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Charles Debevec Collection

Music, in all its forms, has long been a part of the domestic, religious, and social life of the Slovenes. With the spread of Christianity in the 5th century, liturgical hymns were introduced in the region they later inhabited. Secular songs can be traced back to the 9th century. The first director of the Vienna Boys Choir, established in 1498, was the Slovenian scholar, composer, and choirmaster Jurij Slatkonja, who also served as leader of the emperor’s musicians and as Bishop of Vienna. The first Slovenian hymnal was published in 1567. The first Slovenian opera was composed in 1780.

The traditional music of Slovenia, which consists of generations-old folk songs, newly-composed art songs, and operatic selections, was brought to America by immigrants who arrived in large numbers in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

In the new world, choral groups and bands were among the first societies they organized. The first Slovenian society of any kind in New York City, the Lira chorus, was established in 1893 by the immigrant Joseph Rems in an effort to unite the Slovenian immigrants who were scattered throughout the city. After its demise, Rems founded the Slavec mixed chorus in 1895. Recordings were made by that group in 1917.

Domovina organized in New York City in 1908 as a male chorus. It merged with the choir of St. Nicholas church in 1910 to form the Domovina Singing and Dramatic Society and later moved to the church of St. Cyril in Manhattan. In 1930, a dispute between parishioners resulted in a schism in the society. After the subsequent lawsuit, the chorus was moved to Brooklyn, where it continued as a secular society. Recordings were made for the Columbia label before and after the schism.

The Zarja Singing Society was organized in Cleveland in 1916. As result of a disagreement among members over association with and financial control by the Jugoslav Socialist Federation, the chorus split in 1930 into two separate entities, the Socijalistična Zarja (Socialist Zarja) and the Samostojna Zarja (Indpendent Zarja). After the Samostojna Zarja changed its name to Glasbena matica in 1940, the Socijalistična Zarja reverted to its original name. A single selection was recorded by the original Zarja in 1924; two selections were recorded by Glasbena matica, under the direction of Anton Šubelj (Schubel), in the 1950’s.

The first artist to record Slovenian songs in the U.S. was Milka Polancer Schneid, who a few years earlier immigrated from Croatia, where she was an accomplished singer and actress. Her first recordings in the Slovenian language were made on February 10, 1913 on the Columbia label, the first of these being the folk song Na vršacu. She was followed by the opera singer, lecturer, diplomat, and publicist Rudolf Trošt, who recorded Slovenian and Croatian folk and art songs for Columbia on May 13, 1914.

Most of the earliest Slovenian recordings available in the U.S. were recorded in Europe. With the outbreak of World War I in 1914, those sources were not available and the record companies had to rely on domestic artists.

The well-known in Slovenia stage actress, director, pedagogue, and singer Augusta Danilova was the first “superstar” Slovenian recording artist. After motion pictures were introduced in Slovenia, resulting in the closing of the stage theater in Ljubljana, she temporarily moved to America to find employment. She settled in New York City, acted in Slovenian stage productions there, and made recordings on the Columbia and Victor labels. Some of them were of folk and art songs and some were comedy sketches, depicting life in America from an immigrant’s viewpoint. All of them had great appeal to other immigrants and her records sold well.
Augusta’s husband, Anton Cerar, known as “Danilo,” was also a stage actor and director. He recorded many monologues for various record companies in Europe, some of which were reissued in America on the Columbia and OKeh labels.

All of the above-mentioned recordings, and others from the same period, were made via the acoustic process. In 1925, Western Electric introduced the “Electric Process,” which allowed for the use of microphones, electromagnetic recording heads, and electronic amplification. The result was a significant improvement in the fidelity of the recordings.

The recording artists of this period had the greatest influence on Slovenian music as performed in America, an influence felt to the present day.

The Hoyer Trio, consisting of Matija Arko—known as Matt Hoyer—and his half-brothers Frank and Ed Simončič (Simms), began performing in about 1919 in Cleveland. By 1924 they had become popular enough to make their first recordings for the Victor label. Two acoustically-recorded singles were released from the session. In later years they recorded on the Victor, Columbia, and OKeh labels. Many of their tunes were later featured, with modifications, by polka bands in the years following World War II. Some examples are Coklarska koračnica, recorded by Johnny Pecon as Zip Polka; Pečlarska polka,  recorded by Frank Yankovic as Strabane Polka; Ribenska polka, recorded by Eddie Habat as Strawberry Hill Polka; and Šebelska koračnica, recorded by Johnny Vadnal as Swing Shift Polka. The Trio also recorded folk dances known in Matt’s homeland, the Ribniška region of Slovenia, e.g. Pošter tanc, Mazulinka, and Pokšotiš. Songs of other nationalities were included in the Trio’s repertoire: the Czech number Kar imam to ti dam, known as the Barbara Polka; Neverna Ančka, based on the Czech composition Nevěrná Anička; and Šebelska koračnica, from the German Bienenhaus Marsch are examples. In all, 99 selections were recorded by the trio.

The Mary Udovich-Josephine Lausche duet of Cleveland, in association with Josephine’s brother Dr. William J. Lausche, had a great influence on Slovenian-American music. The duet began singing ca. 1919, accompanied by William on piano. William arranged their music and composed instrumental interludes for their performances of Slovenian folk songs. In doing so, he used elements of the Broadway, ragtime, and Dixieland jazz genres of American popular music. As a result, the music recorded by the duet appealed not only to Slovenes but to members of other ethnic groups and to fans of popular music as well. The first release by the duet was recorded acoustically in 1924 for the Victor label. Succeeding releases on the Columbia label were recorded between 1927 and 1931. Two additional selections were recorded in 1942 for the Continental label, but were not released until 1950.

Dr. Lausche composed several other polka and waltz tunes that were subsequently recorded by Frank Yankovic, Johnny Pecon, and others. Among his most famous compositions are The Girl I Left Behind, I’ve Got a Date with Molly, There’ll Always Be a Christmas, 707 Polka, and Polka Town. Dr. Lausche is recognized as the father of the “Cleveland style” of Slovenian polka music.

Adrija, one of two choirs of St. Stephen church in Chicago, was formed in 1922 under the direction of Prof. Ivan Račič. Besides liturgical singing in church, the group presented one or two concerts a year; performed at programs for lodges, clubs, and fraternities; and made appearances on Chicago radio stations. Recordings, made by selected singers, consisted of re-enactments of religious and secular activities and were often of a comic nature. Some were accompanied by the Hoyer Trio. Fr. Odilo Hajnšek, a Franciscan priest, joined them on several of their religious recordings.

Anton Šubelj (Schubel), born in Slovenia in 1899, hummed in tune to his mother’s singing before he could talk. By age 14 he was directing the local church choir. Because of his great talent, he was admitted to the Ljubljana Conservatory in spite of his lack of a secondary education. After completing the five-year course in four years, he began to sing professionally and performed at the Slovenian National Opera for four years. He came to America for a highly successful concert tour in 1928, which covered 45 cities in 14 states with a total of 117 concerts. He recorded 29 selections for the Columbia label before returning to Slovenia. He came back to America in 1930, this time to stay. He sang with the Metropolitan Opera from 1931-1945 and directed many Slovenian and other singing societies. He directed the Glasbena matica chorus of Cleveland from 1940-1942 and from 1950 until his retirement in March of 1965. He died on June 6, 1965.

The Jadran Male Quartet consisted of three Croats and one Slovene. They recorded folk songs, comic sketches, and re-enactments in the Slovenian and Croatian languages. Ivan Mladineo, 2nd tenor, was an author and publisher of a Croatian weekly. Rainer Hlacha, bass, was a popular comedic actor in Ljubljana, journalistic director of the government agency in Trieste, and head of the Slovenian theater in Trieste. In America he served as director of the Jugoslav Information Bureau, vice-chairman of the Americans of Jugo-Slav Lineage Executive Committee, and as a participant in the Foreign Language Information Service and the Slovenian division of the Common Council for American Unity. Emilio Blažević, baritone, was a music teacher, composer, conductor, and promoter of tamburitza music. He sang and recorded in various Slavic languages as a soloist and in duets. Josip Batistić, first tenor, was born in the Dalmatian region of Croatia. He recorded as a soloist a large number of songs in Croatian and a few in Italian. He eventually returned to Croatia where he acted in movies.

The Deichman Brothers polka band included Rudy and Tony Deichman and Joe Perush, all of Joliet, IL. The band recorded from 1927 to 1934 for Victor and Columbia, and had a final session in 1940 for the Victor label. Several of their numbers were composed by Perush, who later led his own band, which also made recordings.

Few Slovenian records were produced in the years between 1930 and 1946, due to four factors: (1) Radio broadcasting, which replaced phonograph records as the major source of home entertainment and caused great financial difficulties for the record companies; (2) The Great Depression, which began in 1929; (3) A musician’s strike, which began in July of 1942 and lasted three years; and (4) World War II shortages of shellac, which was used in the production of 78 RPM records.

Ballroom dancing, popular in the 1920’s and 1930’s, led to the rise of polka bands. In keeping with the Americanization of Slovenian music their instrumentation included, besides the ever-present accordion, instruments found in jazz bands—banjo, saxophone, and string bass.

Frank Yankovic started his orchestra in the 1930’s and made appearances on radio shows in Cleveland. In 1938, he approached Columbia and Victor, hoping to get a recording contract, but was turned down by both companies. He then financed the production of two singles on his own Yankee label. At that time, union membership was a requirement for recording and Yankovic was not yet a member. To avoid trouble, he issued the recordings under the artist name “Slovene Folk Orchestra.” His entire production of 4,000 copies sold out in a few weeks. He recorded more singles in 1940 and 1944 on his Joliet and Jolly labels. The rights to most of them were subsequently acquired by the Continental Record Company, which reissued them on its own labels, capitalizing on Yankovic’s later success.

After the war, Yankovic was offered a contract by Columbia, the company which had earlier rejected him. His many recordings for that label over a 25-year period included two million-sellers, Just Because and Blue Skirt Waltz.

One reason for Yankovic’s great success was his development of a Slovenian style that also appealed to members of other ethnic groups, as well as to fans of popular music. In doing so, he continued Dr. Lausche’s Americanization efforts. 

In the early years of World War II, and after the war ended, recordings were made on the Continental and Black and White labels by the button accordionist Joseph Kusar. He combined elements of the Hoyer Trio and Udovich-Lausche duet, presenting folk songs with vocals by a female duet accompanied by Kusar’s Trio; and instrumental polkas and waltzes which he composed himself. His recordings sold very well.
In the years after the war ended, Slovenian polka bands began organizing and re-organizing in large numbers. Most of the artists that recorded on major labels were based in Cleveland and played in the Cleveland style. Among them were chromatic accordionist Johnny Pecon and banjoist George Cook, both former Yankovic sidemen. Other bands were led by Eddie Habat, Kenny Bass, and Johnny Vadnal.

Among their greatest hits were Pecon’s Zip Polka, Old Timers Polka, and Pee Tee Polka; George Cook’s Five Points Polka; Eddie Habat’s Go Man Go and Riverboat Polka; Kenny Bass’ My Polka Lovin’ Gal and Lake Erie Polka; and Johnny Vadnal’s Slap Happy Polka, Prairie Polka, Blame It on the Waltz, and Yes Dear, which sold 50,000 copies in its first week.

Louis Bashell, the “Silk Umbrella Man,” was based in Milwaukee and recorded on the Pfau and RCA Victor labels, with some of his Pfau recordings being reissued on the Mercury label. Besides polkas and waltzes, he recorded several jazz tunes. His biggest hit was the Silk Umbrella Polka, versions of which he recorded on both the Pfau and RCA Victor labels. His career continued into his eighties.

Ernie Benedict, a Cleveland native of Hungarian ancestory, led a western-style band known as the Range Riders. He had his own radio show which included an ethnic number on each broadcast. That feature was so popular that his group began doubling as a polka band and issued many polka recordings in the Slovenian style on the Standard and RCA Victor labels. His biggest hit was Over Three Hills, based on a Slovenian folk song. It was also recorded by popular music artists Tex Beneke, Rex Allen, and Ethel Smith. Benedict’s second accordionist, Frank Zeitz (Zajc), had his own band and recorded for the Continental, Standard, and Triple A labels.

Columbia introduced the vinyl 33 1/3 RPM LP record in 1948 and RCA Victor followed with the 45 RPM single and EP the following year. The heavier, noisier, and more fragile 78 RPM record was gradually phased out; production for the most part ceased by 1958.

The foregoing is but a brief summary of artists that recorded Slovenian music or music in the Slovenian style on 78 RPM records. There are many others who produced fewer recordings or had a lesser impact.

Slovenian music, as performed in America, enjoyed a popularity far out of proportion to the Slovenes’ share of the population. Besides the beauty and appeal of their melodies, this can be attributed to the talent and innovation of their leading artists, who combined elements of the old with elements of the contemporary to create updated musical styles, which appealed across ethnic lines.

-Charles F. Debevec

PART OF
78 RPMs and Cylinder Recordings
Music, Arts & Culture
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Charles Debevec Collection
by Pecon, Johnny
audio
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Yankovic, Frank
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Vocal by Frankie Yankovic.
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Martincic, Jake
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As J. Martincic.
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Hoyer Trio
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As Simončič Brater. Previously released on Okeh 24047. Label includes “Harmonica izdelal A. Melvar” (sic). The number 25006-F was used by Columbia on another release as well. See Zarja Male Chorus and Bled Godba.
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Kusar, Joe
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Yankovic, Frank
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Bass, Kenny
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Hoyer Trio
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As Hojer Trio.
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Pecon, Johnny
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Vocal by Nettie Pecon.
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Hoyer Trio
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As Hojer Trio.
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Champa, Ray
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Garchar, Steve
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Vocal by Steve Garchar.
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Vadnal, Johnny
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Yankovic, Frank
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Udovich, Mary & Lausche, Josephine
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Hoyer Trio
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As Simončič Brater. Folk dance in Ribniška dolina. Previously released on Okeh 24045. The number 25007-F was used by Columbia on another release as well. See Rudolph Perdan and Jeanette Perdan.
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Adrija Singers
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12-inch disc.
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Gale, Bill
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As Mednarodni Plesni Orkester. Reissue of "My Tillie" (Columbia 12189-F).
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Habat, Eddie
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Slovenian Five
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Overdubbed vocal. Also released on record no. 5155 with artist name "V. Cekal."
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Smoltz, Frankie
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As Mlakar-Zak Orchestra. Vocal by Mlakar and Zakrajsek.
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Slovenian Five
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Overdubbed vocal by Ann Vincent. Also released on record no. 5155 with artist name "V. Cekal."
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Yankovic, Frank
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Garchar, Steve
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Vocal by Steve Garchar and Bud Conrad.
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Garchar, Steve
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Yankovic, Frank
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Vadnal, Johnny
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Vocal by Tony Vadnal and the Vadnal Trio.
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Garchar, Steve
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Udovich, Mary & Lausche, Josephine
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Kusar, Joe
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Udovich, Mary & Lausche, Josephine
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Adrija Singers
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12-inch disc.
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Zingsheim, Joey
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Princie, Joe
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Udovich, Mary & Lausche, Josephine
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Yankovic, Frank; Marlin Sisters
audio
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Garchar, Steve
audio
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Powers, Ted
audio
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Jeris, Eddie
audio
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Kusar, Joe
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As Kusar’s Orchestra.
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Yankovic, Frank
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Vocal by The Boys.
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Kusar, Joe
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Gale, Bill
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As Mednarodni Plesni Orkester. Reissue of "Bell Polka" (Columbia 12189-F [International]).
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Benedict, Ernie
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Vocal by the Kendall Sisters.
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Yankovic, Frank
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
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12-inch disSermon by Fr. Odilo.
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Benedict, Ernie
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Prešeren Slovene Male Chorus
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Directed by Prof. Frank Kubina. Released in the album “Selected Songs by Prešeren Slovene Male Chorus.”
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Hoyer Trio
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Day, Doris; Yankovic, Frank
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With Doris Day (featured artist).
Charles Debevec Collection
by Garchar, Steve
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Zeitz, Frank
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As Frank Zajc.
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Hoyer Trio
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As Simončič Brater. Label includes “Harmonica izdelal A. Mervar.” Also released on Odeon label with same record no. Also released as "Entre Rancheros" on Vocalion 8660 by "Trio Vocalion Instrumental."
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Yankovic, Frank
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Powers, Ted
audio
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Powers, Ted
audio
eye 67
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Kusar, Joe
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Korosa, Eddie
audio
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Hoyer Trio
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As Hoyer Brater [Matt Hoyer and Eddie Simms, duet].
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Lausche Trio
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Released 1950. Coupled with "Pod hrastom" by Frank Yankovic, a reissue of “Kaj mi nuca planinca.” Vocal by Mary Udovich and Josephine Lausche.
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Wright, Duke
audio
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Udovich, Mary & Lausche, Josephine
audio
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( 1 reviews )
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Bass, Kenny
audio
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Adrija Singers
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As Pevski zbor "Adria." Second artist as Hojer Trio. Coupled with "Vesela polka" by Hoyer Trio.
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Adrija Singers
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12-inch disSermon by Fr. Odilo (uncredited).
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Yankovic, Frank
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Adrija Singers
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12-inch disc.
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Lovšin, Frank
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Yankovic, Frank
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Lovšin, Frank
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Yankovic, Frank
audio
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Vocal by Frankie Yankovic and Bud Griebel.
Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Pecon, Johnny
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Cook, Georgie
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Yankovic, Frank
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Topic: Slovenian music
Charles Debevec Collection
by Yankovic, Frank
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Vocal by The Boys.
Topic: Slovenian music