The Greenstadt-type criterion for distinguishing between laminar and pulsating (i.e., irregular) bow shock crossings can be expressed as a critical angle between the shock normal and the magnetic field. When the field is more tangent to the shock plane than this critical angle, the shock is laminar. More importantly, the requirement of Galilean invariance of the physics underlying such a criterion reveals that the Greenstadt p index must vary inversely as the solar wind velcoity.

Topics: BLOOD PLASMA, PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS, WATER BALANCE, ETHYL ALCOHOL, HUMAN BODY, OSMOSIS, BODY...

The potential distribution in a plasma containing dust grains were derived where the Debye length can be larger or smaller than the average intergrain spacing. Three models were treated for the grain-plasma system, with the assumption that the system of dust and plasma is charge-neutral: a permeable grain model, an impermeable grain model, and a capacitor model that does not require the nearest neighbor approximation of the other two models. A gauge-invariant form of Poisson's equation was used...

Topics: COMETS, GRANULAR MATERIALS, TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT, THERMAL EMISSION, EMISSION SPECTRA, LIGHT...