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Brooklyn Museum
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Invited to Bethany, where the siblings Lazarus and Martha reside, Jesus finds respite from his ministry and peace to converse with friends. Intent on listening to Jesus, the Magdalene takes a place at his feet—much to the frustration of Martha, who expects her help with the guests, Tissot relates. The Magdalene’s devoted discipleship proves unflagging throughout the narrative from the ministry to the Passion and the Resurrection; and, accordingly, her posture here at the feet of Christ...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
by James Tissot
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Although Jesus took on several followers early in his ministry, in this painting he is shown formally ordaining twelve men to help spread his teachings. They are Peter, James Major, John, Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James the Less, Thaddeus, Peter, and Judas Iscariot. Following the Gospel account, Tissot situates this event on a mountain, noting later that Jesus frequently withdrew to such elevated spots to be closer to God. Object metadata can change over time, please check...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Establishing the sacrament of Communion—in which the bread and wine of the Passover feast come to symbolize the body and blood of Christ—Jesus himself distributes the bread to each disciple, suggesting the intimacy each of them shared with him at this solemn moment. For the artist, this event marked not only the apostles’ liturgical initiation but also the beginning of Christ’s church on earth and the establishment of its most important tenets and rituals. Object metadata can change...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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According to John, while the Roman governor continues to find Jesus blameless, he accedes to pressure from the priests and decides to “chastise” him through scourging. Jesus is bound, defenseless, to a marble column and whipped before a crowded court as Pilate looks on from the palace loggia in the background. Christ’s tormentors perform a punishment most likely inflicted, Tissot tells his readers, with leather whips weighted with pieces of bone. Object metadata can change over time,...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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In two short verses, Mark recounts the deal struck between Judas and the chief priests, who will give him money to betray Jesus. Here, Judas negotiates his fee (he is shown with his fingers raised). With his suspicious backward glance at the exchange between Judas and the priests, the unidentified foreground figure draws the viewer’s attention to the proceedings. Object metadata can change over time, please check the Brooklyn Museum object record for the latest information.
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
by James Tissot
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Exclaiming “Behold the man!,” Pilate shows the beaten and bloodied Christ to the crowds. The people gathered in the court below urge his execution, with pointed fingers raised in accusatory gestures. On the loggia before the assembled crowd, Pilate—convinced of Jesus’ innocence and impressed by his dignity, according to Tissot’s account—publicly washes his hands on the loggia before the square, symbolically distancing himself from the execution to follow. Object metadata can change...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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In the ninth hour of the Passion (three o’clock in the afternoon), Jesus “gives utterance to that cry of anguish, the most heartrending which ever resounded upon this earth,” Tissot writes. In his commentary, Tissot indicates that Christ’s words—the title of this work—are derived from the opening verse of the 22nd Psalm, a text that begins with a lamentation on God’s seeming absence or desertion. Object metadata can change over time, please check the Brooklyn Museum object record...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
by James Tissot
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As they continue to plot against Jesus, the chief priests warn against acting during the feast of Passover, fearing a possible uprising at a time when Jerusalem’s population swelled dramatically, with many visitors in town to celebrate the holiday. While a young man keeps watch, the priests speak closely together, stroking their beards and scowling in an almost caricatural fashion, in Tissot’s rendering. Object metadata can change over time, please check the Brooklyn Museum object record...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
by James Tissot
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Although Matthew, Mark, and Luke all describe Christ’s temptations by Satan, Tissot cites only the version given by Luke. For reasons that remain unclear, he changes the order of the tests given by Luke. In Tissot’s first image, Satan abducts Jesus and soars to a precipitous height—emphasized by the low, bright horizon line in the distance. The shadowy darkness of the claw-toed devil contrasts with Jesus’ pristine white cloak. From their great height, Satan tempts Jesus with the many...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Object metadata can change over time, please check the Brooklyn Museum object record for the latest information.
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
by James Tissot
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Complementing the narrative of the venerations by the humble shepherds, the Magi, guided by a moving star, traveled separately from their individual lands in the east in search of the newborn Jesus. Tissot depicts the Magi at the moment when their retinues meet in the vast, arid landscape of the volcanic hills on the shores of the Dead Sea between Jericho, the Kedron Valley, and Jerusalem. In his commentary, the artist notes that their flowing saffron robes—a luxurious counterpoint to the...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
by James Tissot
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Object metadata can change over time, please check the Brooklyn Museum object record for the latest information.
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Object metadata can change over time, please check the Brooklyn Museum object record for the latest information.
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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In this parable, a rich man upon his death is sent to hell for ignoring the needs of a certain beggar named Lazarus (a character distinct from the man Jesus later resurrects), who had pleaded at his door for scraps and subsequently died. Now, as the rich man beseeches Abraham for relief from his sufferings, the Old Testament patriarch castigates him for his greed and his lack of charity during his lifetime. Here Tissot imaginatively creates a powerful image of the rich man’s descent into a...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Sitting astride a donkey, Jesus enters Jerusalem during the Passover season in triumph, receiving the acclamation of his followers, who call him the prophet of Nazareth and place garments or other textiles in his path, a homage typically reserved for kings. The multitudes also register their respect with bowed heads, outstretched arms, and clapping hands. Several of his followers celebrate his arrival with palm fronds, a symbol of victory in Jewish tradition. These palms subsequently gave the...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
by James Tissot
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Gathered around Jesus, the disciples ask him to teach them to pray. With arms opened wide and hands upraised in a gesture of humility, Jesus begins his prayer with an acknowledgment of God’s power in heaven and on earth. (Tissot places Jesus between the color-streaked sky and the ground on which his disciples sit, further signifying Jesus’ place between the human and the divine.) This invocation became the foundational prayer for his followers. Object metadata can change over time, please...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Tissot renders the technical elements of the Crucifixion with a profusion of unforgettable details intended to encourage viewers to contemplate the method of Christ’s execution on a visceral level. Although Tissot follows celebrated artistic predecessors such as the Flemish painter Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640) in his depiction of the brute physical exertions required of those who raised the cross, he also adds further nuances to the visual tradition, depicting the elaborate system of...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
by James Tissot
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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In Luke’s Gospel, the shepherds in the hills and valleys surrounding Bethlehem first learn of the miraculous event from an angel who announces the birth of the Savior. The accompanying angels joyously sing their praise of God and urge good will to men, a passage that gives its name to a well-known hymn, “Gloria in Excelsis Deo” (Glory to God in the Highest). In the text he wrote to accompany this image, Tissot explains the local practices for pasturage in the Middle East, noting that...
Topics: art, European Art
Object metadata can change over time, please check the Brooklyn Museum object record for the latest information.
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
by James Tissot
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
by James Tissot
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Jesus’ conversations with members of his community escalate and become violent: when he claims to know Abraham, the Old Testament patriarch, devout Jews are skeptical, given his youth. Alluding to his own transcendence as the Son of God, he replies: “Before Abraham was, I am.” At this response, the people attack Jesus with stones, gathering together as an angry mob. Object metadata can change over time, please check the Brooklyn Museum object record for the latest information.
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
by James Tissot
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For his narrative of the life of Christ, Tissot created a “harmony” of the Gospels, combining the separate accounts of Jesus’ life attributed to the apostles Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. These four New Testament texts differ from one another in theological emphasis and tone. A harmony, a literary form traced to the second-century Christian writer Tatian, seeks to reconcile the differences among the four Gospels and to piece together one continuous chronology of Jesus’ life, verse by...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
by James Tissot
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Speaking to those who challenge his teachings and his deeds, Jesus likens himself to the good shepherd, pictured here, who devotes his life, and sacrifices his own well-being, to protect the sheep in his care. This analogy anticipates the ultimate sacrifice that Jesus will make for his “flock” of followers and humankind. Tissot notes that this parable is among the most beautiful in the Gospels—and, indeed, one with an enduring visual history. The artist cites the earliest examples in the...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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In Luke’s account of the calling of the first apostles, the fishermen return empty-handed after a long night of fishing in their boats. At Jesus’ command, they lower their nets once more and harvest more fish than their boats can hold, prompting Peter to confess his unworthiness in Jesus’ presence. While the other fishermen struggle with their hefty catch, Peter bows on bended knees before Jesus, a gesture that underscores his primacy among the disciples in Luke’s Gospel. In response to...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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In this parable, a young man leaves the comfort of family, wanders foreign lands, and resorts to begging after wasting a fortune through debauchery. Returning, he receives the embrace of his father, who warmly welcomes him home despite his mistakes, prompting the young man to repent the rejection of his family. Tissot had treated the Prodigal Son subject several times before, first in the guise of early historicizing scenes that helped establish his career and then, in the early 1880s, as a...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Apart from Jesus, Mary Magdalene is the only individual in Tissot’s series accorded more than one study, or portrait—an exception that announces her importance, not only to the narrative itself but also to the artist. As scholars have suggested, Tissot appears to have modeled the Magdalene’s features after his late mistress, Mrs. Kathleen Newton, who had died of tuberculosis in 1882. Like many in the nineteenth century, the painter was particularly interested in the occult, and he had...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
by James Tissot
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
by James Tissot
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In this chapter of Matthew, Jesus teaches frequently with parables, or fables—a strategy that frustrates his disciples, who ask him why he uses this challenging method of preaching. To explain his pedagogy, Jesus invokes yet another parable, the fable of the sower. The sower scatters his seeds on inhospitable terrain—rocky, thorny, and dry—seemingly to no effect. But many of the seeds do find fertile ground, producing a plentiful harvest. For Jesus, his words are like the seeds of the...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
by James Tissot
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Following the death of the good (or penitent) thief crucified at Golgotha, his soul is taken up to heaven, fulfilling the promise made by Jesus on the cross; as Tissot notes, he is the very first to “reap the benefits of the Redemption of mankind.” With eyes wide open in wonder, the good thief floats upward, supported by six-winged angels who bear perfume censers. Far below lies the earth, its continents and seas clearly discernible. Object metadata can change over time, please check the...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
by James Tissot
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While Mark devotes just a single verse to the act of crucifixion, Tissot describes the process in exacting detail in four images and his accompanying published commentaries. Following first-century Roman sources, he considers the physical restraints the executioners probably employed to bind Jesus securely to the cross. He concludes that ropes must have been required, in addition to nails, to keep the elevated body from collapsing under its own weight. At right, the Virgin Mary and others look...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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As Christ and the thieves condemned to die along with him hang on their crosses, one mockingly demands that Jesus, as the Christ, relieve them of their sufferings. The other criminal reminds his fellow of the justness of their punishments, in contrast to the innocence of Jesus. “Touched,” Tissot writes, “by the divine gentleness of the crucified Saviour,” the penitent thief then asks Jesus to remember him when he comes into his kingdom; Jesus replies that today the thief will be with...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Jesus now has a significant following, demonstrated visually by the crowd stretching along narrow paths from the distant shores of a lake all the way to the peak of the mountain; he preaches with hands upraised to a group of men, women, and children. In the episode illustrated here, often called the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus enunciates many of the key moral and ethical tenets of his ministry. In the beatitudes, he identifies the blessed among the community— including the meek, the righteous,...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
by James Tissot
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Object metadata can change over time, please check the Brooklyn Museum object record for the latest information.
Topics: art, European Art
Object metadata can change over time, please check the Brooklyn Museum object record for the latest information.
Topics: art, European Art
In his text, Tissot describes the slow, careful manner with which the Virgin, attended by other holy women, washed and dried her son’s wounds before the procession accompanied the body to the stone of anointing. In this image, the body has been wrapped, according to Jewish custom, with linen bands before being placed in a series of shrouds, the last hiding the face. Before covering his visage, the Virgin gives her son a final kiss. Unlike the images in the Passion, in which Mary sometimes...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Convicted of blasphemy by the high priests—a crime punishable by death—Jesus is led away, as the crowd of witnesses pulls his hair, scratches his face, and rains both insults and blows on his body in what Tissot describes as a “diabolical fury.” Having blindfolded Jesus, his tormentors now mock his status as a prophet by demanding that he divine which among them has hit him. Object metadata can change over time, please check the Brooklyn Museum object record for the latest information.
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
by James Tissot
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According to Luke, an angel appeared to Mary and announced that she would bear the Son of God. Tissot adhered to art-historical precedents for this biblical episode, placing the Angel Annunciate at left and Mary at right. Her white robes, symbolizing purity, set her apart from the pattern-on-pattern furnishings that the artist used to signal the “authenticity” of the exotic Eastern setting. Mary sits on the floor with head bowed and hands open, humbly accepting her role. In a later passage...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Jesus drives the merchants from the Temple, among them moneychangers as well as those who sell animals for sacrifice and food for worshippers. He scatters their goods—in a dramatic flurry of flapping doves’ wings—as he wields a whip devised from his own belt, Tissot notes in his text. (This last detail comes from the account in John, though Tissot chose not to cite those verses in his Bible.) The sheer bulk of merchants with their wares and animals had grown so large, Tissot explains,...
Topics: art, European Art
Although Luke devotes just two verses to the betrothal of Mary and Joseph, their formal promise of future marriage, Tissot inventively elaborates on the event, calling on his extensive research into ancient Jewish ritual. Before a sea of onlookers, Joseph, with staff still in hand, and Mary stand with heads bowed beneath a painted canopy held aloft by attendants who grasp lushly garlanded poles. Tissot crams this tiny work with a multitude of details, from the patterned robes of Mary and Joseph...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
by James Tissot
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This is one of a group of paintings illustrating parables told by Jesus to his followers, rather than episodes from his life. Here, a rich man amasses possessions, taking pride in their accumulation rather than praising God for their plenitude and use. Dazzled by the goods that surround him, he remains oblivious to the threat of death hovering behind him in the form of a sword-bearing angel. Object metadata can change over time, please check the Brooklyn Museum object record for the latest...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
by James Tissot
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Object metadata can change over time, please check the Brooklyn Museum object record for the latest information.
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Brooklyn Museum
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
by James Tissot
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Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
by James Tissot
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Although this episode cannot be found in the Gospel accounts, Tissot presents a scene traditionally included as one of the Stations of the Cross, a series of images, venerated chiefly by Catholics, that trace the events of Jesus’ final hours. At the fourth station, he meets his mother, Mary, after he falls while carrying his cross to Calvary. Her arms extended toward her son, Mary rushes to his side, accompanied by John the Evangelist and Mary Magdalene. Her compassion stands in marked...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
by James Tissot
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Standing on a raised platform before the Court of the Gentiles outside the Temple, Jesus first considers asking God to save him from his impending sacrifice; but then, recognizing its necessity in the divine plan, he instead glorifies God’s name. The Lord responds from the heavens: some in the crowd hear thunder, others the voice of an angel. Jesus acknowledges his forthcoming death to those gathered. With this image, Tissot again blends his interest in historical accuracy with a sense of...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
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Object metadata can change over time, please check the Brooklyn Museum object record for the latest information.
Topics: art, European Art
Object metadata can change over time, please check the Brooklyn Museum object record for the latest information.
Topics: art, European Art
Throughout the series, Tissot adopted compositional strategies that permit—and indeed, force—the viewer into the action of the narrative as a participant. In a significant departure from this practice, however, Tissot here presents an expansive view from above the public forum where Jesus hears his death sentence. Although the figures are minute, the red-cloaked Jesus, flanked on either side by the thieves condemned to die with him, can be clearly discerned standing before Pilate, who sits...
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
by James Tissot
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Object metadata can change over time, please check the Brooklyn Museum object record for the latest information.
Topics: art, European Art
Brooklyn Museum
by James Tissot
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Object metadata can change over time, please check the Brooklyn Museum object record for the latest information.
Topics: art, European Art