For this future generations in this new millennium, only two new frontiers remain to be explored and developed by humans: Under the oceans, seas and lakes (about 80 percent of the Earth) and The vast reaches of near and outer space. We are slowly running out of resources while this planet's population is exploding. We must establish new, highly reliable and low-cost ways to colonize under the seas and to get people permanently off ''Spaceship Planet Earth''. We must establish new colonies permanently in space because it is vital to the ultimate survival of the human race. Reliable and affordable space transportation for routine human travel into space and the planets is once again the key to developing this last great frontier. This talk will now focus on what NASA is now doing to initiate the process in earnest. Space transportation is the key, and once again will only meet the needs with new generations of competent, talented, and innovative mechanical engineers.