This report presents an overview of the latest scientific consensus understanding of the effect of aviation emissions on the atmosphere for both local air quality and climate change in order to provide a contextual framework for raising future questions to help assess the environmental benefits of technology goals. Although studies of the two issues share a common framework (of quantifying the emissions, the change in concentrations in the atmosphere, and the environmental impacts), the communities of practitioners are distinctly different. The scientific community will continue to provide guidelines on trade-off among different contributors to a specific environmental impact, such as global climate, or local air quality. Ultimately, monetization of the costs and benefits of mitigation actions is the proper tool for quantifying and analyzing trade-offs between the two issues. Scientific assessment of the impacts and their uncertainties are critical inputs to these analyses. Until environmental effects of aviation emerge as a policy driven issue, there is little incentive within the scientific community to focus on research efforts specific to trade-off studies between local and global impacts.