Extending and consolidating hosts files from several well-curated sources like adaway.org, mvps.org, malwaredomainlist.com, someonewhocares.org, and potentially others. You can optionally invoke extensions to block additional sites by category.
Take Note! This version of the Hosts file generator, and tests, are for Python 3.5+ only.
Unified hosts file with base extensions
This repository consolidates several reputable
hosts files, and merges theminto a unified hosts file with duplicates removed. A variety of tailored hosts files are provided.
- Last updated: November 03 2019.
- Here's the raw hosts file with base extensions containing 43,003 entries.
- Logo by @Tobaloidee.
List of all hosts file variants
This repository offers 15 different host file variants, in addition to the base variant.
The Non GitHub mirror is the link to use for some hosts file managers likeHostsman for Windows that don't workwith Github download links.
Host file recipe | Readme | Raw hosts | Unique domains | Non Github mirror---------------- |:------:|:---------:|:--------------:|:-------------:Unified hosts = (adware + malware) | Readme | link | 43,003 | linkUnified hosts + fakenews | Readme | link | 43,945 | linkUnified hosts + gambling | Readme | link | 45,275 | linkUnified hosts + porn | Readme | link | 57,493 | linkUnified hosts + social | Readme | link | 45,478 | linkUnified hosts + fakenews + gambling | Readme | link | 46,217 | linkUnified hosts + fakenews + porn | Readme | link | 58,435 | linkUnified hosts + fakenews + social | Readme | link | 46,420 | linkUnified hosts + gambling + porn | Readme | link | 59,765 | linkUnified hosts + gambling + social | Readme | link | 47,750 | linkUnified hosts + porn + social | Readme | link | 59,967 | linkUnified hosts + fakenews + gambling + porn | Readme | link | 60,707 | linkUnified hosts + fakenews + gambling + social | Readme | link | 48,692 | linkUnified hosts + fakenews + porn + social | Readme | link | 60,909 | linkUnified hosts + gambling + porn + social | Readme | link | 62,239 | linkUnified hosts + fakenews + gambling + porn + social | Readme | link | 63,181 | link
Expectation: These unified hosts files should serve all devices, regardlessof OS.
Sources of hosts data unified in this variant
hosts files from the following locations are always unified andincluded:
Host file source | Description | Home page | Raw hosts | Update frequency | License | Issues-----------------|-------------|:---------:|:---------:|:----------------:|:-------:|:------:Steven Black's ad-hoc list | Additional sketch domains as I come across them. |link | raw | occasionally | MIT | issues Malware Domain List | Malware Domain List is a non-commercial community project. |link | raw | weekly | 'can be used for free by anyone' | issues add.Dead | Dead sites based on hostsfile.org content. |link | raw | occasionally | GPLv3+ | issues hostsVN | Hosts block ads of Vietnamese |link | raw | occasionally | MIT | issues add.Spam | Spam sites based on hostsfile.org content. |link | raw | occasionally | GPLv3+ | issues Dan Pollock – someonewhocares | How to make the internet not suck (as much). |link | raw | frequently | non-commercial with attribution | issues MVPS hosts file | The purpose of this site is to provide the user with a high quality custom HOSTS file. |link | raw | monthly | CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 | issues yoyo.org | Blocking with ad server and tracking server hostnames. |link | raw | frequently | | issues Mitchell Krog's - Badd Boyz Hosts | Sketchy domains and Bad Referrers from my Nginx and Apache Bad Bot and Spam Referrer Blockers |link | raw | weekly | MIT | issues CoinBlocker | Simple lists that can help prevent cryptomining in the browser or other applications |link | raw | frequently | GPLv3 | issues UncheckyAds | Windows installers ads sources sites based on https://unchecky.com/ content. |link | raw | occasionally | | issues add.2o7Net | 2o7Net tracking sites based on hostsfile.org content. |link | raw | occasionally | GPLv3+ | issues KADhosts | Fraud/adware/scam websites. |link | raw | frequently | GPLv3 | issues AdAway | AdAway is an open source ad blocker for Android using the hosts file. |link | raw | occasionally | CC BY 3.0 | issues add.Risk | Risk content sites based on hostsfile.org content. |link | raw | occasionally | GPLv3+ | issues Tiuxo hostlist - ads | Categorized hosts files for DNS based content blocking |link | raw | occasional | CC BY 4.0 | issues
The unified hosts file is optionally extensible. Extensions are used to include domains by category. Currently we offer the following categories:
Extensions are optional, and can be combined in various ways wth the base hosts file. The combined products are stored in the
Data for extensions is stored in the
extensions folder. You manage extensions by curating thisfolder tree, where you will find the data for
porn extension data that we maintain and provide for you.
Generate your own unified hosts file
To generate your own unified hosts file you will need Python 3.5 or later.
First install the dependencies with:
pip3 install --user -r requirements.txt
Note we recommend the
--user flag which installs the required dependencies at the user level. More information about it can be found on pip documentation.
To run unit tests, in the top level directory, just run:
updateHostsFile.py script will generate a unified hosts file based on the sources in thelocal
data/ subfolder. The script will prompt you whether it should fetch updated versions(from locations defined by the
update.json text file in each source's folder). Otherwise, itwill use the
hosts file that's already there.
Using Python 3:
python3 updateHostsFile.py [--auto] [--replace] [--ip nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn] [--extensions ext1 ext2 ext3]
Command line options:
-h: display help.
-a: run the script without prompting. When
--auto is invoked,
- Hosts data sources, including extensions, are updated.
- No extensions are included by default. Use the
-eflagto include any you want.
- Your active hosts file is not replaced unless you include the
-b: Make a backup of existing hosts file(s) as you generateover them.
--extensions , or
-e : the namesof subfolders below the
extensions folder containing additionalcategory-specific hosts files to include in the amalgamation. Example:
--extensions porn or
-e social porn.
-f: skip the prompt for flushing the DNS cache.Only active when
--replace is also active.
--ip nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn, or
-i nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn: the IP address to use as thetarget. Default is
true (default) or
false, keep the commentsthat appear on the same line as domains. The default is
-n: skip fetching updates from hosts data sources.
--output , or
-o : place the generated source filein a subfolder. If the subfolder does not exist, it will be created.
-r: trigger replacing your active hosts
false (default) or
true, omit the standardsection at the top, containing lines like
127.0.0.1 localhost. This isuseful for configuring proximate DNS services on the local network.
false (default) or
true, Compress the hosts fileignoring non-necessary lines (empty lines and comments) and putting multipledomains in each line. Reducing the number of lines of the hosts file improvesthe performances under Windows (with DNS Client service enabled).
false (default) or
--compress, but putseach domain on a separate line. This is necessary because many implementationsof URL blockers that rely on
hosts files do not conform to the standard whichallows multiple hosts on a single line.
How do I control which sources are unified?
Add one or more additional sources, each in a subfolder of the
data/folder, and specify the
url key in its
Add one or more optional extensions, which originate from subfolders of the
extensions/ folder. Again the url in
update.json controls where thisextension finds its updates.
Create an optional
blacklist file. The contents of this file (containing alisting of additional domains in
hosts file format) are appended to theunified hosts file during the update process. A sample
blacklist isincluded, and may be modified as you desire.
- NOTE: The
blacklistis not tracked by git, so any changes you make won'tbe overridden when you
git pullthis repo from
originin the future.
How do I include my own custom domain mappings?
If you have custom hosts records, place them in file
myhosts. The contentsof this file are prepended to the unified hosts file during the updateprocess.
myhosts file is not tracked by git, so any changes you make won't beoverridden when you
git pull this repo from
origin in the future.
How do I prevent domains from being included?
The domains you list in the
whitelist file are excluded from the final hostsfile.
whitelist uses partial matching. Therefore if you whitelist
google-analytics.com, that domain and all its subdomains won't be mergedinto the final hosts file.
whitelist is not tracked by git, so any changes you make won't beoverridden when you
git pull this repo from
origin in the future.
How can I contribute hosts records?
If you discover sketchy domains you feel should be included here, here are some ways to contribute them.
Option 1: contact one of our hosts sources
The best way to get new domains included is to submit an issue to any of the data providers whose home pages are listed here. This is best because once you submit new domains, they will be curated and updated by the dedicated folks who maintain these sources.
Option 2: add your domains to Steven Black's personal data file
Fork this hosts this repo and add your links to https://github.com/StevenBlack/hosts/blob/master/data/StevenBlack/hosts.
Then, submit a pull request.
WARNING: this is less desirable than Option 1 because the ongoing curation falls on us and what you've just done is created more work for us.
Option 3: create your own hosts list as a repo on Github
If you're able to curate your own collection of sketchy domains, then curate your own hosts list. Then signal the existence of your repo as a new issue and we may include your new repo into the collection of sources we pull whenever we create new versions.
What is a hosts file?
A hosts file, named
hosts (with no file extension), is a plain-text fileused by all operating systems to map hostnames to IP addresses.
In most operating systems, the
hosts file is preferential to
DNS.Therefore if a domain name is resolved by the
hosts file, the request neverleaves your computer.
Having a smart
hosts file goes a long way towards blocking malware, adware,and other irritants.
For example, to nullify requests to some doubleclick.net servers, adding theselines to your hosts file will do it:
# block doubleClick's servers0.0.0.0 ad.ae.doubleclick.net0.0.0.0 ad.ar.doubleclick.net0.0.0.0 ad.at.doubleclick.net0.0.0.0 ad.au.doubleclick.net0.0.0.0 ad.be.doubleclick.net# etc...
We recommend using
0.0.0.0 instead of
Traditionally most host files use
127.0.0.1, the loopback address, to establish an IP connection to the local machine.
We prefer to use
0.0.0.0, which is defined as a non-routable meta-address used to designate an invalid, unknown,or non applicable target.
0.0.0.0 is empirically faster, possibly because there's no wait for a timeout resolution. It also does notinterfere with a web server that may be running on the local PC.
Why not use just
0 instead of
We tried that. Using
0 doesn't work universally.
Location of your hosts file
To modify your current
hosts file, look for it in the following places and modify it with a texteditor.
mac OS (until 10.14.x macOS Mojave), iOS, Android, Linux:
Updating hosts file on Windows
On Linux and Mac OS X, you can simply run the Python script, but on Windows, morework is required due to compatibility issues in implementing some of the functionalityfor Windows. It is preferable to run the batch file as follows:
This file MUST be run in command prompt with administrator privileges inthe repository directory. In addition to updating the hosts file, it can alsoreplace the existing hosts file, and reload the DNS cache. It goes withoutsaying that in order for this to work, you must be connected to the internet.
To open a command prompt as administrator in the repository's directory, do the following:
Windows XP: Start -> Run ->
Windows Vista, 7: Start Button -> type
cmd -> right-click Command Prompt ->"Run as Administrator"
Windows 8: Start -> Swipe Up -> All Apps -> Windows System -> right-click Command Prompt ->"Run as Administrator"
Windows 10: Start Button -> type
cmd -> right-click Command Prompt ->"Run as Administrator"
You can also refer to the "Third-Party Hosts Managers" section for further recommended solutions from third parties.
Reloading hosts file
Your operating system will cache DNS lookups. You can either reboot or run the following commands tomanually flush your DNS cache once the new hosts file is in place.
| The Google Chrome browser may require manually cleaning up its DNS Cache on
chrome://net-internals/#dns page to thereafter see the changes in your hosts file. See: https://superuser.com/questions/723703:-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Open a command prompt with administrator privileges and run this command:
|If you want to use a huge hosts file by merging hphosts (NOT INCLUDED HERE) you need to DISABLE and STOP
Dnscache service before you replace hosts file in Windows Systems. You have been warned.|:---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Before flushing the DNS cache, open a command prompt with administrator privileges and run this command:
sc config "Dnscache" start= disabledsc stop "Dnscache"
Open a Terminal and run with root privileges:
sudo service network-manager restart
sudo /etc/init.d/dns-clean start
Linux with systemd:
sudo systemctl restart network.service
sudo systemctl restart NetworkManager.service
Arch Linux/Manjaro with Network Manager:
sudo systemctl restart NetworkManager.service
Arch Linux/Manjaro with Wicd:
sudo systemctl restart wicd.service
sudo /etc/init.d/network restart
sudo service nscd restart
To enable the
nscd daemon initially, it is recommended that you run the following commands:
sudo sysrc nscd_enable="YES"sudo service nscd start
Then modify the
hosts line in your
/etc/nsswitch.conf file to the following:
hosts: cache files dns
Others: Consult this wikipedia article.
Mac OS X
Open a Terminal and run:
sudo dscacheutil -flushcache;sudo killall -HUP mDNSResponder
Goals of this unified hosts file
The goals of this repo are to:
automatically combine high-quality lists of hosts,
provide easy extensions,
de-dupe the resultant combined list,
and keep the resultant file reasonably sized.
A high-quality source is defined here as one that is actively curated. Ahosts source should be frequently updated by its maintainers with bothadditions and removals. The larger the hosts file, the higher the level ofcuration is expected.
For example, the (huge) hosts file from hosts-file.netis not included here because it is very large (780,000+ entries)and doesn't currently display a corresponding high level of curation activity.
It is expected that this unified hosts file will serve both desktop and mobiledevices under a variety of operating systems.
Third-Party Hosts Managers
Unified Hosts AutoUpdate (for Windows): The Unified Hosts AutUpdate package is purpose-built for this unified hosts project as well as in active development by community members. It's sophisticated enough to allow any novice the ability to install and uninstall the blacklist of their choosing to their local hosts file and keep it automatically up to date, while also being minimal enough to be able to be easily placed in a shared network location and deployed across an organization via group policies. And since it is in active development by community members, your bug reports, feature requests, and other feedback are most welcome.
ViHoMa is a Visual Hosts file Manager, written in Java, by Christian Martínez. Check it out!
Hostile is a nifty command line utility to easily add or remove domains from your hosts file. If our hosts files are too aggressive for you, you can use
hostileto remove domains, or you can use
hostilein a bash script to automate a post process each time you download fresh versions of hosts.
macOS Scripting for Configuration, Backup and Restore helps customizing, re-installing and using macOS. It also provides a script to install and update the hosts file using this project on macOS. In combination with a launchd it updates the hosts file every x days (default is 4). To install both download the github repo and run the install script from the directory one level up.
Pi-hole is a network-wide DHCP server and ad blocker that runs on Raspberry Pi. Pi-hole uses this repository as one of its sources. This is a very interesting project to setup yourself, or you can buy one pre-loaded.
Block ads and malware via local BIND9 DNS server (for Debian, Raspbian & Ubuntu): Set up a local DNS server with a
/etc/bind/named.conf.blockedfile, sourced from here.
Block ads, malware, and deploy parental controls via local DualServer DNS/DHCP server (for BSD, Windows & Linux): Set up a blacklist for everyone on your network using the power of the unified hosts reformatted for DualServer. And if you're on Windows, this project also maintains an update script to make updating DualServer's blacklist even easier.
DNSMasq conversion script This github gist has a short shell script (bash, will work on any 'nix) and uses 'wget' & 'awk' present in most distros, to fetch a specified hosts file and convert it the format required by dnsmasq. Supports ipv4 and ipv6. Designed to be used as either a shell script, or can be dropped into /etc/cron.weekly (or wherever suits). Script is short and easily edited, also has a short document attached with notes on dnsmasq setup.
Please read our Contributing Guide. Among other things, this explains how we organize files and folders in this repository.
We are always interested in discovering well-curated sources of hosts. If you find one, please open an issue to draw our attention.
Before you create or respond to any issue, please read our code of conduct.
To restore the repository download the bundle
git clone StevenBlack-hosts_-_2019-11-03_17-35-44.bundle
Upload date: 2019-11-03
- 2019-11-03 17:35:44
- Internet Archive Python library 1.8.1
- iagitup - v1.6.2