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Today's industrial economies were founded on the use of vast quantities of materials and energy, and the economic health of nations has often been equated with the amount they consumed. The amount of materials that originally enters an economy tells nothing about the material's eventual fate or its contribution to human well-being. It tells a good deal, however, about the damage the economy inflicts upon the environment. The devastation wrought by economic production is closely related to the...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Conservation (Environment), Ecology, Energy, Environmental Education, Environmental...
Although progress has been made in combatting the most visible and easily controlled forms of pollution (exhaust, industrial waste, sewage, etc.), other pollutants have been largely ignored. Pollutants which are uncontrolled and which are increasingly recognized as dangerous include carbon dioxide, toxic substances such as dioxin, mirex, lindane, mercuric oxide, lead and mercury, and nuclear wastes. Reasons for lack of success in removing these and other pollutants include the following: (1)...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Air Pollution, Conservation (Environment), Data Analysis, Developed Nations, Ecology,...
Electricity, which has largely supplanted oil as the most controversial energy issue of the 1980s, is at the center of some of the world's bitterest economic and environmental controversies. Soaring costs, high interest rates, and environmental damage caused by large power plants have wreaked havoc on the once booming electricity industry. Although policymakers around the world disagree vigorously about future trends and appropriate policies, virtually all acknowledge that a turning point has...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Alternative Energy Sources, Coal, Costs, Developing Nations, Electricity, Energy,...
This publication proposes a timetable for converting the world economy to solar energy. The contents include: (1) A solar-powered world by 2025; (2) Heating and cooling; (3) Renewable fuels; (4) Electricity; (5) Getting there from here; and (6) Notes. Numerous facts are presented within these sections. International solar research programs are reviewed briefly for Sweden, Japan, Denmark, Britain, Australia, Brazil, and China. A global energy policy is recommended. (MA)
Topics: ERIC Archive, Conservation (Environment), Ecological Factors, Economics, Energy, Environmental...
This report examines various topics and issues related to worldwide energy productivity and energy conservation. Following an introduction, these issues are considered in 6 sections focusing on: (1) energy demand projections (with data on 1982 energy consumption in selected countries); (2) continued industrial efficiency gains (including data on energy use in steel manufacturing and electrical energy use in aluminum smelting in major producing countries, ranked by efficiency); (3) the saving of...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Economic Progress, Energy, Energy Conservation, Futures (of Society), Manufacturing...
This paper, an adaption from the author's forthcoming book "The Twenty-Ninth Day: Accomodating Human Needs and Numbers to the Earth's Resources," deals with non-military threats to national security. Since World War II the concept of national security has acquired an overwhelmingly military character. The policy of continual preparedness has led to the militarization of the world economy, with military expenditures now accounting for six percent of the global product. Most countries...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Biological Influences, Climate, Disarmament, Environmental Influences, Food, National...
This report focuses on topics and issues related to the global use of tobacco. It consists of an introduction and six major sections. These sections deal with: (1) the epidemic rate at which smoking is spreading, indicating that the global rate has grown nearly 75 percent over the past two decades and is growing at 2.1 percent per year, faster than world population growth; (2) health factors, indicating that lung cancer is predominantly a disease of smoking and showing the international...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Academic Achievement, Cancer, Death, Drug Abuse, Drug Use, Foreign Countries,...
After 20 years, the "green revolution" is generally referred to as a milestone in the international agricultural movement. The introduction of new varieties of wheat and rice, along with fertilizers, pesticides, and mechanized farm equipment has produced a dramatic increase in world food production. This paper assesses the successes of the green revolution in light of its effect upon third world countries. It cautions that the revolutionary gains in agricultural production have not...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agricultural Production, Agricultural Trends, Agriculture, Appropriate Technology,...
Possible future roles and designs of cars are examined in light of depletion of the earth's oil reserves. A major problem with regard to the rapidly changing world oil outlook is that cars will be competing with more essential claiments for scarce oil supplies including food production, industrial power, home heating, and running trucks and busses. Developing nations, which are particularly dependent upon the automobile, are likely to experience the most profound economic impact. Estimates of...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Conservation (Environment), Depleted Resources, Developed Nations, Developing...
A combination of revitalized employment policies, greater industrial democracy, and new ways of distributing both the hours of work and the fruits of technological change are essential if the benefits of the microelectronic revolution are to be equitably shared. Microelectronic technology promises an array of benefits, and the electronic age is already well under way. As it progresses during the last two decades of the twentieth century, it will lead to improvements in productivity in factories...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Automation, Economics, Electronics Industry, Employment Opportunities, Futures (of...
This Final Report prepared by the White House Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives offers an account of President George W. Bush's Faith-Based and Community Initiative (FBCI) to the faith-based and other community organizations (FBCOs) that have joined in the battles against poverty, disease, and other social ills. The report emphasizes measurable results achieved for millions in need across America and around the world through government partnerships with FBCOs, and looks at...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Community Leaders, Altruism, Nonprofit Organizations, Community Organizations,...
The interrelationship of population growth, food production, and death rates is explored. Birth rates in China, Western Europe, and North America have significantly decreased in the five-year period from 1970-75. This is largely due to widening availability of family planning services and the growing desire to use them. Four European countries have reached stability in population growth: East and West Germany, Austria, and Luxembourg. Reasons for this stability include high levels of income,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adult Education, Birth Rate, Climate, Contraception, Death, Demography, Developing...
This report is a sequel to the 2005 "Perceptions of Libraries and Information Resources." This new report provides updated information and new insights into information consumers and their online habits, preferences, and perceptions. Particular attention was paid to how the current economic downturn has affected the information-seeking behaviors and how those changes are reflected in the use and perception of libraries. This report explores: (1) Technological and economic shifts since...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Employment Level, Library Development, Academic Libraries, Economic Climate,...
The lessons presented in this book will: (1) Help students better understand their own culture and how it has shaped them; (2) Help students begin to understand the perspectives of other cultures, leading to increased respect for those who are different from them--in the classroom and worldwide; and (3) Provide an increased awareness of the value and practicality of social service within and beyond the bounds of schools. This book is designed for easy adaptation by teachers in grades 6 through...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Cultural Awareness, Guides, Teaching Methods, Lesson Plans, Volunteers, Service...
This publication discusses worldwide problems and issues of concern. There are two major parts. Part I deals with "Converging Demands." For those who regularly read the Worldwatch Papers, much of the material in this section will be familiar. The material is included here particularly for the sake of those readers abroad who do not have ready access to the Institute's publications. Discussed are erosion, biological systems under pressure, oil, food, and emerging economic and social...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Conservation (Environment), Energy, Food, Futures (of Society), Global Approach, Life...
A new movement in American higher education aims to transform the teaching of civics. This report is a study of what that movement is, where it came from, and why Americans should be concerned. What we call the "New Civics" redefines civics as progressive political activism. Rooted in the radical program of the 1960s' New Left, the New Civics presents itself as an up-to-date version of volunteerism and good works. Though camouflaged with soft rhetoric, the New Civics, properly...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Universities, Civics, Teaching Methods, Educational Practices, College Programs, Case...
The contributors to this document compare the main approaches to agricultural extension in sub-Saharan Africa; the cost-effectiveness in view of precarious national budgets; the weaknesses of the system for generating technology; the difficulties in forging productive partnerships between researchers, extensionists and farmers; the ineffective public services and fragile institutional networks; and the degree to which farmers are allowed to participate in extension management. The articles...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Developing Nations, Economic Development, Higher Education, Modernization, Research...
This report examines the role played by the Peace Corps education sector in developing countries. Section I provides a general overview of the progress over the past 20 years of education assistance. A case study is presented of education programs in Sierra Leone. Section II provides an overview of distribution of education volunteers worldwide and by programming categories in 1980. Section III considers the current condition. It describes conditions of education in developing countries,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adult Education, Agency Role, Developing Nations, Education, Foreign Countries,...
The first of a series of annual reports for policy makers, this publication focuses on evaluating changes in the interplay between the world's changing resource base and the economic system. Following an overview, content is divided into 10 additional chapters covering population stabilization, the world's dependence on oil, soil conservation, forest protection, materials recycling, the economics of nuclear power, the development of renewable energy, the future of the automobile, the world food...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Conservation (Environment), Depleted Resources, Developed Nations, Developing...
Population growth and resource depletion are discussed. The need is stressed for policy makers to understand how population projections relate to the carrying capacity of the earth's basic biological systems. Because the earth's resources are limited, it is essential that policy makers in developed and developing nations be able to analyze the relationship between population and resources such as fisheries, forests, croplands, and grasslands. Economic and social stresses have already resulted...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Conservation (Environment), Demography, Depleted Resources, Developed Nations,...
This manual contains materials to provide Peace Corps Volunteers with the skills to make the transition from one culture to another, to enter and become fluent in another culture, and to understand the current political, social, and religious context. The approach to training is "skill building" for continued learning. Introductory materials include the goals of cross-cultural preservice training, the themes of the manual and training, and trainer notes. Materials are provided for 10...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adult Education, Behavioral Objectives, Communication Problems, Communication Skills,...
This monograph explores the aims, priorities, and international dimensions of the world's research and development (R&D) enterprise. Global R&D priorities in order of importance include military technology, basic research, space, energy, health, information processing, transportation, pollution control, and agriculture. The majority of R&D efforts are made by industrialized nations and are geared to meeting the political and economic goals of industrialized nations. In leading the...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Developed Nations, Developing Nations, Development, Financial Support, Global...
Recent world developments have created an opportune time for nations to vigorously pursue a policy of converting the huge portion of their economies that traditionally have been devoted to military expenditures to more socially productive uses. This paper outlines a strategy for such a conversion, and discusses the issues that must be confronted in such a process. Specific aspects of conversion include: (1) misconceptions about lessening military spending; (2) building a conversion coalition;...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Disarmament, Economics, Foreign Countries, Futures (of Society), Global Approach,...
New educational opportunities for women around the world are traced. An introductory section provides an overview and discussion on the implications of equal education for women. Other sections discuss the historical background of equal education for women, women's literacy, the primary school experience, secondary education, technical skills, university education, careers as educators, and full sexual equality in education. History has shown that the changing role and characteristics of...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Career Choice, Comparative Education, Elementary Secondary Education, Employed Women,...
Human activities that have altered the earth's chemistry are discussed in terms of their potential ecological and economic consequences. Humanity's impact on the disruption of the natural cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur is assessed. Data are presented which illustrate the extent of change in these cycles. Risks particularly threatening and costly to society are identified as those associated with food, security, forests, and human health. Each of these risk areas are explained and...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Conservation (Environment), Ecology, Economic Factors, Environmental Education, Food,...
This paper examines worldwide housing problems. The rising prices of materials, energy, and land ensure that buying, building, and maintaining even the most elementary shelter today costs several times what it did a decade ago. People in industrial countries must spend an even larger share of their income if they want to buy a home. Those who cannot afford to buy a house are finding a scarcity of rental units. There is mounting despair about shelter conditions in the Third World, as it becomes...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Developed Nations, Developing Nations, Economic Factors, Energy, Futures (of...
The concept of sustainable economics not only examines how to produce what for whom but also how irreplaceable resources can be adequately conserved. Efficient and equitable economic mechanisms are central components of the concept. Analyzing issues complicated by politics, ideology, and nationalism, sustainable economics scholars attempt to explore what works to make resource use more efficient, how people behave in relation to resources, and how a country's economic system can alter its...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agricultural Production, Agriculture, Economics, Energy Conservation, Energy...
A key question to ask in determining whether a solution will be found to the current worldwide destruction of plant and animal life is whether people will learn to reconcile effectively the demands of environmental conservationists and developers. Probably the most immediate threat which ecological destruction poses to human welfare is shrinkage of the plant genepools available to agricultural scientists, farmers, and foresters. Additional problems are the extinction of species with economic or...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Biological Influences, Biological Sciences, Conservation (Environment), Depleted...
Major arguments and background of the worldwide land reform debate are reviewed. In developing nations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, the control of farmland remains a principal key to wealth, status, and power. Rural landless peasants at the bottom of the socioeconomic ladder, estimated by the World Bank at more than 600 million people, are unable to meet basic needs such as food, fuel, shelter, education, health care, and family planning. Review of international agricultural output data...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agriculture, Cooperation, Developing Nations, Disadvantaged Environment, Economic...
In 1987, a record 126,000 automobiles rolled off assembly lines each working day, and close to 400 million vehicles are used on the world's roads today. Prior to the 1970s the automobile's utility and sustainability were hardly questioned. A decade of oil price increases and worries about future fuel availability slowed automobile use somewhat, but in the 1980s improved energy efficiency and additional oil supplies combined to bring fuel prices down. This document calls for a fundamental...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Air Pollution, Alternative Energy Sources, Ecological Factors, Economic Factors,...
This report addresses the global concern of water development and stresses the need for management of the water demand. Investments in water efficiency, recycling, and conservation are recommended over conventional water supply projects for greater cost behefits and production yield. Topic areas include: (1) water use trends in major crop producing regions; (2) investments in irrigation efficiency (with explanations and analyses of gravity systems, surge irrigation, sprinkler designs,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Conservation (Environment), Depleted Resources, Natural Resources, Recycling,...
Recommendations and issues concerning population growth rate and its linkage to hunger and malnutrition, family planning programs and U.S. foreign aid are presented in statements from representatives in Congress from the states of Texas, Michigan, Illinois and New York, and also representatives from World Population Society, the Futures Group, Worldwatch Institute and Population Crisis Committee. The ethical issue of family planning programs with elements of coercion (such as forced abortions)...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Birth Rate, Categorical Aid, Climate, Environmental Influences, Family Planning,...
Separate sections of this document deal with refugee concerns in terms of a global approach, definitions of a refugee, alternatives for refugees, the international response, and long-term prospects. The booklet states that the present number of 16 million refugees is bound to increase given increasing rivalry over land and resources. The global community must improve its ability to anticipate conflicts that have a high potential for generating refugees. In the international community, however,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Futures (of Society), Global Approach, International Law, International Relations,...
This paper discusses six steps which must be taken on a global level to put society on a sustainable path. Of the various steps none is more important than bringing population growth to a halt. The official United Nations medium-level population projects, used by planners throughout the world, show world population reaching some 10.5 billion before eventually stabilizing a century or more from now. It is recommended that the world population be stabilized at the six billion level by the year...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agricultural Production, Energy Conservation, Forestry, Global Approach, Natural...
This paper, one of a series published by the Worldwatch Institute to identify and focus attention on global problems, is adapted from the author's book, "Rays of Hope: The Transition to a Post-Petroleum World." The author examines the current energy problems of the world, and determines that the energy patterns of the past are not the prologue to the future. The inadequacies associated with energy alternatives to petroleum, such as coal and nuclear fusion, are identified and...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Depleted Resources, Energy, Environment, Environmental Influences, Fuels, Futures (of...
Forestry planning is essential if the global trend toward deforestation is to be reversed. World forest trends, although often based on inaccurate or misleading information put out by national governments, indicate that the area of land covered with closed forests has decreased from about 25% in 1950 to about 20% in the 1970s. Major causes of deforestation include logging, spread of agriculture, and collection of firewood. Among the economic consequences of uncontrolled deforestation are...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Case Studies, Conservation (Environment), Developed Nations, Developing Nations,...
American economic analysts will better understand current economic trends if they investigate economic problems in light of the expanding global economy. Reasons for the failure of economists to explain the simultaneous existence of rapid inflation and high unemployment include preoccupation with economic indicators, short-term forecasts, and econometric models. Instead of concentrating on symptoms of economic maladies, economists should consider their underlying causes such as the role of...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agricultural Production, Attitude Change, Biological Influences, Capitalism, Depleted...
Employment potential in developed and developing nations is analyzed from an economic viewpoint. Estimates by the International Labor Office are that the global labor force will grow by about 900 million people from 1980 to 2000. It is projected that these 900 million people will join the current labor force including approximately 50 million unemployed and about 300 million underemployed. Accurate measures of employment are difficult because different countries count employment in different...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Developed Nations, Developing Nations, Economic Development, Economic Factors,...
This document, which examines various topics and issues related to the management of freshwater supplies, is organized into 6 main sections. These sections include: (1) the water cycle and renewable supplies, providing data on distribution of such supplies by continent and average annual per capita runoff produced in selected countries with projections for the year 2000; (2) competing uses for water, providing data on world water use (total and per capita) for 1940-80, growth in irrigated areas...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agriculture, Conservation (Environment), Developing Nations, Foreign Countries,...
The current use and potential of technology for achieving security and peace are explored. Section 1 traces the use of technology for warfare through the mastery of ocean-going sailing, the maturation of the airplane, and the development of nuclear weapons. This section suggests that these developments have led to a loss rather than an increase in security. Section 2 discusses the "transparency revolution," which refers to the military reconnaissance, sensing, command, and...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Global Approach, Modern History, Nuclear Warfare, Peace, Political Issues, Security...
Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) Archive
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The workbook for Ilokano was designed for language training of Peace Corps volunteers in the Philippines. It consists of: a list of commonly-used phrases for greetings, leavetaking, shopping, asking for directions, managing a conversation, and introducing oneself; a more extensive vocabulary/phrase book of words and expressions used in everyday communication, organized by situation and accompanied by English translations; a list of core competencies at three skill levels (beginning,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Behavioral Objectives, Communicative Competence (Languages), Competency Based...
Approximately 20 million workers are presently living in countries other than their homelands in order to find better job opportunities. This labor migration is determined mainly by an income gap between the sending and receiving countries. Less important determinants are historical ties, cultural or linguistic affinity, and proximity. Emigrants include highly educated professionals such as doctors and engineers, and unskilled laborers who can assume low-paying jobs in agriculture and industry,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Change Strategies, Developed Nations, Developing Nations, Economic Factors,...
Concerns associated with biological diversity and the extinction of species are addressed in this report. Major topic areas examined include: (1) historical records of extinctions; (2) conservation biology and tropical ecology; (3) human-management regeneration potentials; (4) restoration ecology; (5) experimental restoration efforts; (6) governmental programs and policies; (7) global environmental priorities; and (8) the need for environmental sustainability. Bibliographic notes are also...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Biodiversity, Biology, Conservation (Environment), Ecology, Endangered Species,...
Projects, operations, and future plans are covered in this annual report for the fifth year of the Peace Corps. An introduction overviews past and future activities of the Peace Corps and its volunteers. Section 2 reviews the year 1966 and covers these topics: the new director, Jack Vaughn; countries in which new programs were begun; the Cornell/Peru Report on Peace Corps impact; Peace Corps training; long-range planning; and recruiting. A case study of the Peace Corps program in Niger is...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agriculture, Annual Reports, Community Development, Cooperative Programs,...
The booklet maintains that the key to meeting basic human needs is the participation of individuals and communities in local problem solving. Some of the most important achievements in providing food, upgrading housing, improving human health, and tapping new energy sources, comes through local self-help projects. Proponents of local efforts at world problem solving point out that national and international efforts are too highly centralized to encourage direct action by those who are most...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Citizen Participation, Community Action, Cooperation, Developed Nations, Developing...
In this essay, Paul Vallas--education reform expert and key advisor to the government of Haiti in developing its national education plan--discusses his plan for Haiti. The paper explores the successes and challenges of education reform in Haiti, before and after the earthquake that devastated the nation in 2010. The essay describes the improvements made in other parts of the world distraught by natural disasters. Vallas explores how lessons learned could be adapted and emulated in a country...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Natural Disasters, Foreign Countries, Emergency Programs, Educational Planning,...
Global inflation should be viewed more as a sympton of social problems than as an economic disease that can be cured by monetary and fiscal policy. Social problems signaled by inflation include exploding demand, rising costs for essential commodities, stagnating productivity, and a decline in the real standard of living. Inflation is interpreted as an increase in the overall level of nominal prices in the whole economy. It is significant to note, however, that crucial determinants of well being...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agriculture, Cost Estimates, Costs, Depleted Resources, Developed Nations, Developing...
Recent studies have shown wind power to be an eminently practical and potentially substantial source of electricity and direct mechanical power. Wind machines range from simple water-pumping devices made of wood and cloth to large electricity producing turbines with fiberglass blades nearly 300 feet long. Wind is in effect a form of solar energy--approximately two percent of the sunlight that falls on the earth's surface is converted to the kinetic energy of wind through a system in which warm...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Developed Nations, Developing Nations, Energy, Power Technology, Solar Radiation,...
The environmental impact of air pollution on the earth can be described as grave. Air pollution, particularly acid rain, is devastating forests, crops, and lakes over wide areas of North America and Europe. In many cities, ancient buildings have eroded more in recent decades than they had over the previous thousand years. Indications are that Third World countries are starting to experience damage as well. This document discusses the state of the earth in relation to the air pollution problem....
Topics: ERIC Archive, Air Pollution, Conservation (Environment), Environmental Education, Environmental...
This report focuses on the necessity and advantages of recycling. Following an introduction, the report is divided into five sections, addressing respectively: the necessity of recycling; waste paper recycling; aluminum recycling; iron and steel recycling; and three steps to a "recycling society." These steps include: (1) requiring that consumers pay full costs of materials they use and requiring efforts to reduce energy price subsidies; (2) building world markets for scrap paper,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Environmental Education, Foreign Countries, Fuels, Matter, Metals, Paper (Material),...
The paper explores the relationship of women's childbearing attitudes to educational and work opportunities. Program administrators for family planning, educational programs, and national development efforts in developing countries must realize the importance of the social and cultural environment in designing programs to reduce population growth. Section one discusses the impact of education on women's attitudes toward childbearing. Schooling exposes women to new kinds of information, can...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adult Education, Attitude Change, Birth Rate, Community Role, Comparative Education,...
Existing demographic analyses do not explain the negative relationship between population growth and life-support systems that are now emerging in scores of developing countries. The demographic transition, a theory first outlined by demographer Frank Notestein in 1945, classified all societies into one of three stages. Drawing heavily on the European experience, it has provided the conceptual framework for a generation of demographic research. During the first stage of the demographic...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Birth Rate, Cross Cultural Studies, Demography, Developing Nations, Foreign...
There are many forces of environmental and economic decline that endanger our communities and planet. These have caused a global threat which is very complex. The pressure to feed increasing numbers of people helps cause high rates of topsoil loss which results in decreased agricultural productivity. As poorer nations attempt to fight these problems, millions of their children die of preventable diseases. On the other hand, rising industrialization has caused acid rain and air pollution,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Developing Nations, Economically Disadvantaged, Environmental Influences, Global...
The report identifies regions in which deserts and arid zones are increasing; discusses social and climatic causes of deserts; and suggests ways to cope with and reverse problems of famine, malnutrition, and drought. Increasingly, land is being sapped of its ability to sustain agriculture and human habitation north and south of the Sahara, in Iraq, India, the Argentine, Chile, Australia, and the southwestern United States. This is due to overgrazing, soil erosion caused by improper cultivation,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agriculture, Agronomy, Animal Husbandry, Climate, Depleted Resources, Developing...
Projects, operations, and future plans are covered in this annual report for the tenth year of the Peace Corps. An overview focuses on Peace Corps success in providing technical assistance to aid development plans for the seventies and in responding to local needs as well as on its failures. The next section considers the Peace Corps response to the New Directions policies, including providing volunteers who are specialists with demand skills; recruiting families; improving recruitment...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agriculture, Annual Reports, Community Development, Cooperative Programs,...
The post-World War II era is commonly described as the age of oil. Petroleum has fueled the industrialization process and has helped to raise living standards around the globe. At the same time, the current era has been referred to as the age of efficiency. Since 1973, it is estimated that the world saved far more energy through improved efficiency than it has gained from all new energy sources. This document deals with some of the possibilities for energy efficiency, particularly as it relates...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Alternative Energy Sources, Conservation (Environment), Depleted Resources,...
This curriculum unit was prepared for senior high classroom use to teach geography, history, and environmental issues. The objective of the lesson is to illustrate the historical man/river relationship between Egypt and the Nile River, and the impact of the Aswan dam on the agricultural and economic needs of the country today. The lesson requires three or four classroom periods, and includes maps, charts, vocabulary list, and discussion topics. (NL)
Topics: ERIC Archive, Class Activities, Developing Nations, Ecology, Environmental Education, Foreign...
This report emphasizes the need for action in improving human nutrition, health and the status of women in Third World countries. Special attention is directed to improvement in child health care practices. The report advocates a strategy that meshes short term needs of desperate families with long term requirements of ecological stability and economic development. A strategy of integrated development to meet basic needs in the Third World demands not just techniques that prevent death but...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Birth Rate, Developing Nations, Disease Control, Family Health, Family Planning,...
A computer-assisted instructional (CAI) program at the University of Illinois is used to teach the dynamics of population growth. Socio-economic models are also developed to show the consequences of population growth upon variables such as income, productivity, and the demand for food. A one-sex population projection model allows students to project size age distribution, and other demographic characteristics under a variety of assumptions and parameters. A one-sector growth model illustrates...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Handler, Paul
Aside from the growth of world population itself, urbanization is the dominant demographic trend of the late twentieth century. The number of people living in cities increased from six hundred million in 1950 to over two billion in 1986. If this growth continues unabated, more than half of humanity will reside in urban areas shortly after the turn of the century. Resultant signs of urban stress now apparent around the world call into question the continuing expansion of cities. Land and water...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Demography, Depleted Resources, Developing Nations, Ecological Factors, Economic...
A wide variety of incentive and disincentive programs are presented in an effort to stabilize the population and prevent bankruptcy of physical, economic, and social resources, particularly in countries like India and China. Following an introduction, the document discusses several programs, including (1) the use of small one-time payments for individuals who become sterilized and to family planning workers or doctors for each acceptor recruited; (2) incentives that improve welfare such as...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Birth Rate, Change Strategies, Community Resources, Contraception, Depleted...
Nuclear power was considered vital to humanity's future until just a short time ago. Since the late seventies, economic viability has joined a list of such issues as waste disposal and radiation hazards which call into question the future of nuclear power. This document discusses (in separate sections): (1) the selling of nuclear power, including worldwide nuclear power commitments; (2) costs, including annual rate increases for nuclear construction; (3) explanations for the rising cost of...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Costs, Economic Factors, Economics, Electricity, Foreign Countries, Nuclear Energy,...
Described are the history, current status and future potential of hydroelectric power in the world. Issues discussed include the environmental and social impacts of dam construction, and the use of small-scale hydroelectric installations in developing nations. Also considered are hydroelectric development of the world's remote regions, the need to make better use of existing dams, and new directions in hydropower. (WB)
Topics: ERIC Archive, Developing Nations, Electricity, Energy, Industrialization, Natural Resources,...
This document deals with efforts aimed at reforesting large areas of degraded lands. It includes sections on: (1) tree cover trends; (2) fuelwood challenges of the future; (3) the need to supply industrial wood; (4) stabilizing soil and water resources; (5) forests and climate change; and (6) mobilization for reforestation. (TW)
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agriculture, Conservation (Environment), Depleted Resources, Developing Nations,...
This report discusses the growth of urbanization throughout the world with focus on the problems faced by poor city dwellers. The first section presents population data that show the great increases in urban populations around the globe during this century. Urban food supplies are discussed in the second section. Energy constraints on city growth are explored in the third section, with a discussion about differences in fuel use by urban and rural areas. The fourth section describes employment...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Demography, Employment Opportunities, Energy, Population Trends, Public...
The use of pesticides in agriculture and the discarding of industrial chemical waste into the air, soil, and water constitute two major pathways of human exposure to toxic substances. It is argued that these practices release hundreds of millions of tons of potentially hazardous substances into the environment each year. Speculation continues into the long-term consequences of the health and ecological effects of the vast majority of chemicals in use. This document addresses some of these...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Disease Control, Ecological Factors, Environmental Education, Foreign Countries,...
The third of three annual assessments concentrating on the relationship between the world economy and its environmental support systems, this edition expands earlier themes on how economic demands of a world population approaching 5 billion affects the earth's natural systems and resources to embrace threats to security as well. The first of 11 sections, "A Generation of Deficits" (Lester R. Brown) examines not only deficits and debts in the United States, but in other countries as...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agricultural Trends, Developed Nations, Developing Nations, Disarmament, Ecological...
This publication examines various topics and issues related to the world oil situation. Major areas considered are: (1) the nature and consequences of the current oil glut; (2) a historical overview of the petroleum era (with analyses of the three time periods of 1900-1973, 1973-1979, and 1979-1981); (3) the geopolitics of oil (including data on oil production and revenues from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) for 1973, 1980, and 1984; (4) the limits to world oil use...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Depleted Resources, Energy, Energy Conservation, Fuel Consumption, Fuels, Natural...
Alternatives to fossil fuels as energy resources are discussed. Energy from the sun and other renewable resources are cited as the alternatives. Constructed is a practical energy scenario for the year 2030 that involves a 55-percent cut in carbon dioxide emissions, greatly improved energy efficiency, and an energy production system that relies heavily on solar energy, geothermal energy, wind power, and the energy of living plants. World petroleum resources in the Middle East and worldwide are...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Alternative Energy Sources, Conservation (Environment), Depleted Resources, Energy...
Solar photovoltaic cells have been called the ultimate energy technology, environmentally benign and without moving parts, solar cells directly convert sunlight into electricity. Photovoltaic energy conversion is fundamentally different from all other forms of electricity generation. Without turbines, generators or other mechanical equipment, it more closely resembles photosynthesis, the biochemical process that forms the energy basis of life on earth. A product of mid-twentieth century...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Electricity, Energy, Environmental Education, Foreign Countries, Government Role,...
The second of a series of annual reports designed to provide a global assessment of progress toward a sustainable society, this publication monitors changes in the global resource base (land, water, energy, and biological support systems), focusing particularly on how these changes affect the economy. Included in the report are news on innovative or particularly successful technical developments; a look at global economic conditions that policy makers often overlook; a review of national...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Alternative Energy Sources, Conservation (Environment), Depleted Resources, Developed...
This guide for teaching Tagalog as a second language is designed for training Peace Corps volunteers. It consists of 140 lessons based on cartoons from a Philippines newspaper. Each lesson contains a one- to three-panel cartoon in Tagalog with English translation, vocabulary and grammar notes, comprehension questions, and notes on related cultural features. Cartoon topics include a variety of daily living and interpersonal situations. (MSE)
Topics: ERIC Archive, Cartoons, Conversational Language Courses, Cultural Awareness, Cultural Education,...
The changing role of women worldwide and its impact on politics, economic development, and social structures is examined. Inadequate education, lack of access to channels of influence, and prejudice generally hamper women in exercising the political rights they are now given by most countries in the world. Priority should be given to those political areas which constitute meaningful exercise of political power, rather than simple, formal political equality, which is already by law extended to...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Attitude Change, Attitudes, Citizen Participation, Females, Political Attitudes,...
Least-cost health strategies designed to attack the world's leading causes of unnecessary death are explored. Section 1 emphasizes the value of primary health-care procedures--midwifery, maternal education on breastfeeding and weaning, vaccinations, oral rehydration of victims of diarrhea, and antibiotics against respiratory infections--in lowering infant and child mortality in developing countries. Part 2 links the availability of clean drinking water and human waste disposal to diarrheal,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Cancer, Cost Effectiveness, Disease Control, Eating Habits, Global Approach, Health...
This document presents the position that renewable energy sources offer a timely alternative to dwindling oil supplies and to environmentally damaging coal combustion, although public support and financial backing need to be strengthened. An expanded use of renewables and a greater commitment to energy efficiency are the most cost-effective and environmentally sound approaches to mitigating many seemingly intractable problems. The booklet contains specific sections on: (1) harnessing the power...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Alternative Energy Sources, Depleted Resources, Ecological Factors, Energy, Energy...