For a long time, firewood was the only source of energy available for cooking, heating, and protection. Currently, new forms of energy, such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and electricity, have replaced the use of firewood. However, this fuel is still part of the energy matrix of many countries, including Brazil. Its use in cooking activities generates particles and gases that can have an impact on global warming and health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of firewood related to socioeconomic and environmental factors in Brazil. According to the results, firewood characteristics, per capita consumption, and distribution percentage vary widely within the country. Although LPG is the most used fuel in Brazil, a significant portion of the population - about 11 million households - still uses this fuel for domestic purposes, causing the highest emission rates of greenhouse gases. New research is necessary and may be the best investment to improve the quality of life and mitigate these climate change problems and health hazards.