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The Bell System Technical Journal (1922-1983)

The scientific discoveries and technological innovations produced by Bell System research and engineering were critical not only to the evolution of global telecommunications but, more widely, they had a considerable impact on the technological base of the global economy and, indeed, on our daily lives.



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Bell System Technical Journal, 8: 3. July 1929 pp 435-465. Magnetic Alloys of Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt. (Elmen, G.W.)
Topics: alloys, magnetic, permeability, alloy, permalloy, hysteresis, cobalt, cent, annealed,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 3. July 1948 pp 379-423. A Mathematical Theory of Communication. (Shannon, C.E.)
Topics: log, probability, channel, entropy, source, probabilities, sequences, symbols, discrete, sequence,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 48: 5. May-June 1969 pp 1249-1292. The Chirp z-Transform Algorithm and Its Application. (Rabiner, Lawrence R.; Schafer, Ronald W. ; Rader, Charles M.)
Topics: fourier, transform, chirp, discrete, algorithm, samples, frequency, contour, fast, magnitude,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 6. July-August 1978 pp 1899-1904. UNIX Time-Sharing System: Forward. (McIlroy, M.D.; Pinson, E.N.; Tague, B.A.)
Topics: unix, system, operating, programs, bell, programming, software, tools, language, program, operating...
Bell System Technical Journal, 24: 1. January 1945 pp 46-156. Mathematical Analysis of Random Noise . (Rice, S.O.)
Topics: noise, probability, random, function, sin, journal, spectrum, frequency, density, band, random...
Bell System Technical Journal, 28: 1. January 1949 pp 59-98. The Synthesis of Two Terminal Switching Circuits. (Shannon, Claude E.)
Topics: functions, variables, function, theorem, switching, network, elements, circuits, circuit,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 39: 4 July 1960 pp 745-808. The Theory and Design of Chirp Radars (Klauder, J.R.; Price, A.C.; Darlington, S.; Albersheim, W.J.)
Topics: signal, chirp, pulse, frequency, network, weighting, amplitude, radars, output, linear, system...
Bell System Technical Journal, 3: 2. April 1924 pp 324-346. Certain Factors Affecting Telegraph Speed. (Nyquist, H.)
Topics: wave, current, signal, rectangular, telegraph, voltage, frequency, codes, morse, sine, technical...
Bell System Technical Journal, 23: 3. July 1944 pp 282-332. Mathematical Analysis of Random Noise. (Rice, S.O.)
Topics: random, noise, probability, function, average, theorem, spectrum, interval, density, mathematical,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 3. July 1948 pp 446-472. Spectra of Quantized Signals. (Bennett, W.R.)
Topics: signal, frequency, quantizing, quantized, signals, band, distortion, sampling, input, spectra,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 7: 3. July 1928 pp 535-563. Transmission of Information. (Hartley, R.V.L.)
Topics: transmission, selections, symbols, wave, steady, transmitted, system, frequency, technical journal,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 34: 5. September 1955 pp 1045-1079. A Method for Synthesizing Sequential Circuits. (Mealy, George H.)
Topics: circuit, circuits, input, method, table, rule, combination, sequential, equivalence, synthesis,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 18: 3. July 1939 pp 502-537. The Dielectric Properties of Insulating Materials, III Alternating andDirect Current Conductivity. (Murphy, E.J.; Morgan, S.O.)
Topics: conductivity, dielectric, polarization, frequency, constant, current, anomalous, ion, dispersion,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 4 October 1948 pp 623-656. A Mathematical Theory of Communication (Shannon, C.E.)
Topics: entropy, log, ensemble, probability, functions, power, noise, theorem, function, continuous,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 28: 3. July 1949 pp 435-489. The Theory of p-n Junctions in Semiconductors and p-n Junction Transistors. (Shockley, W.)
Topics: current, holes, transition, diffusion, equation, potential, recombination, hole, electron,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 4: 4. October 1925 pp 685-761. Electric Circuit Theory and the Operational Calculus. (Carson, John R.)
Topics: operational, solution, equation, equations, heaviside, circuit, series, integral, theorem,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 45: 10. December 1966 pp 1797-1827. Avalanche Region of IMPATT Diodes. (Gummel, H.K.; Scharfetter, D.L.)
Topics: current, frequency, avalanche, drift, diodes, electron, diode, density, region, exp, electric...
Bell System Technical Journal, 20: 4. October 1941 pp 415-433. The History of Electrical Resonance. (Blanchard, Julian)
Topics: resonance, electrical, patent, circuit, spark, leyden, condenser, alternating, discharge, current,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 47: 6. July-August 1968 pp 957-1000. A Statistical Theory of Mobile-Radio Reception. (Clarke, R.H.)
Topics: mobile, antenna, spectrum, frequency, signal, random, autocovariance, function, equation,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 4: 1. January 1925 pp 15-25. The Limitation of the Gain of Two-Way Telephone Repeaters by Impedance Irregularities. (Crisson, George)
Topics: repeater, impedance, wave, amplifier, irregularities, gain, irregularity, repeaters, frequency,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 33: 3. May 1954 pp 579-659. Topics in Guided-Wave Propagation Through Gyromagnetic Media: Part I - The Completely Filled Cylindrical Guide. (Suhl, H.; Walker, L.R.)
Topics: curves, propagation, curve, mode, gyromagnetic, equations, modes, solution, magnetic, media,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 43: 6. November 1964 pp 3009-3057. Prolate Spheroidal Wave Functions, Fourier Analysis and Uncertainty - IV: Extensions to Many Dimensions; Generalized Prolate Spheroidal Functions. (Slepian, David)
Topics: spheroidal, prolate, functions, wave, eigenfunctions, solution, asymptotic, equation, fourier,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 46: 4. April 1967 pp 797-834. Phase and Amplitude Modulation in High-Efficiency Varactor Frequency Multipliers of Order N = 2n - Stability and Noise. (Dragone, C.)
Topics: circuit, multiplier, output, doubler, impedance, frequency, stability, input, frequencies,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 6. July-August 1978 pp 1991-2019. UNIX Time-Sharing System: The C Programming Language. (Ritchie, D.M.; Johnson, S.C.; Lesk, M.E.; Kernighan, B.W.)
Topics: array, language, pointer, function, compiler, variables, bcpl, programming, bell, expression, top...
Bell System Technical Journal, 13: 4. October 1934 pp 532-579. The Electromagnetic Theory of Coaxial Transmission Lines and Cylindrical Shields. (Schelkunoff, S.A.)
Topics: impedance, coaxial, electromagnetic, electromotive, surface, conductor, cylindrical, equations,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 30: 1. January 1951 pp 50-64. Prediction and Entropy of Printed English. (Shannon, C.E.)
Topics: entropy, prediction, text, frequencies, probabilities, probability, letters, letter, rectangular,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 31: 4 July 1952 pp 666-687. A Carrier Telegraph System for Short-Haul Applications (Hysko, J.L.; Rea, W.T.; Roberts, L.C.)
Topics: loop, circuit, telegraph, carrier, frequency, channel, subscriber, twx, teletypewriter, terminal,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 43: 4. July 1964 pp 1601-1608. A Frequency-Domain Condition for the Stability of Feedback Systems Containing a Single Time-Varying Nonlinear Element. (Sandberg, I.W.)
Topics: feedback, stability, nonlinear, theorem, conditions, finite, locus, system, nyquist, systems, bell...
Bell System Technical Journal, 35: 6. November 1956 pp 1417-1444. Minimization of Boolean Functions. (McCluskey, E.J., Jr.)
Topics: rows, table, row, minimum, boolean, implicant, column, prime, crosses, sum, bell system, consistent...
Bell System Technical Journal, 14: 3. July 1935 pp 477-488. Radio Propagation Over Spherical Earth. (Burrows, Charles R.)
Topics: conducting, earth, solution, curve, refraction, theoretical, spherical, propagation, conductivity,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 31: 5. September 1952 pp 851-859. Nationwide Numbering Plan. (Nunn, W.H.)
Topics: numbering, toll, dialing, code, operator, digits, codes, office, telephone, plan, area codes, area...
Bell System Technical Journal, 40: 6. November 1961 pp 1569-1586. The TH Radio Microwave Carrier Supply System. (Susen, C.P.; Degan, J.J.)
Topics: frequency, output, switching, standby, supply, microwave, carrier, circuit, coaxial, input,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 49: 8. October 1970 pp 1609-1625. On the Distribution of Numbers. (Hamming, R.W.)
Topics: distribution, reciprocal, numbers, exponents, density, error, distributions, mantissas,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 2: 1. January 1923 pp 1-46. Theory and Design of Uniform and Composite Electric Wave-filters. (Zobel, Otto J.)
Topics: impedance, impedances, transmitting, frequency, equivalent, frequencies, shunt, series, constant,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 3. July 1948 pp 510-588. The Evolution of the Quartz Crystal Clock. (Marrison, Warren A.)
Topics: quartz, frequency, crystal, resonator, oscillator, clocks, pendulum, clock, bell, accuracy, quartz...
Bell System Technical Journal, 37: 1. January 1958 pp 185-282. The Measurement of Power Spectra from the Point of View of Communications Engineering - Part I. (Blackman, R.B.; Tukey, J.W.)
Topics: frequency, spectrum, function, spectra, measurement, fourier, spectral, power, values, estimates,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 28: 4. October 1949 pp 656-715. Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems. (Shannon, C.E.)
Topics: key, secrecy, message, systems, probabilities, system, equivocation, cryptogram, messages, cipher,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 41: 3. May 1962 pp 877-884. On Non-Computable Functions. (Rado, T.)
Topics: turing, computable, entries, valid, score, entry, machine, binary, binary turing, functions, bell...
Bell System Technical Journal, 32: 2. March 1953 pp 406-424. A Study of Non-Blocking Switching Networks. (Clos, Charles)
Topics: crosspoints, array, switching, equation, intermediary, outputs, inputs, switches, switch, input,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 47: 2. February 1968 pp 269-271. B.S.T.J. Briefs: Air-Insulated Beam-Lead Crossovers for Integrated Circuits. (Lepselter, M.P.)
Topics: crossovers, integrated, crossover, circuit, thermal, lead, beam, dielectric, pinholes, pinhole,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 8: 2. April 1929 pp 309-367. The Receiving System for Long-Wave Transatlantic Radio Telephony. (Bailey, Austin; Dean, S.W.; Wintringham, W.T.)
Topics: antenna, antennas, directional, radio, receiving, transatlantic, array, frequency, desired,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 2: 3. July 1923 pp 101-111. Permalloy, A New Magnetic Material of Very High Permeability. (Arnold, H.D.; Elmen, G.W.)
Topics: permalloy, permeability, magnetic, cent, properties, magnetizing, alloys, nickel, alloy,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 52: 7. September 1973 pp 1119-1144. Adaptive Quantization With a One-Word Memory. (Jayant, N.S.)
Topics: quantizer, adaptive, values, snr, multipliers, function, multiplier, quantization, quantizers,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 58: 10. December 1979 pp 2301-2316. Coefficient Inaccuracy in Transversal Filtering. (Gersho, A.; Gopinath, B.; Odlyzko, A.M.)
Topics: log, coefficient, transversal, filter, filters, error, random, inaccuracy, stopband, frequency,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 19: 3. July 1940 pp 358-384. Crosstalk Between Coaxial Conductors in Cable. (Booth, R.P.; Odarenko, T.M.)
Topics: crosstalk, coaxial, interaction, length, sheath, conductors, outer, tertiary, sections, lengths,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 15: 4. October 1936 pp 529-548. A Transmission System for Teletypewriter Exchange Service. (Pierce, R.E.; Bemis, E.W.)
Topics: teletypewriter, transmission, subscriber, telegraph, signal, circuit, toll, circuits, selecting,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 31: 5. September 1952 pp 1020-1022. Contributors to this Issue.
Topics: bell, engineer, telephone, transmission, american, telegraph, member, institute, beta, tau, long...
Bell System Technical Journal, 50: 8. October 1971 pp 2607-2645. Optical Modulation at High Information Rates. (White, Gerard)
Topics: optical, modulator, modulation, system, bandwidth, multiplexing, transmission, beam, rod,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 51: 6. July-August 1972 pp 1440-1444. B.S.T.J. Briefs: The Effect of a Second Magnetic Layer on Hard Bubbles. (Rosencwaig, A.)
Topics: bubble, magnetic, planar, spins, wall, segments, layer, perimeter, second, bubbles, system...
Bell System Technical Journal, 58: 2. February 1979 pp 539-543. Contributors to this Issue.
Topics: bell, university, institute, systems, currently, engaged, sigma, data, communications, studies,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 59: 5. May-June 1980 pp 723-730. Series- and Shunt-Tuned Lumped-Element Microwave Circulators. (Knerr, R.H.)
Topics: eigenvalue, circulators, frequency, resonance, bandwidth, circulator, shunt, tuning, ferromagnetic,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 3: 3. July 1924 pp 400-408. The Transmission Unit and Telephone Transmission Reference Systems. (Martin, W.H.)
Topics: ratio, transmission, power, unit, cable, corresponding, standard, circuit, output, telephone,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 32: 5. September 1953 pp 1037-1098. The Card Translator for Nationwide Dialing. (Hampton, L.N.; Newsom, J.B.)
Topics: translator, code, cards, dialing, nationwide, decoder, magnet, bars, card translator, select,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 8: 4. October 1929 pp 646-661. Speech Power and Its Measurement. (Sivian, L.J.)
Topics: speech, frequency, average, pressure, power, instantaneous, measurement, peak, measurements,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 1. January 1931 pp 96-115. Absolute Calibration of Condenser Transmitters. (Sivian, L.J.)
Topics: transmitter, calibration, diaphragm, acoustic, electrode, field, condenser, pressure, sound,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 13: 3. July 1934 pp 464-515. A Theory of Scanning and Its Relation to the Characteristics of the Transmitted Signal in Telephotography and Television. (Mertz, Pierre; Gray, Frank)
Topics: scanning, aperture, components, frequency, signal, apertures, image, extraneous, fourier,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 19: 1. January 1940 pp 1-39. The Physical Basis of Ferromagnetism. (Bozorth, R.M.)
Topics: magnetic, magnetization, electrons, atoms, nickel, ferromagnetic, electron, atom, ferromagnetism,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 18: 1. January 1939 pp 76-118. Crossbar Dial Telephone Switching System. (Scudder, F.J.; Reynolds, J.N.)
Topics: crossbar, subscriber, sender, terminating, switch, incoming, marker, link, trunk, switches,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 39: 6. November 1960 pp 1505-1527. Interstitial Channels for Doubling TD-2 Radio System Capacity. (Curtis, H.E.; Collins, T.R.D.; Jamison, B.C.)
Topics: channels, interstitial, carrier, channel, interference, crosstalk, baseband, frequency, system,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 41: 1. January 1962 pp 99-141. PCM Transmission in the Exchange Plant. (Aaron, M.R.)
Topics: pulse, timing, crosstalk, pulses, repeater, bipolar, pcm, transmission, retiming, wave, bell...
Bell System Technical Journal, 42: 6. November 1963 pp 2839-2847. Spectral Characteristics of Digit-Stimulating Speech Sounds. (Borenstein, D.P.)
Topics: xxxxxxxx, xxxxx, xxxxxx, iii, ixxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, speech, xxxx, xxx, ixxxxxxxxxxxxxxx...
Bell System Technical Journal, 50: 10. December 1971 pp 3177-3194. A General Class of Rate-Change Circuits. (Ahamed, S.V.)
Topics: circuit, polynomial, circuits, positions, cycles, reversing, rate, data, clock, binary, incoming...
Bell System Technical Journal, 36: 6. November 1957 pp 1389-1401. Shortest Connection Networks And Some Generalizations. (Prim, R.C.)
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Topics: shortest, terminal, connection, network, labelled, terminals, spanning, subtree, fragment,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 7: 4. October 1928 pp 639-707. The Practical Application of the Fourier Integral. (Campbell, George A.)
Topics: coefficient, exp, fourier, integral, pairs, cisoidal, unit, pair, erfc, impulse, bell system, unit...
Bell System Technical Journal, 32: 3. May 1953 pp 767-774. Abstracts of Bell System Technical Papers Not Published in This Journal.
Topics: electron, bell, telephone, kinetic, energy, speech, diffusion, antenna, abstracts, electrons, bell...
Bell System Technical Journal, 43: 4. July 1964 pp 1311-1338. Electron Tubes for the SD Submarine Cable System. (Holdaway, V.L.; Van Haste, W. ; Walsh, E.J.)
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Topics: tube, tubes, cathode, cable, heater, amplifier, voltage, electron, system, reliability, amplifier...
Bell System Technical Journal, 43: 4. July 1964 pp 1783-1809. Hollow Metallic and Dielectric Waveguides for Long Distance Optical Transmission and Lasers. (Marcatili, E.A.J.; Schmeltzer, R.A.)
Topics: modes, attenuation, dielectric, hollow, guide, curvature, optical, radius, mode, field, optical...
Bell System Technical Journal, 40: 3. May 1961 pp 669. A Block Diagram Compiler. (Kelly, John L. Jr.; Lochbaum, Carol; Vyssotsky, V.A.)
Topics: blodi, output, program, delay, input, box, compiler, signal, loop, circuit, uncompiled boxes,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 6. July-August 1978 pp 1947-1969. UNIX Time-Sharing System: A Retrospective. (Ritchie, D.M.)
Topics: system, unix, file, files, user, bell, program, programs, device, operating, virtual address,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 46: 6. July-August 1967 pp 1055-1133. The Si-SiO2 Interface - Electrical Properties as Determined by the Metal-Insulator-Silicon Conductance Technique. (Nicollian, E.H.; Goetzberger, A.)
Topics: interface, bias, surface, density, capacitance, oxide, conductance, silicon, frequency, measured,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 6. July-August 1978 pp 2115-2135. UNIX Time-Sharing System: Document Preparation. (Kernighan, B.W.; Lesk, M.E.; Ossanna, J.F. Jr.)
Topics: troff, document, macro, text, input, program, preparation, unix, programs, bell, editing commands,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 9: 2. April 1930 pp 364-389. Economic Quality Control of Manufactured Product. (Shewhart, W.A.)
Topics: quality, variability, assignable, control, limits, journal, statistical, product, tensile,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 4. October 1931 pp 656-683. Developments in Short-Wave Directive Antennas. (Bruce, E.)
Topics: antenna, antennas, directive, horizontal, wire, vertical, tilt, signal, directivity, wave, vertical...
Bell System Technical Journal, 12: 2. April 1933 pp 162-177. Mutual Impedance of Grounded Wires for Horizontally Stratified Two-Layer Earth. (Riordan, John; Sunde, Erling D.)
Topics: mutual, impedance, wires, conductivities, parallel, wire, grounded, conductivity, homogeneous,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 1. January 1932 pp 126-147. Regeneration Theory. (Nyquist, H.)
Topics: integral, amplifier, values, expression, lim, curve, network, integration, regeneration, integrand,...