systems Technical Research Operations Services (ASTROS). Vision: Obtain affordable and responsive buildup/modification of rocket test stands and facility operations for demonstrating next generation rocket propulsion technologies. Early Industry Involvement, Encourage competition and Feedback from industry.
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB EDWARDS AFB CA AEROSPACE SYSTEMS DIRECTORATE, *AEROSPACE...
The purpose of this thesis is to explore whether a correlation exists between winning the Marshall Award and continued success in the Army, as well as, the likelihood of incentives increasing officers' academic performance in Command and General Staff Officers' Course (CGSOC). The research plan used a qualitative approach that included oral history interviews with Marshall Award Recipients from 2001-2011 as well as surveying CGSOC classes 14-01 and 14-02. Six evaluation criteria derived from...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLLEGE FORT LEAVENWORTH KS, *CORRELATION,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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Toxicity is a major impediment to effective radiation therapy of locally advanced prostate cancer. Work under this award focuses on the potential of a novel class of pharmacological radiation protectors to reduce normal tissue toxicity of radiation therapy. During the second year of this award we focused on a particular compound (RTA 408) that had emerged as a robust and selective radiation protector of normal tissues. Importantly, this compound also showed anti-tumor activity against four...
Topics: DTIC Archive, THOMAS JEFFERSON UNIV PHILADELPHIA PA, *DRUGS, *PROSTATE CANCER, *RADIOTHERAPY,...
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This project is a study of engineering 2d heterostructures to mimic the structure of bulk high temperature cuprate superconductors. Since these consist of CuO2 planes separated by charge reservoir layers, we attempt to use pulsed-laser deposition to generate alternating Sr and CuO2 planes. We succeeded in creating structures of charge-neutral SrO and CuO layers, which exhibited a relatively high-Tc superconductive transition. Additionally, investigation of the structure of these films shows...
Topics: DTIC Archive, TWENTE UNIV ENSCHEDE (NETHERLANDS), *SUPERCONDUCTORS, HIGH TEMPERATURE, HYBRID...
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by Defense Technical Information Center
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This research includes an investigation of the mechanisms of diffraction and reinitiation that enable a detonation diffuser. It describes a set of geometric parameters necessary to design a diffuser for a given detonable mixture and initial channel height. Predetonators with channel height less than the critical height are ineffective because detonations in small channels decouple into separate shock and combustion fronts when the channel height increases. A detonation diffuser allows the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH GRADUATE SCHOOL OF...
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by Defense Technical Information Center
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This work is motivated by the desire to improve the understanding of processes governing the evolution of the marginal ice zone that forms seasonally in the southern Beaufort and Chukchi Seas region.
Topics: DTIC Archive, COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LAB HANOVER NH, *MARGINAL ICE ZONES, *SEASONAL...
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by Defense Technical Information Center
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The long term goal of the project is to gain a significant improvement in our ability to understand, and model, the processes by which ocean waves, generated in the increasing expanses of open water which surround the shrinking Arctic ice cover, interact with the surviving ice cover and modify its properties.
Topics: DTIC Archive, CAMBRIDGE POLAR CONSULTANTS LTD (UNITED KINGDOM), *MARGINAL ICE ZONES, *OCEAN WAVES,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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In this study, the magnetic and magneto-optic properties of -conjugated polymers were investigated. This research was initiated by the observation of extremely strong Faraday rotation in films of pristine highly regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophene)s and subsequently a ferromagnetic hysteretic behavior at low temperature ( 20K) in these polymers. Concomitantly nanoscopic doughnut structures (diameter 12 nm) were observed in such thin films spin coated from a poor solvent (toluene). Interestingly...
Topics: DTIC Archive, KATHOLIEKE UNIV LEUVEN (BELGIUM) DEPT OF CHEMISTRY, *MAGNETIC PROPERTIES, MAGNETIC...
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Due to aerodynamic instabilities, stable flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. We investigated how flies control body roll angle, which is unstable and their most sensitive degree of freedom. We glued a magnet to each fly and applied a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air. Fast video shows flies correct perturbations up to 100 degrees within 30ms by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear PI controller. For more aggressive...
Topics: DTIC Archive, CORNELL UNIV ITHACA NY, *WINGED INSECTS, CONTROL, FLIGHT, ROLL
Defense Technical Information Archive
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This report presents an optical hardware platform that is applicable to sensor systems utilizing a 1-dimensional (1-D) linear array. A basic goal in creating this apparatus is to provide a system that can simultaneously acquire, record, and analyze optical linear array data. The details of, and interactions between, the major hardware components, including the optical linear array, memory device, and microcontroller, are presented in detail along with ancillary subsystems that support and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD WEAPONS AND MATERIALS RESEARCH...
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The goal of this project is to develop the capability to quantify both the concentration of sea spray over the open ocean and the severity of sea spray icing on fixed offshore structures. We will use information on the relationship of the spray concentration distribution to wind speed (e.g., Lewis and Schwarz 2004; Andreas et al. 2010; Jones and Andreas 2012) to estimate the sea spray climatology in ice-free northern oceans from reanalysis data and the time-varying extent of the sea ice cover....
Topics: DTIC Archive, COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LAB HANOVER NH, *FREEZING, *OFFSHORE...
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In this paper, we study a simple iterative method for finding the Dantzig selector, which was designed for linear regression problems. The method consists of two main stages. The first stage is to approximate the Dantzig selector through a fixed-point formulation of solutions to the Dantzig selector problem. The second stage is to construct a new estimator by regressing data onto the support of the approximated Dantzig selector. We compare our method to an alternating direction method, and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB ROME NY INFORMATION DIRECTORATE, *LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS,...
The purpose of this Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) is to demonstrate application of three popular and readily available shoreline change models employing the one-line approach (GenCade, Unibest CL+, and Litpack). This CHETN is the final report in a two-part desktop study to compare oneline shoreline change models. Thomas and Frey (2013), the first report in this series, documented the differences and similarities in the most popular and available shoreline change...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS VICKSBURG MS ENGINEER RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER,...
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In this study a series of three-dimensional unsteady reacting flow simulations are used to investigate the effect of swirl on the instability amplitude of a single-element gas-gas rocket combustor. The baseline combustor of interest is unstable because of a fuel cut-off event caused by the high-pressure waves in the combustor. Previous two-dimensional simulations have shown that swirl reduces the amplitude of the pressure oscillations compared with that of the baseline configuration. The...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB EDWARDS AFB CA ROCKET PROPULSION DIV, *UNSTEADY FLOW,...
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Analysts at USTRANSCOM are tasked with providing vehicle mixtures that will support the distribution of requirements as provided in the form of TPFDD. An integer programming model exists to search for optimal solutions to these problems, but it is fairly time consuming, and produces only one of potentially several good quality solutions. This research constructs a number of heuristic approaches to solving the TDP. Two distinct shipping methods are examined and applied through both constructive...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH GRADUATE SCHOOL OF...
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This investigation aims to determine how ground to ground L-Band signals propagated in the Woomera region behave, as well as which propagation model best represents measured results. The results were split into two scenarios depending on the variables tested. The two scenarios were analysed separately due to their differences in equipment setup. For each scenario the best fitting model was determined and then the two scenarios would be compared based on model performance. Overall, the Advanced...
Topics: DTIC Archive, DEFENCE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANISATION EDINBURGH (AUSTRALIA) CYBER AND...
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We carried out both fundamental and developmental research on a novel DBR-free membrane reflector based VCSELs (MR-VCSELs), with the demonstration of 1550 nm lasing operation at room temperature. The laser consists of an InGaAsP QW based heterostructure, sandwiched in between two single-layer photonic crystal Fano resonance silicon nanomembrane reflectors. Detailed theoretical and experimental work has been carried out towards high performance single layer broadband membrane reflector...
Topics: DTIC Archive, TEXAS UNIV AT ARLINGTON, *REFLECTORS, *VERTICAL CAVITY SURFACE EMITTING LASERS,...
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This project focused on radio frequency (RF) metamaterials (MTM) structures using two different methods: wet etching copper (Cu) on insulating glass reinforced epoxy resin (FR4) and silver nano-particle ink printed SRR meta-atoms on photo paper (Ag on paper). Once the MTMs were fabricated, RF properties were measured using a 0-4 GHz stripline and the 2-18 GHz broad antenna near-field test and measurement range two dimensional focus beam system. Through electromagnetic (EM) material property...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH GRADUATE SCHOOL OF...
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Naval aviation accounts for 54% of all naval fuel usage. With such a large footprint, even small reductions in fuel consumption can have a significant impact on the bottom line. Recognizing this fact, the Chief of Naval Operations has targeted naval aviation to achieve a 4% reduction in non-mission fuel burn without adversely affecting mission execution or safety. In this thesis, we model ground operations at Naval Air Station (NAS) Oceana and NAS Lemoore to identify and reduce the time an...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *FUEL BURN UP, *FUEL CONSUMPTION, *NAVAL...
As our project was suspended since the fifth quarter due to insufficient funds in this second year, here we will report our findings during the fifth quarter. Nonetheless, we still have some potable outcomes to report toward the end of this report. We have now understood better about the slight disagreements or inconsistencies between CISSCO results and phase values inside straws. The problem is due to interactions between particles (or molecules) and water. From the past literature, this is...
Topics: DTIC Archive, WAYNE STATE UNIV DETROIT MI, *BRAIN, *IRON, *MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, BEADS,...
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Growth of lithium tetraborate by the hydrothermal method was attempted in 10-6 M LiOH, both by spontaneous nucleation and transport growth. Tetraborate grew out of the first spontaneous nucleation reaction, while the seed dissolved and lithium gamma-metaborate formed during the transport growth reactions. A species thermodynamic stability study showed gamma-metaborate formed exclusively from 350 deg C to 550 deg C, and Li3B5O8(OH)2 was observed at 250 deg C; tetraborate was not observed. A...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH GRADUATE SCHOOL OF...
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This program achieved fundamental understanding of radiation damage mechanisms in 3 important emerging electronic materials: complex oxides, graphene, and diamond. Our work used advanced materials probes to understand the basic mechanisms of radiation interaction with these three electronic and photonic materials. This work included examination of device- ready (e.g. FETS, optical modulators, spintronics) and thin-film forms. Radiation sources at Brookhaven National Lab., Univ. of Albany, and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, TRUSTEES OF COLUMBIA UNIV NEW YORK, *RADIATION DOSAGE, *THIN FILMS, DAMAGE, DIAMONDS,...
In this study, the subsurface storage and transport of a Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) was studied using a numerical model. Recent studies have found evidence that cracks can exist in low permeability layers within aquifers, and that a significant mass of DNAPL can be stored within those cracks. In this research, we simulate the effect of DNAPL in the low permeability cracks on contaminant plume evolution and persistence. A key parameter governing fate is the rate of DNAPL dissolution....
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH GRADUATE SCHOOL OF...
While specifically focusing on trophic interactions affecting habitat utilization and foraging patterns of California sea lions (CSL) in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME), the long-term goal of our modeling approach is to better understand and characterize biological hotspots (i.e., the aggregation of multiple marine organisms over multiple trophic levels) off the U.S. west coast and in other regions where similar fully-coupled ecosystem models may be implemented. As such,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, CALIFORNIA UNIV SANTA CRUZ INST OF MARINE SCIENCES, *ECOSYSTEMS, *HABITATS, *OCEAN...
After the political regime in the former Yugoslavia collapsed at the beginning of the 1990s, followed by the ethnic civil wars in Bosnia and Kosovo, the Balkans turned into an arena for the spread of Islamic fundamentalism and terrorism. As a result, the region has posed a potential threat within Europe's borders and beyond. In 2012, Bulgaria became the target of a terrorist attack. Although the attack was directed against Israeli interests, the event revealed a breach in Bulgaria's national...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *COUNTERTERRORISM, BULGARIA, EASTERN EUROPE,...
The 9/11 Commission recommended that the federal government set standards for the issuance of identification documents. Insecure identification documents are used to engage in fraud against individuals, government institutions, and businesses, and they have been used to facilitate terrorism. The federal government has led by enacting the REAL ID Act in 2005, which set issuance standards for driver s licenses and state identification documents. Nine years later, only 21 of the 56 states and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA CENTER FOR HOMELAND DEFENSE AND SECURITY,...
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This project is to perform translational research tasks needed to prepare an intracortical visual prosthesis (ICVP) for testing in a human. No human trial testing of the prosthesis will occur under the funded work. Preparatory tasks include final maturation of the implantable hardware, pre FDA IDE testing of the ICVP in non-human primates, reliability and biocompatibility testing, development of a human testing protocol, development of a human volunteer selection and assessment protocol,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ILLINOIS INST OF TECH CHICAGO, *FEASIBILITY STUDIES, *PROSTHETICS,...
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Mechanical properties of nanoscale free-standing polymer thin films exhibit size-dependence due to surface effects. However, it has remained a challenge to associate the length scales where such differences emerge with bulk polymer properties. Here we utilize molecular dynamics simulations to uncover the dependence of elastic modulus of freestanding films on film thickness and bulk properties. Comparison of glass transition temperature (Tg) and modulus (E) indicates that Tg converges to bulk...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NORTHWESTERN UNIV EVANSTON IL, *MODULUS OF ELASTICITY, *MOLECULAR DYNAMICS, *THIN...
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For our participation in CDS task of TREC, our first objective was to obtain efficient biomedical document retrieval. We focused on fusing manual and machine feedback runs. Fusion run performs better and gives consistent results for considered evaluation metrics. Also, the categories 'diagnosis' and 'treatment' are giving good results compared to 'test'.
Topics: DTIC Archive, DHIRUBHAI AMBANI INST OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY GANDHINAGAR...
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In this paper, we describe a large-scale (over 4000 participants) observational field study at a public venue, designed to explore how social a robot needs to be for people to engage with it. In this study we examined a prediction of Computers Are Social Actors (CASA) framework: the more machines present human-like characteristics in a consistent manner, the more likely they are to invoke a social response. Our humanoid robot's behavior varied in the amount of social cues, from no active social...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC, *HUMANS, *INFORMATION EXCHANGE, *ROBOTS, *SOCIAL...
Knowing the terrain is vital for small autonomous robots traversing unstructured outdoor environments. We present a technique using 3D laser point clouds combined with RGB camera images to classify terrain into four pre-defined classes grass, sand, concrete, and metal. Our technique first segments the point cloud into distinct regions and then applies a simple classifier to determine the classification of each region. We demonstrate three classification and four segmentation algorithms on five...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC, *IMAGES, *REFLECTANCE, *ROBOTS, *TERRAIN,...