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Acute diarrhea remains a major public health problem in East African nations such as Kenya. Surveillance for a broad range of enteric pathogens is necessary to accurately predict the frequency of pathogens and potential changes in antibiotic resistance patterns. Stool samples were collected from September 2009 to September 2011; 193 and 239 samples, from age-matched cases and asymptomatic controls, were collected, respectively, from Kericho and Kisumu District Hospitals in western Kenya....
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH UNIT-KENYA APO NEW YORK 09675, *ENTEROPATHOGENS, ANTIBIOTICS,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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The AP Campaign Annual Report provides findings and recommendations related to the status of the Army Profession after a yearlong campaign of dialogue and assessment. It is based on feedback from members of the Army Profession through various mediums. This report assesses the status of the Profession after a decade of persistent conflict and provides recommendations to strengthen the Army Profession. This report also provides a baseline assessment of the Army Profession to be used in subsequent...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY CENTER FOR THE ARMY PROFESSION AND ETHIC WEST POINT NY, *ARMY PERSONNEL, ARMY,...
The goal of this proposal is to determine whether cell fusion between tumor cells and hematopoietic cells is the precipitating event for breast cancer metastasis and whether viral fusion proteins enable or catalyze this event. If successful, this discovery would dramatically change our approach to breast cancer therapy in the following specific ways. To date we have completed a significant portion of the tasks delineated in Aim 1. First we have optimized protocols for the separation of myeloid...
Topics: DTIC Archive, WISCONSIN UNIV MADISON, *BREAST CANCER, *CELLS(BIOLOGY), *HEMATOPOIETIC CELLS,...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) to U.S. soldiers has become one of the most taxing consequences of IED attacks in OEF/OIF. This project has focused on investigations of traumatic injury to the brain caused by the primary effects of blast waves. The project combines clinical, experimental and modeling studies aimed at: (i) elucidating the cell and tissue-level mechanisms of injury produced by the effect of the blast wave, (ii) deriving associated blast injury criteria (metrics and thresholds),...
Topics: DTIC Archive, MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE, *TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURIES, ARMY PERSONNEL,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE DEPT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, *DESTROYERS,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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We proposed to define the quantitative relationship between inherited risk of developing mammary cancer and the number of MaSC under basal and hormone stimulated states in two well characterized inbred rat strains: 1) ACI, which is highly susceptible to 17 -estradiol (E2)-induced/progesterone (P)-dependent mammary cancer; and 2) Brown Norway (BN), which is highly resistant. Major findings: ACI and BN rats likely exhibit significant differences in MaSC number and/or responsiveness to hormone....
Topics: DTIC Archive, WISCONSIN UNIV MADISON, *BREAST CANCER, *CELLS(BIOLOGY), *STEM CELLS,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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The Social Impact Module (SIM) is a discrete event simulation developed and implemented using Java SimKit Libraries. Fiscal year 2012 guidance from the Director of the Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) Analysis Center (TRAC) stated that SIM would be transitioned from TRAC-Monterey (MTRY) to TRAC-White Sands Missile Range (WSMR). The transition occurred over a series of milestones than began with defining requirements and ended with the delivery of three software versions. TRAC-WSMR, the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY TRADOC ANALYSIS CENTER MONTEREY CA, *COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION, *WAR GAMES,...
We have been testing the hypothesis that relatively implicit measures of cognitive processing (eye movements, pupillary dilation monitoring, and the N400 component of event-related potentials) will prove sensitive to receptive vocabulary knowledge, even in the absence of more traditional behavioral responses. We have sought to first demonstrate the use of these measures in three populations in whom behavioral responses are expected to be reliable: normal adults, normally developing children,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV BALTIMORE MD, *MENTAL DISORDERS, ADULTS, BEHAVIOR, CHILDREN,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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We present a novel scheme for monitoring the transition between deflagration and detonation-like behavior of small-scale explosive samples subjected to shock stimuli. The intended geometry for this setup incorporates a laser-driven-flyer impact technique to generate a pure mechanical input. However, we report results here using a simplified geometry for purposes of evaluating the time-of-flight mass spectrometric (TOFMS) diagnostics using direct laser ablation of solid aluminum and of an...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB EGLIN AFB FL MUNITIONS DIRECTORATE/ORDNANCE DIVISION/ENERGETIC...
To be validated as a joint urgent operational need, a requirement must be joint in nature and, importantly, if not addressed immediately will seriously endanger personnel or pose a major threat to ongoing operations. DOD has taken a number of steps to provide urgently needed capabilities to the warfighter more quickly and to alleviate the challenges associated with the traditional acquisition process for acquiring capabilities. The Office of the Secretary of Defense established JRAC in 2004 to...
Topics: DTIC Archive, GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE WASHINGTON DC, *ACQUISITION, *JOINT MILITARY...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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This thesis examines individual resistance to change and concludes that it is a constantly evolving process with many contributing factors. Defining resistance to change is a challenge within its own right. To account for the actions involved in change resistance is an even more complex undertaking. In this research, resistance to change is examined and explained using the influences of goals, participation, leadership effectiveness, and communication. These factors are expressed as the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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In this report mathematical models (2-D Azimuth and Elevation Planes) for multi-party engagement kinematics are derived suitable for developing, implementing and testing modern missile guidance systems. The models developed here are suitable for both conventional and more advanced optimal intelligent guidance schemes including those that arise out of the differential game theory. These models accommodate changes in vehicle body attitude and other non-linear effects such as limits on lateral...
Topics: DTIC Archive, DEFENCE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANISATION EDINBURGH (AUSTRALIA) WEAPONS SYSTEMS...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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Current lithium batteries operate on inorganic insertion compounds to power a diverse range of applications, but recently there is a surging demand to develop environmentally friendly green electrode materials. To develop sustainable and eco-friendly lithium ion batteries, we report reversible lithium ion storage properties of a naturally occurring and abundant organic compound purpurin, which is non-toxic and derived from the plant madder. The carbonyl/hydroxyl groups present in purpurin...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY RESEARCH LAB ADELPHI MD, *LITHIUM BATTERIES, *ORGANIC COMPOUNDS,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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The incidence of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) has risen significantly in the last 20 years. There is currently a critical unmet need for noninvasive biomarkers that can confidently predict the biological behavior of renal tumors in order to improve their accurate diagnosis and rational selection of treatment options. The goal of this pre-clinical study is to identify clinically translatable hyperpolarized 13C markers of RCC aggressiveness using established cell lines. In this work, we compared...
Topics: DTIC Archive, CALIFORNIA UNIV SAN FRANCISCO, *CANCER, BEHAVIOR, CELLS(BIOLOGY), ENZYMES,...
This paper suggests an approach for how the Department of Defense (DoD) might execute deep reductions in the defense budget, deep enough that stated defense strategy could not be fully resourced. The cuts examined go beyond the $487 billion announced in January 2012 by Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta. The authors do not argue for or against further reductions. They posit that the ongoing pressure to reduce the federal budget deficit may mandate further reductions in the DoD budget. In this...
Topics: DTIC Archive, RAND NATIONAL DEFENSE RESEARCH INST SANTA MONICA CA, *DEFENSE SYSTEMS, *MILITARY...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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Dissemination and metastasis of tumor cells are major causes of morbidity and mortality in breast cancer patients. Therefore it is of vital importance to identify druggable targets to inhibit breast tumor invasion and metastasis. A critical component in the invasive growth, dissemination, and metastasis of cancer is acquisition of motility by tumor cells. Our preliminary studies suggest a novel role for the thromboxane A2 receptor (TP) in controlling breast tumor cell motility via regulating...
Topics: DTIC Archive, SOUTHERN ILLINOIS UNIV SPRINGFIELD, *BREAST CANCER, *METASTASIS, *RECEPTOR...
Electromagnetic Vulnerability (EMV) testing of ground vehicles and helicopters is (by necessity) performed in the immediate presence of ground surfaces (natural earth, asphalt, concrete, ship decks, and other finitely conducting grounds). The impact of the nature of these grounds on the EM coupling to the various vehicles being tested is the focus of this work. As one approach to addressing these issues quantitatively, personnel at Redstone Test Center Electromagnetic Environmental Erects...
Topics: DTIC Archive, REDSTONE TEST CENTER REDSTONE ARSENAL AL, *ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION, ACOUSTIC...
We report a highly efficient cryo-cooled eye-safe laser operation of a resonantly-pumped (in-band) Er3+:GdVO4 single crystal. The maximum continuous wave (CW) power of 10.3 W with 84% slope efficiency was achieved at 1598.7 with pumping at 1538.6 nm by a spectrally-narrowed Er-fiber laser. Under the 1529 nm resonant pumping by a commercially available diode bar stack operating in a quasi-CW (QCW) mode, the laser delivered 37 W of output power with 68% slope efficiency. This is believed to be...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY RESEARCH LAB ADELPHI MD, *SOLID STATE LASERS, ERBIUM, REPRINTS, SPECTROSCOPY
Leadership has been a defining hallmark of the US space effort since the beginning of the Space Age. From John F. Kennedy s bold challenge to put a man on the moon by the end of the 1960s, to our military s unprecedented use of space-based capabilities, to the evolution of the global positioning system (GPS) as a free global utility, the United States has aspired to and attained a leadership position in space, deriving significant benefits across the spectrum of scientific, military,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, STRATEGIC COMMAND OFFUTT AFB NE, *NATIONAL SECURITY, LEADERSHIP, SPACE BASED,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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The way in which DoD identifies needs and subsequently develops, tests, procures, and sustains weapon systems has evolved over time. Today's acquisition foundation can be traced back to the Packard Commission report in 1986, where many of this report's recommendations became part of the Goldwater-Nichols DoD Reorganization Act of 1986. This evolution continued along three tracks: (1) Requirements moving from threat-based to capability-based, (2) The resource allocation system adding execution...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE CENTER DAHLGREN DIV VA, *DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, *DIRECTED...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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We introduce a rigorous mathematical theory for the analysis of local histograms, and study how they interact with textures that can be modeled as occlusions of simpler components. We first show how local histograms can be computed as a system of convolutions and discuss some basic local histogram properties. We then introduce a probabilistic, occlusion-based model for textures and formally demonstrate that local histogram transforms are natural tools for analyzing the textures produced by our...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH GRADUATE SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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A difficulty in complexity theory is lack of a clear definition for complexity, particularly one that is measurable. Those approaches that provide measurable definitions for the absolute complexity of a system often impose the requirement of perfect or near-perfect knowledge of system structure. In practice, it is intractable or impossible to measure the complexity of most dynamic systems. However, by measuring behavioral complexity in context with environmental scenarios, it is possible to set...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH, *COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE, ADAPTIVE...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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The combination of the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) coronal model, ENLIL heliospherical model version 2.7, and Coned Model version 1.3 (WSA-ENLIL with Coned Model) was employed to form ensemble forecasts for 15 halo coronal mass ejections (CME's). The input parameter distributions were formed from 100 sets of CME cone parameters derived from the Coned Model. The Coned Model employed image processing along with the bootstrap approach to automatically calculate cone parameter distributions from...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH GRADUATE SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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Keystroke dynamics technology to distinguish people based on their typing rhythms could revolutionize insider-threat detection. Insiders accessing backdoors, using shared accounts, or masquerading as other users would be exposed by their unique typing rhythms. In the past thirty years, dozens of classifiers have been proposed for distinguishing people using keystroke dynamics many have obtained excellent results in evaluation. However, when evaluations are replicated, the results are often...
Topics: DTIC Archive, CARNEGIE INST OF TECH PITTSBURGH PA DEPT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE, *DETECTORS, *DYNAMICS,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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We investigated a variety of computation techniques to help speed up visibility, based on the premise that recent sampling techniques, traditionally used in 2D graphics computations, may now allow efficient computations in 3D as well. We assert that a key challenge in efficiently computing visibility is efficiently accessing geometric data to query it for possible occlusions. Our research aims to speed computation by optimizing access to geometry that will be queried simultaneously, using voxel...
Topics: DTIC Archive, IOWA UNIV IOWA CITY, *COMPUTER GRAPHICS, ALGORITHMS, COMPUTATIONS, COMPUTER SCIENCE,...
As is the case with all military services, the U.S. Air Force (USAF) is under pressure to reduce the costs of its logistics operations while simultaneously improving their performance. In FY 2008, 43% of the total Air Force budget went to purchases of goods and services -- including all weapon system support costs, base operating support, military housing and construction -- from the private sector. Thus, any efforts to generate significant savings must target purchases from the private sector....
Topics: DTIC Archive, RAND PROJECT AIR FORCE SANTA MONICA CA, *AIR FORCE PROCUREMENT, *CONTRACTORS, *COST...
An efficient full-field method of computing the local and homogenized macroscopic responses of elasto-plastic polycrystalline microstructures based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm is presented. This approach takes realistic microstructure images as the input and estimates the mechanical response/properties of polycrystal microstructures under periodic boundary conditions without requiring complex discretization. Effective stress-strain response, local mechanical response fields...
Topics: DTIC Archive, SIBLEY SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENGINEERING ITHACA NY, *ELASTOPLASTICITY,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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It is well known that unique world-wide studies of ionospheric behavior have been made possible with GPS dual-frequency receivers that are designed to measure total electron content and to detect ionospheric irregularities. Unfortunately, the ionosphere over Africa has remained a mystery due to the sparse distribution of ionospheric sensors over this vast continent. Particularly, satellite observations have shown significant differences in the morphology of ionospheric irregularities over the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ABDUS SALAM INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR THEORETICAL PHYSICS TRIESTE (ITALY), *EQUATORIAL...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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The 9/11 Commission Report identifies three strategic objectives decapitation, deradicalization, and hardening homeland security as key to disrupting, dismantling, and ultimately defeating the al-Qaeda terrorist enterprise. Though the first and third have been notably successful, the second objective has been relatively less so. Approaches to counter-radicalization that rely on so-called counterideological or counternarrative approaches miss their mark: they presume ending al-Qaeda s reign of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY WAR COLL STRATEGIC STUDIES INST CARLISLE BARRACKS PA, *COUNTERTERRORISM,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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Personnel of the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory (GSL), Engineering Systems and Materials Division (ESMD), Concrete and Materials Branch (CMB), Vicksburg, Mississippi, were asked to examine the mechanical properties and microstructure characteristics of a commercially available steel cylindrical shell in its as-manufactured condition. To examine the mechanical properties, uniaxial tensile experiments were performed on ASTM...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ENGINEER RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER VICKSBURG MS GEOTECHNICAL AND STRUCTURES...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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The goals of this study were to identify the impact of hazardous chemicals on macrophages, determine how the macrophages respond to these chemicals, and use these signatures to develop novel detection technologies. As a model for this system we selected toxic industrial chemicals and used mouse macrophages as the target cell type.
Topics: DTIC Archive, OKLAHOMA UNIV OKLAHOMA CITY, *CHEMICALS, *HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, *MACROPHAGES,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) has spent more than $80 billion since its initiation in 2002 and plans to spend $44 billion more by 2016 to develop, produce, and field a complex integrated system of land-, sea-, and space-based sensors, interceptors, and battle management, known as the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS). Since 2002, National Defense Authorization Acts have mandated that GAO prepare annual assessments of MDA's ongoing cost, schedule, testing, and performance progress. This...
Topics: DTIC Archive, GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE WASHINGTON DC, *BALLISTIC MISSILE INTERCEPT SYSTEMS,...
A III-Nitride/silicon carbide (SiC) separate absorption and multiplication avalanche photodiode (SAM-APD) offers a novel approach for fabricating high gain photodetectors with tunable absorption over a wide spectrum from the visible to deep ultraviolet. However, unlike conventional heterojunction SAM-APDs, the formation of a polarization-induced charge at the heterointerface arising from spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization can dramatically affect the performance of this detector. In this...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY RESEARCH LAB ADELPHI MD SENSORS AND ELECTRON DEVICES DIRECTORATE, *AVALANCHE...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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In this chapter we describe the dynamic response of nonlinear phononic structures, focusing on granular crystals as the most prominent example. The chapter begins with a brief history of nonlinear lattices and with an introduction to granular crystals. It describes past and recent work on one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) granular crystals, categorized according to the crystals' periodicity and dynamical regime. It concludes with an overview of other nonlinear phononic systems and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, CALIFORNIA INST OF TECH PASADENA DIV OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED SCIENCE, *DYNAMIC...
We initiated this audit because of a DoD Hotline complaint made in 2009 concerning the Defense Contract Management Agencys (DCMA's) actions following the discovery of nonconforming cables used in avionics systems produced by Northrop Grumman's Navigation Systems Division (NSD). We reviewed the hotline complaint and evaluated DCMA's actions taken to address the nonconforming cables. We also reviewed DCMA's current policies and procedures on investigating and controlling nonconforming cables for...
Topics: DTIC Archive, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ALEXANDRIA VA OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL, *AVIONICS,...
Riverside Research Institute, located in New York City, is a nonprofit organization engaged in scientific and engineering research. Substantially all revenue is derived from contracts with United States Government agencies. The Institute expended $69 million in Federal awards for the fiscal year ended November 30, 2009, under one Federal program, the research and development (R&D) cluster. Of the $69 million, $30.1 million was expended for Department of Defense programs. Raich Ende Malter...
Topics: DTIC Archive, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ALEXANDRIA VA OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL, *AUDITING,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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We determined whether costs on contractor invoices for services performed for DoD were accurate, allowable, and allocable. In addition, we determined whether U.S. Army Medical Research Acquisition Activity (USAMRAA) officials and TRICARE Management Activity (TMA) officials adequately tracked funding on one task order. We reviewed 251 invoices, totaling $32.9 million, on 3 task orders, valued at $64 million. The contractor for the three task orders invoiced costs that were generally accurate,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ALEXANDRIA VA OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL, *ACCOUNTING,...
Retrofitting the existing building stock represents the largest and fastest way to reduce energy consumption for the DoD. However the current retrofit delivery process is manually intensive and expensive, focused on equipment selection for initial cost and not energy performance, and the design tools are not amenable to systems solutions that have the potential for substantially reducing energy consumption in buildings. Systems methodology and tools are necessary to deliver deep retrofits, i.e....
Topics: DTIC Archive, UNITED TECHNOLOGIES RESEARCH CENTER EAST HARTFORD CT, *BUILDINGS, EFFICIENCY, ENERGY...
To introduce controlled random inclusion of nanometer-sized nonsuperconducting particulates in YBa2Cu3O7-x films for flux pinning enhancement, a special pulsed-laser-ablation YBa2Cu3O7-x target with a Y2BaCuO5 sector was made and the films were deposited on LaAlO3 substrates. Initial results showed that the films consist of 10-20 nm-sized precipitates. In a 0.5 micron thick film, a transport critical current density (Jc) 3 MA/sq cm at 77 K in self-field was measured. Magnetization Jc at 77 and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH PROPULSION DIR/POWER DIV/MECHANICAL...
The purpose of this research is to lessen the potential human errors by using decision analysis and cost analysis techniques. This research uses Value- Focused Thinking in conjunction with Multi-Objective Decision Analysis and Cost Analysis. It creates a decision-making model that allows decision makers to interact with analysts by specifying his/her objectives, values and preferences. On the other hand, cost analysis process determines cost effective alternatives. Alternatives are scored using...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH GRADUATE SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND...
Our mission is to provide independent, relevant, and timely oversight of the Department of Defense that: Supports the Warfighter; Promotes accountability, integrity, and efficiency; Advises the Secretary of Defense and Congress; and Informs the Public.
Topics: DTIC Archive, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ALEXANDRIA VA OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL, *ACCOUNTABILITY,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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The federal government faces an increasingly crowded spectrum environment. This presentation introduces the objectives of training ranges and the unique challenges faced by the managers and operators of the spectrum dependent systems that use them. DoD programs currently under development may hold the key to an improved outlook.
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE CENTER CORONA DIV NORCO CA, *MANAGEMENT, *MILITARY TRAINING,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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The Northwest Manufacturing lnititaive, through its partner organizations, has conducted research into Northwest defense industrial base capability gaps, primarily through manufacturing workforce assessment and targeted training, including Lean Manufacturing, Leadership and Supervisory Training, and Project Management, resulting in increased and retained sales and job creation. A database to optimize manufacturing buyer/supplier connections, called the NW Connectory, was also developed. In...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC INITIATIVES INC SPRINGFIELD OR, *DEFENSE INDUSTRY, *JOB...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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This project aims to understand the fluctuations in low frequency (100 Hz, for example) acoustical propagation in the ocean over long distances (50 km to thousands of km.), as well as other effects of internal waves and other small-scale variability in the speed of sound. The objective is to model results of recent low-frequency, deep-water acoustic-propagation experiments, constraining the model environment from the measurements of those environments. Phenomena such as intensity fluctuations,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, WASHINGTON UNIV SEATTLE APPLIED PHYSICS LAB, *INTERNAL WAVES, *UNDERWATER ACOUSTICS,...
The Purpose of the proposal titled Characterization and Application of a Large Animal Model of Penetrating Ballistic Brain Injury (PBBI) is to develop a large animal model with military relevance. Of military casualties with moderate to severe traumatic brain injuries (TBI) 15-18% are due to penetrating mechanisms. Almost all (97%) of prospective clinical trials of TBI exclude patients with PBBI and no prospective clinical trials specifically focus on PBBI. A large animal model of PBBI will...
Topics: DTIC Archive, TEXAS UNIV HEALTH SCIENCE CENTER AT HOUSTON, *ANIMALS, *BRAIN, *DAMAGE, *WOUNDS AND...
Dredging of Corps navigation projects results in millions of cubic yards of sediment displaced each year. Many options for placement of the material exist, including Beneficial Use through creation of islands or wetlands, upland and offshore placement, direct beach placement, and nearshore placement. In recent years, the Corps' project-centric focus has changed toward a more systematic approach that considers the sediment to be a valuable resource as part of the regional littoral system. The...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS VICKSBURG MS ENGINEER RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER,...
This report documents the idea or concept of operating an existing Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) gyroscopic sensor previously developed in the early-2000s under MEMS-Based Angular Rate Sensor (MBARS) and MicroControlled Array Sensors (mCAS). This report serves as documented evidence for future use of this open-sourced idea of the measurement of two-axis of linear acceleration from a previous sensor originally designed to operate as a single-axis rotation...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY AVIATION AND MISSILE RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT AND ENG CTR REDSTONE ARSENAL AL...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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Non-medical use and abuse of prescription opioids is a growing problem in both the civilian and military communities. Current technologies for detecting hydrocodone use are limited. Standard drug screens do not detect hydrocodone. In order to detect the use of hydrocodone and prescription opioids for non therapeutic purposes, it is vital to establish the excretion profile of these drugs. Currently there is no data available describing blood, urine and oral fluid profiles following...
Topics: DTIC Archive, GENEVA FOUNDATION LAKEWOOD WA, *DRUG ABUSE, *PROTEOMICS, BLOOD, METABOLITES, ORAL...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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The United States Air Force has several high-volume biological air samplers, including the XMX/2L-MIL and the Biocapture 650. Limited information is available on either in terms of its collection of viruses and bacteria. However, previous research on the XMX/2L-MIL has determined that modifications to the secondary flow rate and the use of a virus preserving collection media may provide improved virus collection rates. In this thesis, these modifications were investigated to determine their...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH GRADUATE SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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Plasma channels are useful as guiding structures for high intensity electromagnetic radiation. A finite radius plasma channel ceases to act as a guiding structure if the f-number of the focusing used to couple radiation into the channel is too small. Expressions are derived for the critical f-number needed to achieve guiding in a finite radius plasma channel. This is done using both a ray tracing analysis, and an eigenmode expansion technique.
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC BEAM PHYSICS BRANCH, *PLASMAS(PHYSICS), CHANNELS,...
This thesis evaluates U.S. Marine Corps Air Traffic Control (MATC) military occupational specialties (MOSs) to determine methods of reducing personnel attrition from the MATC Basic Course and revocation from operational forces. The author analyzes Marine Corps personnel data obtained from the Total Force Data Warehouse and Headquarters Marine Corps. The range of the data analyzed covers a period from fiscal years 1999 through 2008, including 965 MATC Marines. Multivariate regression models are...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS, *ATTRITION, *MARINE...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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This research develops a methodology and software assessment tool to implement selected methods and principles of multicriteria analysis and risk analysis for selecting among energy security investments and strategies. The approach enables decision makers to address a broad and varying range of emergent conditions in the energy environment including mission criticality, regulatory and market forces, disruption of service, grid failure, infrastructure deterioration, and others. With a set of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, VIRGINIA UNIV CHARLOTTESVILLE OFFICE OF SPONSORED PROGRAMS, *ENERGY MANAGEMENT,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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In 1962, the United States set off a megaton nuclear weapon 250 miles above the Pacific. The blast caused a large imbalance of electrons in the upper atmosphere that interacted with the Earth's magnetic field to create oscillating electric fields over a large area of the Pacific. These fields were strong enough to damage electronics in Hawaii, a thousand miles away, and clearly demonstrated the effects of an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). It didn't take long for the military to begin considering...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE CENTER CARDEROCK DIV BETHESDA MD, *DIRECTED ENERGY WEAPONS,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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The benefits of high data rates, high directionality, low sidelobes, small size, light weight, and low power of laser communications (lasercom) as compared to radio frequency (RF) communications make laser an attractive option for ship-to-ship communications. The realization of the option requires ship-to-ship lasercom system design and mission planning, which, in turn, necessitates a lasercom link budget analysis and a parametric analysis of lasercom system design and operational parameters....
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *LASER COMMUNICATIONS, *SHIP TO SHIP,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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This proposal seeks to generate sABs (synthetic antigen binders) against the PRLr (prolactin receptor)signaling complex to systematically inhibit and modulate its important activities in breast cancer. This complex has clearly been demonstrated to play a significant role in development and spread of this disease, and yet the generation of pharmacologic agents that can specifically block their function has been slow. We hypothesize that sABs can be generated to the PRLr, CypA, and CypB proteins...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NORTHWESTERN UNIV EVANSTON IL, *ANTIBODIES, *ANTIGENS, *BREAST CANCER, CHEMICAL...
The tragic loss of 343 firefighters on 9/11 monumentally illustrates that firefighters now stand on the front line in the war against terrorism. The ramifications of 9/11 forced fire service leaders to incorporate newly recognized strategies of terrorism management and mitigation into traditional firefighting roles. Blue-collared manual laborers are no longer the archetype of modern firefighters. Instead, firefighters now command with an expanded leadership role within society and the desire to...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA DEPT OF NATIONAL SECURITY AFFAIRS, *CULTURE,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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As the United States continues to conduct successful military operations in Afghanistan and Pakistan to target and disrupt Al Qaida's ability to recruit, train, and plan future attacks, terrorist organizations continue to spread in ungoverned areas of the world. Since the 1991 civil war that tore Somalia apart, no central government has been successful in reestablishing rule of law in that country. Today, Somalia is a failed state that offers a safe haven for terrorist groups such as Al...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA, *CONFLICT, *CRIMINALS, *GOVERNMENT(FOREIGN),...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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The United States remains the preeminent global power of the 21st century, however, it faces significant challenges, including emerging transnational threats, an unsustainable national economy, and declining ideological influence. Overcoming these challenges will require a fundamental reexamination of American culture and specific policy action by strategic leaders to accomplish the following: (1) restore individual resilience, (2) repair a dysfunctional political culture, and (3) leverage a...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA, *CULTURE, *DEFICIENCIES, *FOREIGN POLICY, *PUBLIC...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that PTEN null prostate cancer cells and tumors will exhibit increased radiosensitivity to inhibition of the DNA repair enzyme, PARP, compared to wild-type PTENexpressing cells and tumors, resulting in increased efficacy of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The specific objectives of this study were to (1) determine the effect of PARP inhibition on the cellular response to ionizing radiation or docetaxel in DU145 PTEN wild-type vs. PC-3...
Topics: DTIC Archive, THOMAS JEFFERSON UNIV PHILADELPHIA PA, *CELLS(BIOLOGY), *DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACIDS,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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The recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have strained the limits of DoD's organic and externally sourced capabilities with literally tens of billions of dollars of required contracts and hundreds of thousands of private sector personnel contracted to support the war effort. Not surprisingly, DoD's extensive reliance on contractors resulted in contractors performing inherently governmental (IG) functions or activities that closely support IG functions, including the oversight and management of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA, *CONTRACTORS, *DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, *MANPOWER...
Over the years, the Department of Defense (DOD) has initiated several efforts intended to improve its financial management operations and ultimately achieve an unqualified (clean) opinion on its financial statements. These efforts have fallen short of sustained improvement in financial management and financial statement auditability. In this statement, GAO provides its assessment of DOD s progress toward: (1) producing an auditable Statement of Budgetary Resources (SBR) by fiscal year 2014 and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE WASHINGTON DC, *AUDITING, *FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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Rapid computer usage growth and Internet expansion along with growth in big data and analytics Desire for computing application solution that is: Cost-effective Able to meet consumer needs, especially adaptability and availability Reliable Secure
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB ROME NY INFORMATION DIRECTORATE, *CLOUD COMPUTING, CONSUMERS,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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The United States has been at war for over 10 years since that fateful day of September 11, 2001. Despite the surge in American patriotism and resultant overwhelming admiration for the military during these 10 years, a dangerous gap between American society and its military has grown. In the history of the United States no major war has ever been fought with a smaller percentage of its citizens. Has the civilian-military gap developed to the point in America that we now have two distinct...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA, *ALL VOLUNTEER, *CIVILIAN POPULATION, *COMMUNITY...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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On June 16, 2009, United States President Barack Obama and Republic of Korea President Lee Myung-Bak issued a Joint Vision Statement for the Alliance of the United States and the Republic of Korea. The joint statement laid out a shared vision for the Korean Peninsula and the Northeast Asia region to meet the challenges and opportunities of the 21st Century. The four main objectives are centered on the future of Korea, setting the stage for peaceful reunification, elimination of North Korea's...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA, *CHINA, *COOPERATION, *FOREIGN POLICY, *POLITICAL...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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Understanding how lasers interact with media during propagation is a premiere field of physics. The subject area known as laser bioeffects explores laser interactions with biological cells, tissues, organs, and bodies. This research includes laser applications used in medicine, establishes safe exposure limits for industry and academia, and generally studies the many effects of laser light on living creatures. The bioeffects community relies heavily on deterministic modeling and simulation...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH GRADUATE SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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Army Sustainment is the Department of the Army's official professional bulletin on sustainment. Its mission is to publish timely, authoritative information on Army and Defense sustainment plans, programs, policies, operations, procedures, and doctrine for the benefit of all sustainment personnel. Its purpose is to provide a forum for the exchange of information and expression of original, creative, innovative thought on sustainment functions.
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY LOGISTICS UNIV FORT LEE VA, *LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT, ARMY EQUIPMENT, LOGISTICS...
The effects of a large dose of human serum butyrylcholinesterase (HuBChe) were evaluated in rhesus monkeys using a serial-probe recognition (SPR) task designed to assess attention and short-term memory.
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH INST OF CHEMICAL DEFENSE ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD, *BLOOD...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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The National Guard Bureau faces an extraordinarily complex environment. Recent changes include the appointment of the Chief of the National Guard Bureau to the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the new defense strategy, the continued evolution of the Profession of Arms, and the development of Joint Force 2020. Therefore, the ARNG directorate leadership must adopt a unique, focused leadership development program for the Title 10 (T10) Active Guard Reserve (AGR) officers that creates a bench of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA, *ARMY, *JOINT MILITARY ACTIVITIES, *LEADERSHIP...
Various studies in both military and nonmilitary samples have identified intelligence as a correlate of psychological outcomes. Higher intelligence scores are protective against the development of psychological disorders and may also protect against brain injury-related cognitive decline. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between preinjury intelligence and mental health outcomes among combat veterans with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Military personnel injured in...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER SAN DIEGO CA, *TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURIES, APTITUDE TESTS,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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The purpose of this report is to explore previous models of Escalation of Force (EOF) and provide a revised model based on pre-decisional cognitive factors that influence Soldiers' decisions prior to engagement in escalation procedures. Previous models were largely reactive, assuming that Soldiers? ability to make decisions was constant across situations (e.g., regardless of cognitive workload or other operational conditions). The proposed pre-decisional space model takes a cognitive-perceptual...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY RESEARCH INST FOR THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES FORT BELVOIR VA, *ARMY...
A study was conducted to identify/verify weather factors important to the conduct of aviation activities and that would be important to consider in systems intended to operate within the NextGen environment. The study reviewed weather-information systems available for General Aviation aircraft at that time. The report presents a listing of recognized aviation weather hazards followed by rankings, by General Aviation pilots, of weather data elements associated with these hazards. This is...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARIZONA STATE UNIV EAST MESA AZ, *COCKPITS, *WEATHER, AIR TRANSPORTATION, GENERAL...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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Swarms of flying robotic insects could revolutionize hazardous environment exploration, search and rescue missions, and military applications. Reducing size to insect scale enables entrance into extremely narrow spaces with inherent stealth advantages. For mass production, these vehicles must have reliable and repeatable fabrication processes that define flapping wing mechanisms with microscale features and produce large flapping amplitudes at frequencies in the range of many insects. This...
Topics: DTIC Archive, PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIV STATE COLLEGE, *OCEAN CURRENTS*DRONES, L *VORTICESACTUATORS,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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There was a steady increase in average flake size in the years following the initial isolation of monolayer grapheme in 2004, but even by 2008, flakes rarely exceeded 1000 sq microns. As part of the research for this grant, carefully analyzed the factors that affect flake size, including: graphite source (natural, HOPG, Kish), type of adhesive tape, number of cleaves, substrate material and roughness, substrate cleaning (sonication, piranha etch, oxygen plasma, etc.) and temperature. They found...
Topics: DTIC Archive, GRAPHENE INDUSTRIES LTD MANCHESTER (UNITED KINGDOM) MANCHESTER CENTER OF MESOSCIENCE...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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As hardware vendors push for higher levels of concurrency in multicore and manycore chips, the HPC software running on that hardware must increasingly utilize sophisticated models of parallelization, including interprocess message passing via MPI or SHMEM, intraprocess data sharing via threading models such as pthreads and OpenMP, and combinations of the two approaches. With this increase it is important for tools supporting HPC research activities to include support for all available models of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, CALIFORNIA UNIV BERKELEY DEPT OF COMPUTER SCIENCES, *COMPUTER PROGRAMS, *DATA...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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From 1945-1950, the United States Army transitioned from a conventional force designed for maneuver warfare in Europe to a role, which supported the Air Force in their delivery of nuclear weapons. This secondary role emerged from strategic studies conducted by the National Security Council in response to President Truman's desire to focus military efforts against the communist East without bankrupting the nation. From this study, the National Security Council determined Communism as a threat to...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS SCHOOL OF ADVANCED MILITARY...