This work describes a longitudinal study of three consecutive years carried out in the air of agricultural environments located in Northern Patagonia with cold dry desert climate (Köppen: Bwk). This study area comprises a rural valley with unique geographical and climatological conditions. Therefore, the aim of this work is to quantify and determine its fungal diversity, so this knowledge will contribute to detect potential pathogenic and toxic fungi that has been adapted to this type of environment and may overcome the incipient climate change. Samplings were conducted in two geographical zones of the study area and a microflow air sampler was used to isolate fungal taxa. The annual mean fungal counts were found in the order of E+03 CFU/m 3 of air. The aerial mycoflora revealed a wide biodiversity of at least 28 genera and 50 fungal species. Cladosporium was the most abundant genus (76.97%), followed by Alternaria (12.48%), Epicoccum (4.41%) and Botrytis (1.81%). The rest of the genera were found in relative densities lower than 1%. In terms of species, C. cladosporioides (34.82%), C. limoniforme (21.72%), A. tenuissima (10.94%) and C. asperulatum predominated (9.01%). This is the first report of the air mycoflora of rural environments with cold dry desert climate which provides useful information to take preventive measures to avoid biological damage.