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PubMed Central is a free full-text archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health's National Library of Medicine (NIH/NLM).

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This article is from Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience , volume 4 . Abstract Anxiety is a psychological, physiological, and behavioral state induced in animals and humans by a threat to well-being or survival, either actual or potential. It is characterized by increased arousal, expectancy, autonomic and neuroendocrine activation, and specific behavior patterns. The function of these changes is to facilitate coping with an adverse or unexpected situation. Pathological anxiety interferes with...
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3181681
PubMed Central
by Wild, Jennifer; Ehlers, Anke
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This article is from European Journal of Psychotraumatology , volume 1 . Abstract Background: Research has demonstrated that Cognitive Therapy for PTSD (CT-PTSD), a version of trauma-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy developed by Ehlers and Clark's group (2000), is effective and feasible when offered in weekly and intensive daily formats. It is unknown whether patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) could engage in and benefit from self-study assisted cognitive therapy, which...
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3189692
PubMed Central
by Schulze, Lars; Renneberg, Babette; Lobmaier, Janek S.
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This article is from Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , volume 7 . Abstract Clinical observations suggest abnormal gaze perception to be an important indicator of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Experimental research has yet paid relatively little attention to the study of gaze perception in SAD. In this article we first discuss gaze perception in healthy human beings before reviewing self-referential and threat-related biases of gaze perception in clinical and non-clinical socially anxious...
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3863960
PubMed Central
by Costanzi, Marco; Saraulli, Daniele; Cannas, Sara; D'Alessandro, Francesca; Florenzano, Fulvio; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Cestari, Vincenzo
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This article is from Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience , volume 8 . Abstract Fear allows organisms to cope with dangerous situations and remembering these situations has an adaptive role preserving individuals from injury and death. However, recalling traumatic memories can induce re-experiencing the trauma, thus resulting in a maladaptive fear. A failure to properly regulate fear responses has been associated with anxiety disorders, like Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Thus,...
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4142342
PubMed Central
by van Ballegooijen, Wouter; Cuijpers, Pim; van Straten, Annemieke; Karyotaki, Eirini; Andersson, Gerhard; Smit, Jan H.; Riper, Heleen
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This article is from PLoS ONE , volume 9 . Abstract Background: Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) is an effective and acceptable treatment for depression, especially when it includes guidance, but its treatment adherence has not yet been systematically studied. We conducted a meta-analysis, comparing the adherence to guided iCBT with the adherence to individual face-to-face CBT. Methods: Studies were selected from a database of trials that investigate treatment for adult...
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4100736
PubMed Central
by Heeren, Alexandre; Lange, Wolf-Gero; Philippot, Pierre; Wong, Quincy J. J.
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This article is from Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , volume 8 . Abstract None
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4105627
PubMed Central
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This article is from Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience , volume 5 . Abstract Danger and harm are avoided by strategic decisions made at all three levels of the triune forebrain: rational (neomammalian), emotional (paleomammalian), and instinctive (reptilian). This applies also to potential harm from conspecifics, which leads to a choice between escalating and de-escalating strategies. Anxiety is a component of de-escalating strategies mediated by the paleomammalian and reptilian forebrains....
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3181631
PubMed Central
by Pfennig, Andrea; Leopold, Karolina; Bechdolf, Andreas; Correll, Christoph U; Holtmann, Martin; Lambert, Martin; Marx, Carolin; Meyer, Thomas D; Pfeiffer, Steffi; Reif, Andreas; Rottmann-Wolf, Maren; Schmitt, Natalie M; Stamm, Thomas; Juckel, Georg; Bauer, Michael
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This article is from Trials , volume 15 . Abstract Background: Bipolar disorders (BD) are among the most severe mental disorders with first clinical signs and symptoms frequently appearing in adolescence and early adulthood. The long latency in clinical diagnosis (and subsequent adequate treatment) adversely affects the course of disease, effectiveness of interventions and health-related quality of life, and increases the economic burden of BD. Despite uncertainties about risk constellations...
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4020379
This article is from Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience , volume 13 . Abstract A plethora of studies have examined the efficacy and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adult anxiety disorders. In recent years, several meta-analyses have been conducted to quantitatively review the evidence of CBT for anxiety disorders, each using different inclusion criteria for studies, such as use of control conditions or type of study environment. This review aims to summarize and to...
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3263389
PubMed Central
by Cominski, Tara P.; Jiao, Xilu; Catuzzi, Jennifer E.; Stewart, Amanda L.; Pang, Kevin C. H.
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This article is from Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience , volume 8 . Abstract The hippocampus has been implicated in anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); human studies suggest that a dysfunctional hippocampus may be a vulnerability factor for the development of PTSD. In the current study, we examined the effect of hippocampal damage in avoidance learning, as avoidance is a core symptom of all anxiety disorders. First, the effect of hippocampal damage on avoidance...
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4125878
PubMed Central
by Rinck, Mike; Telli, Sibel; Kampmann, Isabel L.; Woud, Marcella L.; Kerstholt, Merel; te Velthuis, Sarai; Wittkowski, Matthias; Becker, Eni S.
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This article is from Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , volume 7 . Abstract Previous research revealed an automatic behavioral bias in high socially anxious individuals (HSAs): although their explicit evaluations of smiling faces are positive, they show automatic avoidance of these faces. This is reflected by faster pushing than pulling of smiling faces in an Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT; Heuer et al., 2007). The current study addressed the causal role of this avoidance bias for social anxiety....
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3748377
PubMed Central
by Parry, Steve W; Deary, Vincent; Finch, Tracy; Bamford, Claire; Sabin, Neil; McMeekin, Peter; O'Brien, John; Caldwell, Alma; Steen, Nick; Whitney, Susan L; Macdonald, Claire; McColl, Elaine
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This article is from Trials , volume 15 . Abstract Background: Around 30% to 62% of older individuals fall each year, with adverse consequences of falls being by no means limited to physical injury and escalating levels of dependence. Many older individuals suffer from a variety of adverse psychosocial difficulties related to falling including fear, anxiety, loss of confidence and subsequent increasing activity avoidance, social isolation and frailty. Such ‘fear of falling’ is common and...
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4059076
PubMed Central
by Hewlett, Sarah; Ambler, Nick; Almeida, Celia; Cliss, Alena; Hammond, Alison; Kitchen, Karen; Knops, Bev; Pope, Denise; Spears, Melissa; Swinkels, Annette; Pollock, Jon
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This article is from Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases , volume 70 . Abstract Objectives: To investigate the effect of group cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for fatigue self-management, compared with groups receiving fatigue information alone, on fatigue impact among people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Two-arm, parallel randomised controlled trial in adults with RA, fatigue ≥6/10 (Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) 0–10, high bad) and no recent change in RA medication. Group CBT for...
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3086034
This article is from Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , volume 8 . Abstract Current cognitive models of social phobia converge on the view that negative imagery is a key factor in the development and maintenance of the disorder. Research to date has predominantly focussed on the detrimental impact of negative imagery on cognitive bias and anxiety symptoms, while the potential benefit of promoting positive imagery has been relatively unexplored. Emerging evidence suggests however that positive...
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3912737
PubMed Central
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This article is from Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders , volume 3 . Abstract Several mental illnesses, including anxiety, can manifest during development, with onsets in late childhood. Understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of risk for anxiety is of crucial importance for early prevention and intervention approaches. Translational neuroscience offers tools to investigate such mechanisms in human and animal models. The current review describes paradigms derived from neuroscience,...
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3846696
PubMed Central
by Larson, Stephen D.; Martone, Maryann E.
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This article is from Frontiers in Neuroinformatics , volume 7 . Abstract The ability to transmit, organize, and query information digitally has brought with it the challenge of how to best use this power to facilitate scientific inquiry. Today, few information systems are able to provide detailed answers to complex questions about neuroscience that account for multiple spatial scales, and which cross the boundaries of diverse parts of the nervous system such as molecules, cellular parts, cells,...
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3757470
PubMed Central
by Adhikari, Avishek
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This article is from Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience , volume 8 . Abstract Anxiety is of paramount importance for animals, as it allows assessment of the environment while minimizing exposure to potential threats. Furthermore, anxiety disorders are highly prevalent. Consequently, the neural circuitry underlying anxiety has been a topic of great interest. In this mini review, we will discuss current views on anxiety circuits. We will focus on rodent anxiety paradigms, but we will also...
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3978252
PubMed Central
by Freeman, Daniel; Startup, Helen; Myers, Elissa; Harvey, Allison; Geddes, John; Yu, Ly-Mee; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Foster, Russell; Lister, Rachel
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This article is from Trials , volume 14 . Abstract Background: Patients with psychosis frequently report difficulties getting or staying asleep (insomnia). Dissatisfaction with sleep is high. Insomnia should be treated in this group, but typically it is not even assessed. Importantly, recent evidence indicates that insomnia triggers and exacerbates delusions and hallucinations. The clinical implication is that if the insomnia is treated then the psychotic symptoms will significantly lessen. In...
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3717119
PubMed Central
by Johnson, Erica M.; Traver, Kyle L.; Hoffman, Stuart W.; Harrison, Catherine R.; Herman, James P.
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This article is from Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience , volume 7 . Abstract Environmental enrichment (EE) increases cortical weight, neuronal density, dendritic branching, and angiogenesis, all of which may be critical for functional recovery following insult. Our study was designed to determine possible benefits of pre-exposure to EE in preventing functional deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI) to the prefrontal cortex. To examine the benefit of EE, adult male rats were placed...
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3659334
This article is from Frontiers in Neuroscience , volume 7 . Abstract Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is a primary mediator of endocrine, autonomic and behavioral stress responses. Studies in both humans and animal models have implicated CRF in a wide-variety of psychiatric conditions including anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, sleep disorders and addiction among others. The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), a key limbic structure with one of...
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3810776
PubMed Central
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This article is from Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , volume 7 . Abstract Socially anxious individuals are interfered by distractors. Recent work has suggested that low working memory capacity and inappropriate temporary goal induce attention to distractors. We investigated the effects of working memory capacity and temporary goal on attention to distractors in social anxiety. Participants viewed a rapid serial visual presentation, in which participants reported the identity of a single target...
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3854566
PubMed Central
by Yoshinaga, Naoki; Niitsu, Tomihisa; Hanaoka, Hideki; Sato, Yasunori; Ohshima, Fumiyo; Matsuki, Satoshi; Kobori, Osamu; Nakazato, Michiko; Nakagawa, Akiko; Iyo, Masaomi; Shimizu, Eiji
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This article is from BMJ Open , volume 3 . Abstract Introduction: Pharmacotherapy and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) are consistently effective as first-line treatments for social anxiety disorders (SADs). Nevertheless, pharmacotherapy is often the first choice in clinical practice. In many countries, the first line of pharmacotherapy involves the administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Although a significant proportion of patients with SAD fail to respond to the...
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3586054