An interferometer includes a first optical fiber coupled to a second optical fiber by fusing. At a fused portion, the first and second optical fibers are cut to expose respective cores. The cut or fused end of the first and second optical fibers is arranged to oppose a diaphragm or surface against which a physical phenomenon such as pressure or stress, is applied. In a first embodiment, a source light which is generally single-mode monochromatic, coherent light, is input to the first optical fiber and by evanescence, effectively crosses to the second optical fiber at the fused portion. Source light from the second optical fiber is reflected by the diaphragm or surface, and received at the second optical fiber to generate an output light which has an intensity which depends upon interference of reference light based on the source light, and the reflected light reflected from the diaphragm or surface. The intensity of the output light represents a positional relationship or displacement between the interferometer and the diaphragm or surface.