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A computer-assisted instructional (CAI) program at the University of Illinois is used to teach the dynamics of population growth. Socio-economic models are also developed to show the consequences of population growth upon variables such as income, productivity, and the demand for food. A one-sex population projection model allows students to project size age distribution, and other demographic characteristics under a variety of assumptions and parameters. A one-sector growth model illustrates...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Handler, Paul
This report addresses the global concern of water development and stresses the need for management of the water demand. Investments in water efficiency, recycling, and conservation are recommended over conventional water supply projects for greater cost behefits and production yield. Topic areas include: (1) water use trends in major crop producing regions; (2) investments in irrigation efficiency (with explanations and analyses of gravity systems, surge irrigation, sprinkler designs,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Conservation (Environment), Depleted Resources, Natural Resources, Recycling,...
Separate sections of this document deal with refugee concerns in terms of a global approach, definitions of a refugee, alternatives for refugees, the international response, and long-term prospects. The booklet states that the present number of 16 million refugees is bound to increase given increasing rivalry over land and resources. The global community must improve its ability to anticipate conflicts that have a high potential for generating refugees. In the international community, however,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Futures (of Society), Global Approach, International Law, International Relations,...
Recent studies have shown wind power to be an eminently practical and potentially substantial source of electricity and direct mechanical power. Wind machines range from simple water-pumping devices made of wood and cloth to large electricity producing turbines with fiberglass blades nearly 300 feet long. Wind is in effect a form of solar energy--approximately two percent of the sunlight that falls on the earth's surface is converted to the kinetic energy of wind through a system in which warm...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Developed Nations, Developing Nations, Energy, Power Technology, Solar Radiation,...
This paper examines how the exploration of space has affected life on earth. Examined are milestones in space, war or peace in space, learning about earth from space, the satellite communications revolution, space industrialization, and the ownership of space. The real beginning of the Space Age was the October 1957 Soviet launch of a 184-pound satellite into orbit. The United States put an object into orbit in January 1958. The Soviet Union has taken an important lead in internationalizing...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Astronomy, Communications Satellites, Earth Science, Industrialization, Peace, Space...
This report examines various topics and issues related to worldwide energy productivity and energy conservation. Following an introduction, these issues are considered in 6 sections focusing on: (1) energy demand projections (with data on 1982 energy consumption in selected countries); (2) continued industrial efficiency gains (including data on energy use in steel manufacturing and electrical energy use in aluminum smelting in major producing countries, ranked by efficiency); (3) the saving of...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Economic Progress, Energy, Energy Conservation, Futures (of Society), Manufacturing...
Today's industrial economies were founded on the use of vast quantities of materials and energy, and the economic health of nations has often been equated with the amount they consumed. The amount of materials that originally enters an economy tells nothing about the material's eventual fate or its contribution to human well-being. It tells a good deal, however, about the damage the economy inflicts upon the environment. The devastation wrought by economic production is closely related to the...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Conservation (Environment), Ecology, Energy, Environmental Education, Environmental...
This publication proposes a timetable for converting the world economy to solar energy. The contents include: (1) A solar-powered world by 2025; (2) Heating and cooling; (3) Renewable fuels; (4) Electricity; (5) Getting there from here; and (6) Notes. Numerous facts are presented within these sections. International solar research programs are reviewed briefly for Sweden, Japan, Denmark, Britain, Australia, Brazil, and China. A global energy policy is recommended. (MA)
Topics: ERIC Archive, Conservation (Environment), Ecological Factors, Economics, Energy, Environmental...
The concept of sustainable economics not only examines how to produce what for whom but also how irreplaceable resources can be adequately conserved. Efficient and equitable economic mechanisms are central components of the concept. Analyzing issues complicated by politics, ideology, and nationalism, sustainable economics scholars attempt to explore what works to make resource use more efficient, how people behave in relation to resources, and how a country's economic system can alter its...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agricultural Production, Agriculture, Economics, Energy Conservation, Energy...
This paper discusses six steps which must be taken on a global level to put society on a sustainable path. Of the various steps none is more important than bringing population growth to a halt. The official United Nations medium-level population projects, used by planners throughout the world, show world population reaching some 10.5 billion before eventually stabilizing a century or more from now. It is recommended that the world population be stabilized at the six billion level by the year...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agricultural Production, Energy Conservation, Forestry, Global Approach, Natural...
Recent world developments have created an opportune time for nations to vigorously pursue a policy of converting the huge portion of their economies that traditionally have been devoted to military expenditures to more socially productive uses. This paper outlines a strategy for such a conversion, and discusses the issues that must be confronted in such a process. Specific aspects of conversion include: (1) misconceptions about lessening military spending; (2) building a conversion coalition;...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Disarmament, Economics, Foreign Countries, Futures (of Society), Global Approach,...
This paper, one of a series published by the Worldwatch Institute to identify and focus attention on global problems, is adapted from the author's book, "Rays of Hope: The Transition to a Post-Petroleum World." The author examines the current energy problems of the world, and determines that the energy patterns of the past are not the prologue to the future. The inadequacies associated with energy alternatives to petroleum, such as coal and nuclear fusion, are identified and...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Depleted Resources, Energy, Environment, Environmental Influences, Fuels, Futures (of...
The contributors to this document compare the main approaches to agricultural extension in sub-Saharan Africa; the cost-effectiveness in view of precarious national budgets; the weaknesses of the system for generating technology; the difficulties in forging productive partnerships between researchers, extensionists and farmers; the ineffective public services and fragile institutional networks; and the degree to which farmers are allowed to participate in extension management. The articles...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Developing Nations, Economic Development, Higher Education, Modernization, Research...
This report examines the role played by the Peace Corps education sector in developing countries. Section I provides a general overview of the progress over the past 20 years of education assistance. A case study is presented of education programs in Sierra Leone. Section II provides an overview of distribution of education volunteers worldwide and by programming categories in 1980. Section III considers the current condition. It describes conditions of education in developing countries,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adult Education, Agency Role, Developing Nations, Education, Foreign Countries,...
Analysts of U.S.-Soviet balance of power usually focus on relative military strength. But other factors determine a country's overall power and influence. Among the most basic is a country's capacity to feed its people. By this measure the Soviet Union appears to be in deep trouble. Massive spending has increased Soviet military strength in recent years, but the country has become weaker agriculturally. While the two superpowers now appear roughly equal in military strength, the advantage in...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agricultural Production, Agricultural Trends, Agriculture, Economic Factors, Exports,...
This publication discusses world problems related to poverty and possible ways to escape those problems. Sections include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "And the Poor Get Poorer" (reporting data on income distribution in many countries); (3) "The Global Poverty Trap" (describing various hindrances to improving conditions at the local, national, and global levels); (4) "Poverty and the Environment" (including cases of ecological deterioration in many poor...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Conservation (Environment), Developing Nations, Economic Factors, Environment,...
This report focuses on the necessity and advantages of recycling. Following an introduction, the report is divided into five sections, addressing respectively: the necessity of recycling; waste paper recycling; aluminum recycling; iron and steel recycling; and three steps to a "recycling society." These steps include: (1) requiring that consumers pay full costs of materials they use and requiring efforts to reduce energy price subsidies; (2) building world markets for scrap paper,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Environmental Education, Foreign Countries, Fuels, Matter, Metals, Paper (Material),...
This document, which examines various topics and issues related to the management of freshwater supplies, is organized into 6 main sections. These sections include: (1) the water cycle and renewable supplies, providing data on distribution of such supplies by continent and average annual per capita runoff produced in selected countries with projections for the year 2000; (2) competing uses for water, providing data on world water use (total and per capita) for 1940-80, growth in irrigated areas...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agriculture, Conservation (Environment), Developing Nations, Foreign Countries,...
The current use and potential of technology for achieving security and peace are explored. Section 1 traces the use of technology for warfare through the mastery of ocean-going sailing, the maturation of the airplane, and the development of nuclear weapons. This section suggests that these developments have led to a loss rather than an increase in security. Section 2 discusses the "transparency revolution," which refers to the military reconnaissance, sensing, command, and...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Global Approach, Modern History, Nuclear Warfare, Peace, Political Issues, Security...
Existing demographic analyses do not explain the negative relationship between population growth and life-support systems that are now emerging in scores of developing countries. The demographic transition, a theory first outlined by demographer Frank Notestein in 1945, classified all societies into one of three stages. Drawing heavily on the European experience, it has provided the conceptual framework for a generation of demographic research. During the first stage of the demographic...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Birth Rate, Cross Cultural Studies, Demography, Developing Nations, Foreign...
Described are the history, current status and future potential of hydroelectric power in the world. Issues discussed include the environmental and social impacts of dam construction, and the use of small-scale hydroelectric installations in developing nations. Also considered are hydroelectric development of the world's remote regions, the need to make better use of existing dams, and new directions in hydropower. (WB)
Topics: ERIC Archive, Developing Nations, Electricity, Energy, Industrialization, Natural Resources,...
Solar photovoltaic cells have been called the ultimate energy technology, environmentally benign and without moving parts, solar cells directly convert sunlight into electricity. Photovoltaic energy conversion is fundamentally different from all other forms of electricity generation. Without turbines, generators or other mechanical equipment, it more closely resembles photosynthesis, the biochemical process that forms the energy basis of life on earth. A product of mid-twentieth century...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Electricity, Energy, Environmental Education, Foreign Countries, Government Role,...
This publication examines various topics and issues related to the world oil situation. Major areas considered are: (1) the nature and consequences of the current oil glut; (2) a historical overview of the petroleum era (with analyses of the three time periods of 1900-1973, 1973-1979, and 1979-1981); (3) the geopolitics of oil (including data on oil production and revenues from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) for 1973, 1980, and 1984; (4) the limits to world oil use...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Depleted Resources, Energy, Energy Conservation, Fuel Consumption, Fuels, Natural...
This paper highlights some of the themes that any successful strategy to reverse the decline of Africa must embrace. Africa is a continent experiencing a breakdown in the relationship between people and their natural support systems. Famine and the threat of famine are among the manifestations of this breakdown. This decline can be reversed. To do so will require an abrupt departure from the "business as usual" approach that African governments and the international community have...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agriculture, Conservation (Environment), Ecological Factors, Economic Factors,...
Worldwide economic productivity is examined in this paper. There are seven major sections. Section 1 is an introduction which discusses how as the seventies came to a close without producing a strong and sustained recovery from global economic recession, the spotlight of public concern focused on the problem of productivity. Trends which have affected productivity are discussed and ways of measuring productivity are examined. Section 2 discusses why productivity is important. Higher...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Developed Nations, Developing Nations, Economic Factors, Economics, Futures (of...
This book traces centuries of human use and abuse of forest ecosystems by discussing past decades of intense burning, grazing, and timber cutting that added to the natural acidification of the soil. Air pollutants and acids generated by industrial activities worldwide are also considered. Many forests in Europe and North America now receive as much as 30 times more acidity than they would if rain or snow were falling through a pristine atmosphere; ozone levels in many rural areas of Europe and...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Air Pollution, Ecology, Environmental Education, Environmental Influences, Forestry,...
Although soil erosion is a natural process, it has increased to the point where it far exceeds the natural formation of new soil. However, with only occasional exceptions, national agricultural and population policies have failed to take soil depletion into account. Projections of world food production always incorporate estimates of future cropland area, but what has been lacking has been an effort to project changes in inherent productivity of the projected cropland area. To help remedy this...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agricultural Production, Developing Nations, Economics, Foreign Countries, Government...
The purpose of this text is to introduce the Oromo language, spoken in parts of Ethiopia and Kenya, to Peace Corps volunteers. The Oromo language (also referred to as Galla) used in the text is based on the standard language spoken in the western and southwestern provinces of Wollega, Illubabor, and Kaffa. However, with dialectal differences taken into account, these materials can be used to teach the Oromo language in any area. The materials have been presented in such a way that the teacher...
Topics: ERIC Archive, African Languages, Dialogs (Language), Grammar, Listening Comprehension,...
This paper, an adaption from the author's forthcoming book "The Twenty-Ninth Day: Accomodating Human Needs and Numbers to the Earth's Resources," deals with non-military threats to national security. Since World War II the concept of national security has acquired an overwhelmingly military character. The policy of continual preparedness has led to the militarization of the world economy, with military expenditures now accounting for six percent of the global product. Most countries...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Biological Influences, Climate, Disarmament, Environmental Influences, Food, National...
This report focuses on topics and issues related to the global use of tobacco. It consists of an introduction and six major sections. These sections deal with: (1) the epidemic rate at which smoking is spreading, indicating that the global rate has grown nearly 75 percent over the past two decades and is growing at 2.1 percent per year, faster than world population growth; (2) health factors, indicating that lung cancer is predominantly a disease of smoking and showing the international...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Academic Achievement, Cancer, Death, Drug Abuse, Drug Use, Foreign Countries,...
After 20 years, the "green revolution" is generally referred to as a milestone in the international agricultural movement. The introduction of new varieties of wheat and rice, along with fertilizers, pesticides, and mechanized farm equipment has produced a dramatic increase in world food production. This paper assesses the successes of the green revolution in light of its effect upon third world countries. It cautions that the revolutionary gains in agricultural production have not...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agricultural Production, Agricultural Trends, Agriculture, Appropriate Technology,...
Possible future roles and designs of cars are examined in light of depletion of the earth's oil reserves. A major problem with regard to the rapidly changing world oil outlook is that cars will be competing with more essential claiments for scarce oil supplies including food production, industrial power, home heating, and running trucks and busses. Developing nations, which are particularly dependent upon the automobile, are likely to experience the most profound economic impact. Estimates of...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Conservation (Environment), Depleted Resources, Developed Nations, Developing...
A combination of revitalized employment policies, greater industrial democracy, and new ways of distributing both the hours of work and the fruits of technological change are essential if the benefits of the microelectronic revolution are to be equitably shared. Microelectronic technology promises an array of benefits, and the electronic age is already well under way. As it progresses during the last two decades of the twentieth century, it will lead to improvements in productivity in factories...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Automation, Economics, Electronics Industry, Employment Opportunities, Futures (of...
Human activities that have altered the earth's chemistry are discussed in terms of their potential ecological and economic consequences. Humanity's impact on the disruption of the natural cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur is assessed. Data are presented which illustrate the extent of change in these cycles. Risks particularly threatening and costly to society are identified as those associated with food, security, forests, and human health. Each of these risk areas are explained and...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Conservation (Environment), Ecology, Economic Factors, Environmental Education, Food,...
Recommendations and issues concerning population growth rate and its linkage to hunger and malnutrition, family planning programs and U.S. foreign aid are presented in statements from representatives in Congress from the states of Texas, Michigan, Illinois and New York, and also representatives from World Population Society, the Futures Group, Worldwatch Institute and Population Crisis Committee. The ethical issue of family planning programs with elements of coercion (such as forced abortions)...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Birth Rate, Categorical Aid, Climate, Environmental Influences, Family Planning,...
This paper examines worldwide housing problems. The rising prices of materials, energy, and land ensure that buying, building, and maintaining even the most elementary shelter today costs several times what it did a decade ago. People in industrial countries must spend an even larger share of their income if they want to buy a home. Those who cannot afford to buy a house are finding a scarcity of rental units. There is mounting despair about shelter conditions in the Third World, as it becomes...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Developed Nations, Developing Nations, Economic Factors, Energy, Futures (of...
The paper explores how continuously expanding world demand for food, feed, and fuel is generating pressure to restructure agricultural land use. In addition, problems related to transfer of agricultural crop land to energy crops are discussed. The technology of energy crops has developed to the point where large-scale commercial production of alcohol from high-yielding energy crops appears to be favorable. As gasoline prices reach $2.00 per gallon, gasahol becomes not only feasible but...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agriculture, Developed Nations, Developing Nations, Economic Development, Food,...
This publication contains the results of the conference "South-South Policy Dialogue on Quality Education for Adults and Young People" that took place in Mexico City in 2005. Articles were written by participants who presented their national programmes from the governmental perspective, which were reflected in the literacy policies, but there were also important contributions on basic education and competence recognition. Accent was put on the experiences of four countries that were...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Educational Quality, Adult Education, Adult Literacy, Adult Learning, Foreign...
Locating the issue of abortion in a global public policy context, with the array of public health, human rights, and social questions that are implicated, is the aim of this paper. Abortion laws around the world have been liberalized since the 1950s, with a resultant decrease in abortion-related mortality among women. The proportion of the world's population, governed by laws that permit abortion on medical or broader social and economic grounds, is 75 percent (nearly 4 billion people). In...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Abortions, Current Events, Family Planning, Foreign Countries, Global Approach,...
Because of the vital elements of economic life that national accounts often leave out, great skepticism should be attached to the use of GNP as a measure of country's well-being. National accounts in both developed and developing nations consistently overlook and undervalue work done by women, whether in the subsistence sector, the informal labor market, or the household. As a result, many hardworking women are classified as "not economically active." During the past three decades...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Developed Nations, Developing Nations, Employed Parents, Employed Women, Feminism,...
Employment potential in developed and developing nations is analyzed from an economic viewpoint. Estimates by the International Labor Office are that the global labor force will grow by about 900 million people from 1980 to 2000. It is projected that these 900 million people will join the current labor force including approximately 50 million unemployed and about 300 million underemployed. Accurate measures of employment are difficult because different countries count employment in different...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Developed Nations, Developing Nations, Economic Development, Economic Factors,...
Concerns associated with biological diversity and the extinction of species are addressed in this report. Major topic areas examined include: (1) historical records of extinctions; (2) conservation biology and tropical ecology; (3) human-management regeneration potentials; (4) restoration ecology; (5) experimental restoration efforts; (6) governmental programs and policies; (7) global environmental priorities; and (8) the need for environmental sustainability. Bibliographic notes are also...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Biodiversity, Biology, Conservation (Environment), Ecology, Endangered Species,...
There are many forces of environmental and economic decline that endanger our communities and planet. These have caused a global threat which is very complex. The pressure to feed increasing numbers of people helps cause high rates of topsoil loss which results in decreased agricultural productivity. As poorer nations attempt to fight these problems, millions of their children die of preventable diseases. On the other hand, rising industrialization has caused acid rain and air pollution,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Developing Nations, Economically Disadvantaged, Environmental Influences, Global...
The environmental impact of air pollution on the earth can be described as grave. Air pollution, particularly acid rain, is devastating forests, crops, and lakes over wide areas of North America and Europe. In many cities, ancient buildings have eroded more in recent decades than they had over the previous thousand years. Indications are that Third World countries are starting to experience damage as well. This document discusses the state of the earth in relation to the air pollution problem....
Topics: ERIC Archive, Air Pollution, Conservation (Environment), Environmental Education, Environmental...
This curriculum unit was prepared for senior high classroom use to teach geography, history, and environmental issues. The objective of the lesson is to illustrate the historical man/river relationship between Egypt and the Nile River, and the impact of the Aswan dam on the agricultural and economic needs of the country today. The lesson requires three or four classroom periods, and includes maps, charts, vocabulary list, and discussion topics. (NL)
Topics: ERIC Archive, Class Activities, Developing Nations, Ecology, Environmental Education, Foreign...
The post-World War II era is commonly described as the age of oil. Petroleum has fueled the industrialization process and has helped to raise living standards around the globe. At the same time, the current era has been referred to as the age of efficiency. Since 1973, it is estimated that the world saved far more energy through improved efficiency than it has gained from all new energy sources. This document deals with some of the possibilities for energy efficiency, particularly as it relates...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Alternative Energy Sources, Conservation (Environment), Depleted Resources,...
This report discusses the growth of urbanization throughout the world with focus on the problems faced by poor city dwellers. The first section presents population data that show the great increases in urban populations around the globe during this century. Urban food supplies are discussed in the second section. Energy constraints on city growth are explored in the third section, with a discussion about differences in fuel use by urban and rural areas. The fourth section describes employment...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Demography, Employment Opportunities, Energy, Population Trends, Public...
Alternatives to fossil fuels as energy resources are discussed. Energy from the sun and other renewable resources are cited as the alternatives. Constructed is a practical energy scenario for the year 2030 that involves a 55-percent cut in carbon dioxide emissions, greatly improved energy efficiency, and an energy production system that relies heavily on solar energy, geothermal energy, wind power, and the energy of living plants. World petroleum resources in the Middle East and worldwide are...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Alternative Energy Sources, Conservation (Environment), Depleted Resources, Energy...
Demographic data are used in this report to present information about infant mortality in more- and less-developed countries. One chapter is devoted to rising infant mortality rates in developed countries, which defy the typical post-World War II pattern. Severe economic conditions are linked to this increase. Direct causes of infant deaths are identified as birth defects, malnutrition, and disease. Infectious and parasitic diseases cause deaths frequently preventable by vaccination or proper...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Birth Rate, Comparative Analysis, Death, Demography, Developed Nations, Developing...
Nuclear power was considered vital to humanity's future until just a short time ago. Since the late seventies, economic viability has joined a list of such issues as waste disposal and radiation hazards which call into question the future of nuclear power. This document discusses (in separate sections): (1) the selling of nuclear power, including worldwide nuclear power commitments; (2) costs, including annual rate increases for nuclear construction; (3) explanations for the rising cost of...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Costs, Economic Factors, Economics, Electricity, Foreign Countries, Nuclear Energy,...
The changing role of women worldwide and its impact on politics, economic development, and social structures is examined. Inadequate education, lack of access to channels of influence, and prejudice generally hamper women in exercising the political rights they are now given by most countries in the world. Priority should be given to those political areas which constitute meaningful exercise of political power, rather than simple, formal political equality, which is already by law extended to...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Attitude Change, Attitudes, Citizen Participation, Females, Political Attitudes,...
The nature, scope, and problems of electrical programs are examined in this report on developing nations. Electric power is recognized as a crucial component of the economy in most Third World countries with the potential to affect some of the most basic issues facing these countries today. Topic areas covered include: (1) electric power development (examining selected countries growth, use, and generating capacity of electricity); (2) electricity efficiency (reviewing policies, programs, and...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Developing Nations, Economic Development, Electricity, Energy Education, Energy...
This monograph explores how architecture is influenced by and is responding to the global energy dilemma. Emphasis is placed on conservation techniques (using heavy insulation) and on passive solar construction (supplying most of a building's heating, cooling, and lighting requirements by sunlight). The basic problem is that architecture, like transportation, manufacturing, and agriculture, is heavily dependent on fossil fuels. It is estimated that approximately one-quarter of the world's...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Architecture, Building Design, Climate, Conservation Education, Energy, Energy...
The morphological function of tone/accent is examined in a number of Cushitic languages, with the objective of determining whether any comparative statement can be made validly at the group level. Three languages, the Somali dialect cluster, Afar, and Oromo, are the basis for the study. Patterns in case, gender, and the jussive form are analyzed. It is concluded that tone/accent does play an important role in the morphology of these languages, and that it is to some extent possible to...
Topics: ERIC Archive, African Languages, Case (Grammar), Foreign Countries, Language Patterns, Language...
This competency-based curriculum in foreign language learning for Peace Corps volunteers is designed for beginning learners and stresses listening and speaking skills. The curriculum contains the following components: an initial Scope and Sequence chart; three sections on activities (General, Grammar, and Listening), 14 topic area units (the core of the curriculum), and a "Sample Format for the Language Curriculum" showing a possible format for students learning English in order to...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adult Education, Classroom Techniques, Competency Based Education, Cultural Literacy,...
The processes and associated dilemmas of nuclear power plant decommissioning are reviewed in this publication. Decommissioning involves the clearing up and disposal of a retired nuclear plant and its equipment of such a way as to safeguard the public from the dangers of radioactivity. Related problem areas are identified and include: (1) closure methods (discussing the options of decontamination and dismantlement, storage, and reaction of a permenent tomb); (2) high-level waste management...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Alternative Energy Sources, Energy Management, Environmental Education, Environmental...
This publication is the sixth in a series of papers on global environmental issues. This paper evaluates the future of nuclear power, subjecting it to several tests: (1) economics; (2) safety; (3) adequacy of fuel supplies; (4) environmental impact; and (5) both national and international security. Section headings include: (1) The nuclear fuel cycle; (2) Nuclear economics; (3) Uranium supplies; (4) Safety; (5) Environmental impact; (6) Energy independence; (7) Nuclear terrorism; and (8)...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Economics, Energy Conservation, Environmental Education, Environmental Influences,...
The numerous and widespread problems associated with the automobile are discussed. Traffic congestion, air pollution, and oil dependence are some of the reasons why the use of alternative fuels is necessary. A proposal is made for a new transport environment where walking, bicycling, and public transportation are used to complement the use of the automobile. Gradual restructuring of cities and suburbs to make alternatives viable and to lessen the need for driving is also discussed. Chapters...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Alternative Energy Sources, Conservation (Environment), Depleted Resources, Energy...
Electricity, which has largely supplanted oil as the most controversial energy issue of the 1980s, is at the center of some of the world's bitterest economic and environmental controversies. Soaring costs, high interest rates, and environmental damage caused by large power plants have wreaked havoc on the once booming electricity industry. Although policymakers around the world disagree vigorously about future trends and appropriate policies, virtually all acknowledge that a turning point has...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Alternative Energy Sources, Coal, Costs, Developing Nations, Electricity, Energy,...
This report is a sequel to the 2005 "Perceptions of Libraries and Information Resources." This new report provides updated information and new insights into information consumers and their online habits, preferences, and perceptions. Particular attention was paid to how the current economic downturn has affected the information-seeking behaviors and how those changes are reflected in the use and perception of libraries. This report explores: (1) Technological and economic shifts since...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Employment Level, Library Development, Academic Libraries, Economic Climate,...
The interrelationship of population growth, food production, and death rates is explored. Birth rates in China, Western Europe, and North America have significantly decreased in the five-year period from 1970-75. This is largely due to widening availability of family planning services and the growing desire to use them. Four European countries have reached stability in population growth: East and West Germany, Austria, and Luxembourg. Reasons for this stability include high levels of income,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adult Education, Birth Rate, Climate, Contraception, Death, Demography, Developing...
A new movement in American higher education aims to transform the teaching of civics. This report is a study of what that movement is, where it came from, and why Americans should be concerned. What we call the "New Civics" redefines civics as progressive political activism. Rooted in the radical program of the 1960s' New Left, the New Civics presents itself as an up-to-date version of volunteerism and good works. Though camouflaged with soft rhetoric, the New Civics, properly...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Universities, Civics, Teaching Methods, Educational Practices, College Programs, Case...
This publication discusses worldwide problems and issues of concern. There are two major parts. Part I deals with "Converging Demands." For those who regularly read the Worldwatch Papers, much of the material in this section will be familiar. The material is included here particularly for the sake of those readers abroad who do not have ready access to the Institute's publications. Discussed are erosion, biological systems under pressure, oil, food, and emerging economic and social...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Conservation (Environment), Energy, Food, Futures (of Society), Global Approach, Life...
New educational opportunities for women around the world are traced. An introductory section provides an overview and discussion on the implications of equal education for women. Other sections discuss the historical background of equal education for women, women's literacy, the primary school experience, secondary education, technical skills, university education, careers as educators, and full sexual equality in education. History has shown that the changing role and characteristics of...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Career Choice, Comparative Education, Elementary Secondary Education, Employed Women,...
In 1987, a record 126,000 automobiles rolled off assembly lines each working day, and close to 400 million vehicles are used on the world's roads today. Prior to the 1970s the automobile's utility and sustainability were hardly questioned. A decade of oil price increases and worries about future fuel availability slowed automobile use somewhat, but in the 1980s improved energy efficiency and additional oil supplies combined to bring fuel prices down. This document calls for a fundamental...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Air Pollution, Alternative Energy Sources, Ecological Factors, Economic Factors,...
Forestry planning is essential if the global trend toward deforestation is to be reversed. World forest trends, although often based on inaccurate or misleading information put out by national governments, indicate that the area of land covered with closed forests has decreased from about 25% in 1950 to about 20% in the 1970s. Major causes of deforestation include logging, spread of agriculture, and collection of firewood. Among the economic consequences of uncontrolled deforestation are...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Case Studies, Conservation (Environment), Developed Nations, Developing Nations,...
Major arguments and background of the worldwide land reform debate are reviewed. In developing nations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, the control of farmland remains a principal key to wealth, status, and power. Rural landless peasants at the bottom of the socioeconomic ladder, estimated by the World Bank at more than 600 million people, are unable to meet basic needs such as food, fuel, shelter, education, health care, and family planning. Review of international agricultural output data...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agriculture, Cooperation, Developing Nations, Disadvantaged Environment, Economic...
This monograph explores the aims, priorities, and international dimensions of the world's research and development (R&D) enterprise. Global R&D priorities in order of importance include military technology, basic research, space, energy, health, information processing, transportation, pollution control, and agriculture. The majority of R&D efforts are made by industrialized nations and are geared to meeting the political and economic goals of industrialized nations. In leading the...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Developed Nations, Developing Nations, Development, Financial Support, Global...
This manual contains materials to provide Peace Corps Volunteers with the skills to make the transition from one culture to another, to enter and become fluent in another culture, and to understand the current political, social, and religious context. The approach to training is "skill building" for continued learning. Introductory materials include the goals of cross-cultural preservice training, the themes of the manual and training, and trainer notes. Materials are provided for 10...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adult Education, Behavioral Objectives, Communication Problems, Communication Skills,...
American economic analysts will better understand current economic trends if they investigate economic problems in light of the expanding global economy. Reasons for the failure of economists to explain the simultaneous existence of rapid inflation and high unemployment include preoccupation with economic indicators, short-term forecasts, and econometric models. Instead of concentrating on symptoms of economic maladies, economists should consider their underlying causes such as the role of...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agricultural Production, Attitude Change, Biological Influences, Capitalism, Depleted...
In attempts to forestall problems inherent in too-rapid urbanization, China has instituted a migration policy designed to strictly control changes in permanent residence from rural areas or small urban places to larger cities and to encourage the development of small cities and towns. The policy is enforced through the household registration system, whereby each person has an official place of residence and must obtain official permission to change locations. Within these controls, considerable...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Community Size, Human Geography, Migration, Migration Patterns, Overpopulation,...
The author provides a global review of family planning techniques and their impact on national birth rates. Sterilization, the pill, and intrauterine devices are the most popular methods of contraception worldwide. Abortion, where it is legal, is also extremely popular. In countries such as the United States where population control is not an urgent concern, there is a need to educate young people about contraception, make devices readily available, and eliminate the social stigma that birth...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adult Education, Birth Rate, Community Role, Contraception, Developing Nations,...
The infusion of technology into society has created social and environmental problems as well as benefits. Four concerns linked with technology are discussed in this paper: rising unemployment, growing social inequalities, dwindling oil and gas reserves, and potential long-term ecological problems. Indiscriminate transfer of modern labor-saving technology from industrial nations to developing nations uses up capital and energy resources, and overlooks the need for great numbers of people to be...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Depleted Resources, Developed Nations, Developing Nations, Ecological Factors,...
This manual, developed for training Peace Corps volunteers for service in developing countries, explains the process of agricultural extension and provides practical guidance on carrying out an agricultural extension program. The manual is organized into six chapters. The first chapter explains what agricultural extension is and how it is used in the Peace Corps. The second and third chapters concentrate on background information for beginning and carrying out an agricultural extension program....
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agricultural Education, Agricultural Skills, Case Studies, Cooperatives, Developing...
A directory of the 82 African languages given high priority for instruction in the United States contains a profile for each language that includes its classification and where it is spoken, the number of speakers, dialect situation, usage, orthography status, and listings of related human and institutional resources for the purpose of systematizing instruction. The languages profiled are: Akan, Amharic, Anyi/Baule, Arabic, Bamileke, Bemba, Berber, Chewa/Nyanja, Chokwe/Lunda, Dinka (Agar/Bor/...
Topics: ERIC Archive, African Languages, Afro Asiatic Languages, Dialects, Educational Policy, Information...