The Maoist insurgency of Nepal, which lasted from 1996 to 2006, was a major communist armed insurrection that cost more than 13,000 lives and brought a significant change to Nepal’s historical political structure. This insurgency ended after the Maoists entered the mainstream politics of the country in 2006, but questions remain on why they decided to join democratic politics. Understanding this outcome is important because it provides insights into how insurgencies are resolved. Using a qualitative method, this thesis analyzes the roles of Nepal’s domestic political parties, its monarch, and the international community in bringing the Maoist into mainstream politics. This investigation reveals that as a result of the changing domestic and international political scenario surrounding the insurgency, Maoists were forced to modify their strategy and join mainstream politics. Nepal’s Maoist insurgency reveals the importance of pursuing a counterinsurgency approach that combines political and military measures, rather than excessive use of force that benefits the rebels as demonstrated in the earlier period of the insurrection. The state’s acknowledgement of the Maoists’ agendas and its willingness to engage in power sharing and constitutional amendment were keys that guided the insurgents toward mainstream politics.
Chatterjee, Anshu N.
Security Studies (Combating Terrorism: Policy and Strategy)
Naval Postgraduate School
Master of Arts in Security Studies (Combating Terrorism: Policy and Strategy)
National Security Affairs (NSA)
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