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GeoDIL Images

University of North Dakota

The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and students. This project was initiated at the University of North Dakota (UND) in fall 2000. Dexter Perkins and Joseph Hartman, of UND's Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, are the Library Directors.



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GeoDIL Images
by Nessa Eull
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Spinel from the Mogok Valley, Myanamar (Burma) Description: The red crystals are spinel and the white matrix is calcite. Spinel, MgAl 2 O 4 (magnesium aluminum oxide), is one of the few relatively common minerals of the cubic system. It typically forms octahedral (8 sided) crystals; the crystal in the middle of the sample is a good example. Spinel is sometimes prized as a gem. Spinel can have just about any color, but red is most common. It has occasionally been confused with ruby, most notably...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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UND Hawaii Spring Break 2002 Trip Description: Pahoehoe in Volcanoes National Park. Location: USA ▹ Hawaii. Near Hilo. Volcanoes National Park. Collection: Joseph Hartman C9168. Tech details: 91 KB. Vista. Kodachrome, TIFF. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and students. This project was initiated at the University of North Dakota (UND) in fall 2000. Dexter Perkins and...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Dexter Perkins
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Ripples in gypsum sand, White Sands National Monument, New Mexico Description: White Sands National Monument is at the northern end of the Chihuahuan Desert in the Tularosa Basin. Unlike most deserts, the sands here are made of gypsum (not quartz). Here we see ripples caused by blowing wind with a footprint for scale. Location: USA ▹ New Mexico. Near Alamogordo. White Sands National Monument. Tech details: 484 KB. Hand specimen. Canon A1, Agfachrome 100. The Geoscience Digital Image Library...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Opal, cabachon Description: Opal, SiO 2 -nH 2 O (hydrated silicon dioxide), is considered a mineraloid because this structure is not truly crystalline. The chemistry of opal is primarily SiO 2 and varying amounts of water from 5%-10% and greater. This water can help geologists determine the temperature of the host rock at the time the opal formed. Collection: Ward’s Natural Science, 49 E 6208. Tech details: 55 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF Nikon micro lens....
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Dexter Perkins
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Joshua Tree National Park Description: Joshua Tree National Park. Location: USA ▹ California. Near Palm Springs. Collection: E451202991V. Tech details: 252 KB. Vista. Canon Eos Rebel, 55mm lens, Kodak Ektachrome Elite. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and students. This project was initiated at the University of North Dakota (UND) in fall 2000. Dexter Perkins and...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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Quarry 39 Description: Quarry 39. Collection: Joseph Hartman C08437. Tech details: 495 KB. Outcrop. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and students. This project was initiated at the University of North Dakota (UND) in fall 2000. Dexter Perkins and Joseph Hartman, of UND's Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, are the Library Directors.
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Berea Sandstone, Cuyahoga County, Ohio Description: This fine grained sandstone is sample #45 from the Ward’s Collection of Classic North American Rocks. Quartz is the dominant mineral. Chert, feldspar, zircon, tourmaline, muscovite, pyrite, and hematite are also present but generally cannot be seen without a microscope. The sample is 10.5 cm across. Chronostratigraphy: Mississippian. Lithostratigraphy: Berea Sandstone (Berea Grit). Location: USA ▹ Ohio ▹ Cuyahoga. Near Berea. Collection:...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Shannon Heinle
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Citrine Description: Citrine is the yellow orange variety of quartz (SiO 2 ). It is rare in nature but can often be obtained by heating the purple variaty of quartz, amethyst. Quartz, one of the most abundant minerals on Earth, is found in nearly every geological environment, and has many different varieties. Varieties include citrine, amethyst, rose quartz, milky quartz, smoky quartz and others. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection. Tech details: 456 KB. Hand specimen....
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Dexter Perkins
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Comparison of granite (left) and arkose (right) Description: These samples of granite (on left) and arkose (on right) both contain the same minerals: predominately quartz and K-feldspar. Granite is an igneous rock, so the crystals interlock in a mosaic-like pattern. Arkose is a detrital sedimentary rock, so the crystals are piled together like grains of sand. The red color of both is due to iron oxidation. These samples are part of the Petrology teaching collection of the Department of Geology...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Dexter Perkins
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View of Half Dome above the Merced River, Yosemite Valley, California Description: The rounded peak with the cliff face (center of photo) is Half Dome. It towers more than 1,250 meters (4,000 ft) above the floor of Yosemite Valley, and is made up of the Half Dome Granodiorite (86-88 Ma), part of the Tuolumne Intrusive Suite. The rounded dome on the left in this photo is North Dome, and below it (in shadow above trees) is the Royal Arches. Half dome was one of the few peaks in the vicinity that...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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Rhyolite Porphyry, Chafee County, Colorado Description: This specimen is a gray, porphyritic rock, somewhat vesicular, with prominent phenocrysts of smoky quartz averaging 5mm in width and subhedral to euhedral phenocrysts of glassy feldspar averaging 4mm in length. Tiny garnet and topaz crystals occur in some vesicles. The sample is 11 cm wide. Chronostratigraphy: Tertiary. Location: USA ▹ Colorado ▹ Chafee Collection: Ward’s Collection of Classic North American Rocks #12. Tech details:...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Dexter Perkins
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Erosion on the south side of Haleakala, Hawaii Description: Erosion on the south side of Haleakala, Hawaii. Location: USA ▹ Hawaii. Near Hilo. Haleakala National Park. Tech details: 193 KB. Vista. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and students. This project was initiated at the University of North Dakota (UND) in fall 2000. Dexter Perkins and Joseph Hartman, of UND's...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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The United States Capitol Building Description: The United States Capitol Building. May-June 1979. PO2612. Washington, D.C. Location: USA ▹ Washington, D.C. Collection: Joseph Hartman PO2612. Tech details: 135 KB. Kodachrome, TIFF. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and students. This project was initiated at the University of North Dakota (UND) in fall 2000. Dexter...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Dexter Perkins
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Kilauea Iki Crater landscape Description: Kilauea Iki Crater landscape, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Location: USA ▹ Hawaii Tech details: 394 KB. Vista. Canon Eos Rebel, 55mm lens, Kodak Ektachrome Elite. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and students. This project was initiated at the University of North Dakota (UND) in fall 2000. Dexter Perkins and Joseph Hartman,...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Stalactitic gypsum from Nicaragua Description: This sample formed when gypsum crystallized from slowly flowing water. Drops collected and, as they evaporated, gypsum was deposited. Eventually these small stalactites developed. Most stalactites in caves are made of calcite, but gypsum formations are found in many places. This specimen is 16 cm wide. Location: Nicaragua Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #849. Tech details: 435 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Mike Davis
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Oil shale (Kerogen-containing shale), Garfield County, Colorado Description: This blackish-brown stratified shale from Garfield County, Colorado, emits a strong bituminous odor when struck with a hammer. At one time, oil shales from Garfield County were considered as a source of energy, but the costs (in dollars and to the environment) of mining them are prohibitive. This sample is 9.5 cm across. Chronostratigraphy: Tertiary (Eocene). Lithostratigraphy: Green River Formation. Location: USA ▹...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Dexter Perkins
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Puy de Pariou and Puy de Dome, Auvergne, France Description: The Massif Central in the center of France (Auvergne region), contains a range of volcanoes made up of the Monts Dome (1465 meters at the Puy de Dome) and the Monts Dore (1886 meters at the Puy de Sancy). Eruptions included both Peleean (involving the formation and collapse of lava domes) and Strombolian (lava fountains and ejection of cinders, lapilli, blocks and bombs). The last eruptions were about 4,000 years ago. The region...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Pink Tourmaline Description: Tourmalines are a favorite among mineral collectors. Their rich and varied colors can captivate the eye. Even the black opaque tourmalines can shine nicely and produce sharp crystal forms. Tourmalines are cut as precious gems, carved into figurines, cut as cabochons, sliced into cross-sections and natural specimens are enthusiastically added to many collections. Tourmaline is one of the few common minerals containing boron. This is a round cut pink tourmaline being...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Shannon Heinle
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Danburite Description: Danburite is a fairly unknown mineral. It is a silicate with crystals similar to topaz. Collectors who favor clear quartz will appreciate danburite's diamond-shaped cross-section and wedge like termination. Danburites chemical formula is CaB 2 (SiO 4 ) 2 . Danburite's original locality is now buried under the city of Danbury, Connecticut. Location: USA ▹ New York. Near Russel. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #1699. Tech details: 254 KB. Hand...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Dexter Perkins
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Speleothems in Lehman Cave Description: This photo shows many varieties of stalactites (hanging down from the ceiling), and a few stalagmites (pointing up from the floor). These are all varieties of speleothems (which means cave formations). Speleothems grow slowly over long times when calcite precipitates (forming limestone) from dripping or slowly flowing groundwater. Chronostratigraphy: Cambrian. Lithostratigraphy: Pole Canyon Limestone. Geologic province: Great Basin. Location: USA ▹...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Shannon Heinle
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Agate Description: Agate is a cryptocrystalline (crystals too small to be seen even by a microscope) variety of quartz. These varieties are divided more by character than by color. These different variatites are often used as semi-precious gemstones and for decorative purposes. Location: USA ▹ Montana Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #1630. Tech details: 478 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF Nikon micro lens. The Geoscience Digital...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Dexter Perkins
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Cerussite from Broken Hill, Australia Description: Cerussite, PbCO 3 , is a minor lead ore mineral. This sample comes from Broken Hill, Australia, a well-known mining area. Cerussite specimens can be quite beautiful. Cerussite has high luster, and some specimens are brilliant or sparkly like diamonds. Crystals may grow together and twin to form interesting structures. This specimen is about 7 cm across and contains some orange limonite coating. Location: Australia. Near Broken Hill. Collection:...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Shannon Heinle
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Ferrimolybdite on quartz from Mohave County, Arizona Description: The yellow crust is ferrimolybdite, Fe 2 Mo 3 0 12 ·8H 2 0, on brownish quartz. It is a hydrated iron molybdate mineral that occurs in the oxidized zone of molybdenum-bearing deposits. Location: USA ▹ Arizona ▹ Mohave. Near Kingman. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #539. Tech details: 688 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF Nikon micro lens. The Geoscience Digital...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Green tourmaline Description: These samples of tourmaline are not of sufficient quality to be considered gems, but many samples from California are. Most people consider tourmaline to be a single mineral. But in fact it is a group of closely related mineral varieties with different colors. Green tourmaline is called verdelite; often the green in more pronounced than in this photograph. These crystals are 6 cm long. Location: USA ▹ California ▹ San Diego County Collection: University of...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Nessa Eull
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Phosphorite, Barstow, Florida Description: Phosphorites are sedimentary rocks composed primarily of phosphate minerals. Generally, they are marine rocks, and generally the phosphate mineral is fluorapatite. Some phosphorites (such as the example shown) form from bird droppings (guano). Phosphorites are often mined to produce fertilizer and other products. Location: USA ▹ Florida Collection: Ward’s University Rock Collection #160. Tech details: 918 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Shannon Heinle
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Spodumene from the Hugo Mine, Black Hills, South Dakota Description: Spodumene (LiAlSi 2 O 6 ) is an ore mineral of lithium. It can be a major rock forming mineral in Li-rich granites and pegmatites. This sample, from near Keystone, South Dakota, is about 7 cm across. Chronostratigraphy: Precambrian. Location: USA ▹ South Dakota. Near Keystone. The Hugo Mine. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #1349. Tech details: 669 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Mike Davis
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Monzonite, Westerly, Rhode Island Description: This monzonite contains plagioclase, lesser amounts of K-feldspar, and minor quartz and biotite. This sample is 9.5 cm across. Location: USA ▹ Rhode Island. Near Westerly. Collection: Ward’s Collection of Classic North American Rocks #116. Tech details: 869 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF Nikon micro lens. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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Folded strata, Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming Description: Folded strata on Highway 14; east side of Bighorn Mountains. Location: USA ▹ Wyoming. Near Sheridan, Greybull. Collection: Joseph Hartman P00588. Tech details: 293 KB. Outcrop. Ektachrome; TIFF Format. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and students. This project was initiated at the University of North Dakota (UND)...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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Archaeocyatha plates Description: Archaeocyatha plates. Location: USA Collection: Joseph Hartman P02262. Tech details: 330 KB. Hand specimen. Kodachrome, TIFF format. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and students. This project was initiated at the University of North Dakota (UND) in fall 2000. Dexter Perkins and Joseph Hartman, of UND's Department of Geology and...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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Breccia in bathroom construction in Opryland Hotel, Nashville, Tennessee Description: Breccia in bathroom construction in Opryland Hotel, Nashville, Tennessee. Location: USA ▹ Tennessee ▹ Trigg. Near Nasvhille. Opryland Hotel. Collection: Joseph Hartman C8774. Tech details: 298 KB. Ektachrome. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and students. This project was initiated...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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UND Hawaii Spring Break 2002 Trip Description: Joe Hartman stands in front of a glam shot eruption found in the Volcanoes National Park on the island of Hawaii. Location: USA ▹ Hawaii. Near Hilo. Volcanoes National Park. Collection: Joseph Hartman C9208. Tech details: 249 KB. Kodachrome, TIFF. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and students. This project was initiated...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Nessa Eull
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Natrochalcite from Chuquicamata, Chile Description: Natrochalite is an emerald green secondary copper mineral that generally forms in veins or as crusts. It has formula NaCu 2 (SO 4 ) 2 (OH,H 2 O) 2 . This specimen comes from Chuquicamata, Chile, site of the world's largest open pit mine. Location: Chile ▹ Antofagasta. Near Chuquicamata. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #820. Tech details: 592 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF Nikon...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Zincite with franklinite and calcite Description: Zincite, ZnO (zinc oxide), and franklinite (zinc iron manganese oxide) are rare and inconspicuous at all but one general site. That site is the famous zinc and manganese mines of the Sterling Hill and Franklin, New Jersey, USA area. Many rare minerals are found there. Location: USA ▹ New Jersey. Near Franklin. Franklin Furnace. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #352. Tech details: 935 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Zaratite Description: The green mineral is zaratite, Ni 3 CO 3 (OH) 4 ·4H 2 O, a rare mineral that forms as secondary crusts on other nickel, iron or chrome minerals associated with mafic or ultramafic rocks. This sample is 5 cm across. Location: Australia ▹ Tasmania Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #726. Tech details: 621 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF Nikon micro lens. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Ruby (corundum) from Mysore, India Description: Ruby is the red gemmy variety of corundum, Al 2 O 3 , one of the hardest minerals known. Gem corundum of any other color is called sapphire (although we generally think of sapphire as being blue). The red color in ruby is caused by trace amounts of chromium. The best shade of red for ruby is often given the name “pigeon blood red,” but ruby can be any shade of red to almost pink. This crystal is about 7 cm across. Location: USA ▹ India. Near...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Stibiotantalite from Mesa Grande, California Description: Stibiotantalite, SbTaO is a rare mineral found with other tantalum minerals, generally in granitic pegmatites. It is generally dark brown, yellow brown or reddish brown. In this specimen (1 cm long), the stibiotantalite is vitreous, brownish tinged with violet, and shows semi-conchoidal fracture. Location: USA ▹ California. Near Mesa Grande. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #583. Tech details: 189 KB. Hand...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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K/T Boundary Section of Art Sweet Description: K/T boundary section of Art Sweet. Collection: Joseph Hartman C08528. Tech details: 479 KB. Outcrop. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and students. This project was initiated at the University of North Dakota (UND) in fall 2000. Dexter Perkins and Joseph Hartman, of UND's Department of Geology and Geological Engineering,...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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Reva Gap-Battle Ship Rock Description: This is an excellent view of the uncomformity between the Chadron and Brule formations. Shows evidence of paleoslumping and also note the broken ground. The Chadron is pink in areas and the Brule is the horizontal white. Location: USA ▹ South Dakota. Battle Ship Rock. Collection: Joseph Hartman PO2221. Tech details: 188 KB. Outcrop. Kodachrome, TIFF format. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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UND Hawaii Spring Break 2002 Trip Description: Fractured vesicular lava surface in Kilauea Iki Crater. Volcanoes National Park on Hawaii. Location: USA ▹ Hawaii. Near Hilo. Kilauea Iki Crater, Volcanoes National Park. Collection: Joseph Hartman C9151a. Tech details: 51 KB. Vista. Kodachrome, TIFF. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and students. This project was...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Pink Diamond Description: Diamond, elemental carbon (C), is the hardest substance found in nature, diamond is four times harder than the next hardest natural mineral, corundum (sapphire and ruby). Diamond comes from the Greek word “adamas,” meaning “I tame.” The beautiful hues of colored diamonds are caused by the presence and distribution of small amounts of nitrogen (yellow) or boron (blue) within the diamond. This sample is a princess cut diamond, with the color/clarity rating being...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Aquamarine (beryl) Description: Aquamarine is the blue, blue-green or aqua variety of the mineral beryl (Be 3 A l2 Si 6 O 18 ). Aquamarine is colored by trace amounts of iron in the crystal structure. Some gem aquamarines have been heat treated to produce the popular blue-green colors from less desirable yellow or pale stones. This gem is an emerald cut aquamarine. This gemstone is courtesy of The Jewel Box , Grand Forks, ND. Collection: The Jewel Box Collection of Gemstones. Tech details: 64...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Dexter Perkins
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Conglomerate and breccia, California coast, Point Lobos State Reserve Description: At Point Lobos, fine exposures reveal turbidites. Thick sequences of sandstones, conglomerates and breccias can be seen. This view shows coarse breccia over a finer grained unit that is mostly mudstone. The field of view is about 8 feet wide. Location: USA ▹ California. Near Big Sur. Point Lobos State Reserve. Tech details: 666 KB. Outcrop. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Dexter Perkins
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Limestone sea arch, south coast, Portugal Description: This photo shows a small sea arch, cut through limestone, near the southernmost point of Portugal. Location: Portugal Tech details: 462 KB. Outcrop. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and students. This project was initiated at the University of North Dakota (UND) in fall 2000. Dexter Perkins and Joseph Hartman, of...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Nessa Eull
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Banded sandstone, Mansfield, Ohio Description: This sandstone from north-central Ohio, USA, has layers that range from white to deep red-brown becuase of variable amounts of hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) cement between individual quartz grains. This sample is about 10 cm across. Location: USA ▹ Ohio. Near Mansfield. Collection: Ward’s University Rock Collection #163. Tech details: 815 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera, 60mm Nikon AF micro lens. The Geoscience Digital Image...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Dexter Perkins
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Tufa at Mono Lake, California, USA Description: The tufa towers in the background formed when freshwater springs interacted with Mono Lake water, leading to the precipitation of calcium carbonate (calcite). Salt deposits can also be seen on the bushes in the foreground. Salt, alkalis, and other minerals have washed into Mono Lake for many years and, because the lake continuously evaporates, the concentration of the disolved material increases. Mono Lake is today much more salty and alkaline...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Anhydrite and gypsum from Wyoming, USA Description: This sample contains both anhydrite (gray-red) and gypsum (white). Gypsum, CaSO 4 •2H 2 O, and anhydrite, CaSO 4 , are closely related: most anhydrite forms by dehydration (dewatering) of gypsum. Location: USA ▹ Wyoming Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #840. Tech details: 560 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF Nikon micro lens. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Barite, BaSO 4 Description: This sample of barite comes from an unknown location. It is about 5 cm across. This sort of aggregate of plates or blades is common for coarsely crystalline barite. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #1780. Tech details: 589 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF Nikon micro lens. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Aragonite (sprudelstein) Description: This variety of organic appearing aragonite is sometimes called sprudelstein. Aragonite is the same composition as the more common calcite; both are CaCO 3 . Aragonite has, however, a different atomic arrangement and so different crystal habits. The photo is 8 cm across. Location: Bohemia. Near Karlsbad. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #666. Tech details: 826 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Tetrahedrite Description: Tetrahedrite, Cu 12 Sb 4 S 13 (copper antimony sulfide), forms a solid solution series with the rather rare mineral tennantite, Cu 12 As 4 S 13 (copper arsenic sulfide). The two share the same crystal structure, but they differ in the percentage of arsenic versus antimony. Antimony rich specimens are tetrahedrite, while arsenic rich specimens are tennantite. Some iron, zinc and/or silver always substitutes for the copper in both minerals up to approximately 15 %....
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Thin section of biotite granite Description: This is a thin section view of biotite granite (in plain polarized light). The dark and yellow-tan minerals are biotite. The off-white (colorless) lighter areas are plagioclase. The light pink area to the right of the large biotite in the lower left of the photo is muscovite. Chronostratigraphy: Devonian. Lithostratigraphy: Woodbury Granite. Location: USA ▹ Vermont ▹ Washington. Near Barre. Collection: Ward’s Collection of Classic North...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Nessa Eull
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eye 16
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Tiemannite and altaite from Tickerode, Hanz, Germany Description: Tiemannite, HgSe (mercury selenide), is an opaque mineral with brittle fracture. Altaite, PbTe (lead telluride), is a very minor ore of lead and tellurium. Altaite is a member of the galena group of minerals. Its properties are very similar to galena as it shares basically the same structure. It has a white to yellowish-white color. Location: Germany. Near Hanz. Tickerode. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Plattnerite with calcite on limonite Description: This sample shows plattnerite (black, PbO) with calcite (white, CaCO 3 ), on limonite (orange, Fe-oxide/hydroxide). The specimen is 10 cm in longest dimension. Location: Mexico. Near Durango. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #489. Tech details: 778 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF Nikon micro lens. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Nessa Eull
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eye 19
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Smaltite from Cobalt, Ontario Description: Smaltite, (Co,Ni)As 3 , is an important ore of cobalt. Smaltite is an opaque tin-white to steel-gray mineral of the pyrite group. Crystals may have the form of cubes or cubo-octahedra, but are generally imperfectly developed and are rare. More often the mineral is found as compact or granular masses. Location: Canada ▹ Ontario. Near Cobalt. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #193. Tech details: 588 KB. Hand specimen....
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Berthierite Description: Berthierite, FeSb 2 S 4 , is a dark steel-grey or dark brown-grey mineral. It is a minor ore of antimony. Berthierite is easily confused with stibnite. Berthierite, however, has one additional sulfur and one iron ion. Location: Germany ▹ Saxony. Near Freiberg. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #255. Tech details: 506 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF Nikon micro lens. The Geoscience Digital Image Library...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Nessa Eull
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Magnetite Description: Magnetite, Fe 3 O 4 (iron oxide), is a natural magnet, hence the name, giving it a very nice distinguishing characteristic. Magnetite is an important source of iron ore and occurs in many igneous rocks. Location: USA ▹ Arkansas. Near Magnet. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #2364. Tech details: 484 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF Nikon micro lens. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Shannon Heinle
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Embolite from Cornwall, England Description: The dark brown and yellow material is embolite. Although not officially approved as a mineral name, embolite is a name used for a silver bromide/chloride mineral having composition near Ag(Br,Cl). It is a secondary mineral that forms in the oxidized portions of silver deposits. This specimen, from Cornwall (England), is about 2 cm across. Location: England ▹ Cornwall. Near Lands End. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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eye 24
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Quartz, rutilated Description: Quartz, SiO 2 (silicon dioxide), is the most common mineral on the face of the Earth. It is found in nearly every geological environment and is at least a component of almost every rock type. It is also the most varied in terms of varieties, colors and forms. This variety comes about because of the abundance and widespread distribution of quartz. Location: Brazil. Near Minas Gerais. Collection: Ward’s Classroom Collection of Gem Minerals #22. Tech details: 294...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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eye 17
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UND Hawaii Spring Break 2002 Trip Description: Group photo standing on pahoehoe near an active basaltic lava flow. Volcanoes National Park on the island of Hawaii. Location: USA ▹ Hawaii. Near Hilo. Volcanoes National Park. Collection: Joseph Hartman C9193. Tech details: 164 KB. Kodachrome, TIFF. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and students. This project was...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Rhodolite garnet Description: Rhodolite is a name sometimes used for red garnets with compositions between almandine (Fe 3 Al 2 Si 3 O 12 ) and pyrope (Mg 3 Al 2 Si 3 O 12 ). The name is derived from the Greek words rhodon and lithos, meaning rose-stone. This gem is an oval cut and is 3.15 carats. Collection: The Jewel Box Collection of Gemstones. Tech details: 104 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF Nikon micro lens. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL)...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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UND Hawaii Spring Break 2002 Description: Erik Sorenson makes a new friend. The Chelonia Mydas (sea turtle) was found in Kahaluu Bay in Kona. Location: USA ▹ Hawaii. Near Kona. Kahaluu Bay. Collection: Joseph Hartman C9264. Tech details: 387 KB. Kodachrome, TIFF. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and students. This project was initiated at the University of North...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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UND Hawaii Spring Break 2002 Description: You will find this no where else! Photos of martians Beth Eslinger and Darla Sondrol. The martians are standing on a recent aa flow in Hawaii. Location: USA ▹ Hawaii. Near Kona. Recent aa flows on the way to Kona. Collection: Joseph Hartman C9252. Tech details: 270 KB. Kodachrome, TIFF. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Shannon Heinle
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eye 16
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Labradorite Description: Labradorite is a member of the plagioclase series of minerals. Labradorite can produce a colorful play of light across cleavage planes and in sliced sections called labradorescence. The usually intense colors range from the typical blues and violets through greens, yellows and oranges. Some rare specimens display all these colors simultaneously. The color display is from lamellar intergrowths inside the crystal. Its chemical formula is (Ca,Na)(Si,Al) 4 O 8 . Labradorite...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Mike Davis
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eye 20
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Quartzite with jasper pebbles Description: This sample of quartzite contains mostly white quartz with conspicuous red jasper pebbles. Jasper is a red variety of quartz. This specimen 9 cm across. Location: Canada ▹ Ontario. Near Sault St. Marie. Collection: Ward’s University Rock Collection #182. Tech details: 659 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera, 60mm Nikon AF micro lens. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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Calcite infillings in metamorphic graywacke in the Thomson Formation, Minnesota Description: Calcite infillings in metamorphic graywacke in Proterozic-age Thomson Formation, near Thomson Dam on west side of St. Louis River, Carlton County, Minnesota. Chronostratigraphy: Proterozoic. Lithostratigraphy: Thomson Formation. Geologic province: Midcontinent Rift. Location: USA ▹ Minnesota ▹ Carlton. Near Thomson. Carlton. Coordinates: 46.666667,-92.403333 Collection: Joseph Hartman P05587. Tech...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Fluorite cubes with calcite Description: Fluorite (CaF 2 ) is a mineral that comes in many different colors. Deep blue-violet is most common, but lighter blue green varieties such as the one shown are also quite common. Fluorite can be very attractive but is not prized as a gem because it is too soft. Fluorite forms cubic crystals; the cubes in this photo are about 3 cm on edge. Location: Mexico Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection. Tech details: 1.1 MB. Hand specimen....
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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eye 35
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Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation fossil locality Description: Freshwater molluscan locality bearing Triceratops and other vertebrate fossils in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation, Garfield County, Montana. Chronostratigraphy: Upper Cretaceous, Maastrichtian. Lithostratigraphy: Hell Creek Formation. Geologic province: Williston Basin. Location: USA ▹ Montana ▹ Garfield. Near Jordan. Collection: Joseph Hartman C07126. Tech details: 701 KB. Outcrop. Kodachrome, TIFF format. The...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Dexter Perkins
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eye 30
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Tabular barite with calcite and pyrite, from Joplin, Missouri, USA Description: Large tan barite (BaSO 4 ) tabs, some appearing pseudo-hexagonal, are embedded in finer white calcite, CaCO 3 . Pyrite crystals, FeS 2 , generally about 1 mm across are scattered in the sample. No provenance data is available except that it comes from Joplin, Missouri, USA. This photo is about 5 cm across. Location: USA ▹ Missouri. Near Joplin. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection. Tech...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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eye 13
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Traveling Downstream on the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Coconino County, Arizona Description: Travel along the Colorado River can be dampered by low water levels. Travel can be halted while waiting for dams upstream to carry water downstream. Geologic province: Colorado Plateau. Location: USA ▹ Arizona ▹ Coconino. Grand Canyon. Collection: Joseph Hartman PO2516. Tech details: 222 KB. Kodachrome, TIFF. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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eye 13
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Yellowstone National Park Description: This photo shows the eruption of the Pump Geyser located in Yellowstone National Park. Location: USA ▹ Wyoming. Near Cody. Yellowstone National Park, Pump Geyser. Collection: Joseph Hartman PO3094. Tech details: 218 KB. Kodachrome, TIFF. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and students. This project was initiated at the University...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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eye 12
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Garrison Dam Description: Garrison Dam from the south side. Lo82-2. Collected several specimans from this site. Location: USA ▹ North Dakota. Near Minot. Garrison Dam, L082-2. Collection: Joseph Hartman P02414. Tech details: 359 KB. Vista. Kodachrome, TIFF. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and students. This project was initiated at the University of North Dakota...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Dexter Perkins
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eye 10
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View of bottomless pit from near summit of Haleakala Description: View of bottomless pit from near summit of Haleakala. Location: USA ▹ Hawaii Tech details: 434 KB. Vista. Canon Eos Rebel, 55mm lens, Kodak Ektachrome Elite. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and students. This project was initiated at the University of North Dakota (UND) in fall 2000. Dexter Perkins and...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Shannon Heinle
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eye 13
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Illite Description: Illite is a silicate that is formed by the weathering or hydrothermal alteration of muscovite-phengite and also authigenic alteration of K-spar or recrystallization of smectites in marine sediments. Illite's chemical formula is (K,H 3 O)(Al,Mg,Fe) 2 (Si,Al) 4 O 10 [(OH) 2 ,(H 2 O)]. It is named for the state of Illinois where the mineral was first described. Location: USA ▹ Illinois. Near Morris. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #1490. Tech...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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eye 11
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Cross-bedded sandstone of Fond du Lac Formation used in home construction in Duluth, St. Louis County, Minnesota Description: Cross-bedded sandstone of Proterozoic-age Fond du Lac Formation used in home construction in Duluth, St. Louis County, Minnesota. Chronostratigraphy: Proterozoic. Lithostratigraphy: Fond du Lac Formation. Geologic province: Midcontinent Rift. Location: USA ▹ Minnesota ▹ St. Louis. Near Duluth. Duluth Quadrangle. Collection: Joseph Hartman C08876. Tech details: 481...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Humite with serpentine, Val d'Ala, Italy Description: This sample contains brown altered titanium-rich clinohumite, Mg 9 (SiO 4 ) 4 (F,OH) 2 . Green serpentine is also present in small amounts. The specimen is about 8 cm in length. Location: Italy. Near Torino. Val d'Ala. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #1231. Tech details: 831 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF Nikon micro lens. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Dexter Perkins
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eye 31
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Yosemite Waterfall Description: Yosemite Waterfall. Geologic province: Sierra Nevada. Location: USA ▹ California ▹ Merced. Near Merced. Yosemite National Park. Tech details: 652 KB. Vista. Canon FTQL. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and students. This project was initiated at the University of North Dakota (UND) in fall 2000. Dexter Perkins and Joseph Hartman, of...
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Topics: geology, mineralogy