Formaldehyde (HCHO) provides a proxy to reveal the isoprene and biogenic volatile organic compounds emission which plays important roles in atmospheric chemical process and climate change. The ground-based observation with zenith-sky DOAS is carried out in order to validate the HCHO columns from OMI. It has a good correlation of 0.71678 between the HCHO columns from two sources. Then we use the OMI HCHO columns from January 2006 to December 2015 to indicate the interannual variation and spatial distribution in Xishuangbanna. The HCHO concentration peaks appeared in March or April for each year significantly corresponding to the intensive fire counts at the same time, which illustrate that the high HCHO columns are strongly influenced by the biomass burning in spring. Temperature and precipitation are also the important influence factors in the seasonal variation when there is nearly no biomass burning. The spatial patterns over the past ten years strengthen the deduction from the temporal variation and show the relationship with land cover and land use, elevation and population density. It is concluded that the biogenic activity plays a role in controlling the background level of HCHO in Xishuangbanna, while biomass burning is the main driving force of high HCHO concentration. And forests are greater contributor to HCHO rather than rubber trees which cover over 20% of the land in the region. Moreover, uncertainties from HCHO slant column retrieval and AMFs calculation are discussed in detail.