Close-in air-blast data from the 4.3 +/- 0.4 kt Palanquin event in the Plowshare Program for development of nuclear excavation are presented and evaluated. When blast suppress ion factors are compared with those of past events, an effective yield of 2 kt is required to make Palanquin ground-shock-induced peak overpressures agree with those of past events. Four components of the blast wave from cratering explosions first observed on Project Dugout were again identified on Project Palanquin. The...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Vortman, L J, SANDIA CORP ALBUQUERQUE NM, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, AIRBURST, CRATERING

Airbiast was measured perpendicular to and off the ends of row-charge explosions and compared with airblast from single charges. It was found that P(sub row) approx. equal n(sup Beta) P(sub single), where p is peak overpressure and n the number of charges. Beta was different for each blast parameter examined: ground-shock-induced peak overpressure, peak overpressure from venting gas, peak negative pressure, and positive and negative impulse. Values of Beta increased as spacing decreased....

Topics: DTIC Archive, Vortman, L J, SANDIA LABS ALBUQUERQUE NM, *AIRBURST, *CRATERS, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS,...

Results are given of pressure-time measurements measured by two gages at each of eight stations from surface ground zero to 6000 feet on the Cabriolet event. The largest overpressures resulted from the air-transmitted ground-shock-induced pulse and were comparable to those measured on the Danny Boy and Sulky events. There is evidence that for underground explosions as for aboveground explosions the air blast from a 1-kiloton nuclear explosion is comparable to that from 1/2 kiloton of TNT. The...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Vortman, L J, SANDIA CORP ALBUQUERQUE NM, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, *AIRBURST, UNDERGROUND...

The objective was to determine the velocity and distance of translation of anthropomorphic dummies and equivalent spheres caused by blast winds. The primary technique for recording the movement of these objects was photo-triangulation. Analysis of the films obtained thereby gave the velocity and distance in the case of shot 1. In shot 2, the field of view was obscured by smoke (perhaps dust too) before any motion could be recorded by the cameras. The secondary technique (applicable to certain...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Taborelli, R V, LOVELACE FOUNDATION FOR MEDICAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH ALBUQUERQUE...

The monograph examines the events leading to the signing of the nuclear test ban treaty; the status or validity of the treaty benefits claimed by the Kennedy administration; and the status of the safeguards that were to be maintained in order to make the treaty acceptable.

Topics: DTIC Archive, McNutt, Donald L, ARMY WAR COLLEGE CARLISLE BARRACKS PA, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS,...

The Dugout event was a row cratering experiment in which five 20-ton nitromethane charges spaced 45 feet apart at depths of 59 feet in dry basalt were detonated simultaneously. The explosion produced an apparent crater about 135 feet wide, 285 feet long, and 35 feet deep. Preshot and postshot NX core and calyx hole drilling, trenching, laboratory analysis of core samples, and analysis of photographs have revealed preshot structure, the extent and characteristics of the ejecta and fallback, the...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Lutton, R J, ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURG MS, *NUCLEAR...

Surface level overpressures and dynamic pressures were measured during 14 shots of Operation Plumbbob. The objectives were met in that useful information was obtained on (1) overpressure and dynamic pressure as a function of time and distance, (2) formation and history of precursor waveforms, (3) applicability for scaling laws for determining surface and near-surface pressure from high-altitude bursts, and (4) validity of the pressure-distance curve in the low-pressure region. In these...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Bryant, E J, SANDIA CORP ALBUQUERQUE NM, *BLAST, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, MEASUREMENT,...

Soil samples were exposed to neutron radiation from Shot Cherokee to help establish the importance of neutron-induced residual gamma radiation from a large-yield thermonuclear air burst. After exposure and recovery, the samples had no detectable activity because the slant range to the nearest sample was nearly 3.5 miles, due to an error in bomb drop. After this failure, an experiment was designed in the field for Shot Yuma in order that induced-activity data could be obtained for a soil other...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Cowan, Jr, Maynard, SANDIA CORP ALBUQUERQUE NM, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, *SOILS,...

Basic thermal-radiation measurements, comprising total and broad-band spectral distribution of radiant energy, radiant energy function of field of view of the measuring instrument, and total radiant power versus time, are reported for the second thermal pulse of Shots 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 9, and 10. All data were taken from ground stations at ranges as close as feasible to the detonations. The data are reported and analyzed to obtain the total thermal energy, the total thermal emission per unit of...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Hillendahl, R W, NORTHWESTERN UNIV EVANSTON IL TECHNOLOGICAL INST, *NUCLEAR...

A set of procedures for the systematic separation and analysis of particle groups has been developed for use in a reexamination of early time aerial filter and local fallout samples of radioactive particles from nuclear detonations. The radioactive particles produced by nuclear detonations have radioisotopic compositions which vary with both particle size and type. To determine how individual radionuclides are distributed among the particles, it is first necessary to group the particles...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Heft, Robert E, CALIFORNIA UNIV LIVERMORE RADIATION LAB, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS,...

The purpose of Project 3.30 of Operation Upshot-Knothole was to develop and proof-test self-recording gages for the measurement of pressure-time and peak pressure in connection with air blast waves from nuclear explosions. To accomplish this purpose, prototypes were manufactured for three types of gages in quantities of 10 to 30. They were employed in numerous ways on several shots to determine their characteristics, limitations and capabilities. A nylon and carbon paper initiation device was...

Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY BALLISTIC RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD, *AIRBURST, *NUCLEAR...

A simple analytical model, suitable for use in systems analysis codes, is presented of the thermal radiation intensity from a nuclear burst as a function of time and yield and for an altitude range from near surface to 50 kilometers. The model divides the photon energy into six broad bands including infrared, red, green, blue, near ultraviolet and far ultraviolet.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Michelet, A H, GENERAL RESEARCH CORP SANTA BARBARA CA, *AIRBURST, *NUCLEAR...

Although more than 70 devices were detonated during the two phases of Operation Hardtack, principal activity by DoD projects was limited to eleven shots. Five of these were DoD shots and six were developmental. Two series of tests were conducted to develop immediate tactical doctrines. Underwater shots were fired in two environments, one in relatively deep water, and one on the bottom of Eniwetok Lagoon at a depth of about 150 feet. Although there had been previous underwater shots, many gaps...

Topics: DTIC Archive, DEFENSE ATOMIC SUPPORT AGENCY ALBUQUERQUE NM FIELD COMMAND, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS,...

A model is presented here to give the detailed position-time history of a parcel of fluid flowing around a rising spherical fireball vortex. The model is based on the assumption of steady incompressible, irrotational flow around the spherical vortex. The model has been coded for use in large systems type codes. The technique used is based on interpolation from a solution table. Included is the Fortran coding and typical output. (Author)

Topics: DTIC Archive, Old, T E, GENERAL RESEARCH CORP SANTA BARBARA CA, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, *AIRBURST,...

The first chapter of this volume describes the physical setting and general characteristics of Shots ABLE, BAKER, CHARLIE, and DOG and briefly introduces the Desert Rock exercises and the scientific activities in which DOD personnel participated. The remaining four chapters address each of the four shots in turn. Each of these chapters describes the setting and characteristics of one detonation and details DOD participation in the scientific projects conducted by the test groups. The chapters...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Ponton,Jean, JRB ASSOCIATES INC MCLEAN VA, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSION TESTING, TEST AND...

The MICE radiation hydrodynamics code was used to study low altitude multiple non-concentric megaton bursts to study effects dependent upon burst separation.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Cosner, K, MISSION RESEARCH CORP SANTA BARBARA CA, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, *NUCLEAR...

A sensitivity analysis is performed on a computer model of tree response to airblast loading. This effort was undertaken, with success, to reduce the number of input parameters required by the model to those available to the field commander. Based on the results of this analysis, a new prediction technique was developed which determines the extent of tree blowdown and the resultant effects on troop and vehicle movement. The technique was developed for inclusion in DNA Effects Manual Number 1.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Morris, Phillip J, URS RESEARCH CO SAN MATEO CA, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSION DAMAGE, *NUCLEAR...

Theoretical seismograms for fundamental mode Rayleigh waves were calculated for atmospheric point sources over oceanic and over continental earth models, as recorded at an epicentral distance of 10,000 km. Yields were uniformly distributed over the range 1 kT to 10 MT, for source altitudes in the range 0.3 to 92.0 km. The earth structures used were those of Gutenberg and of Anderson and Toksoz. The source models were point mass-injection and energy- injection sources at altitude, as well as a...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Harkrider, David G, TELEDYNE GEOTECH ALEXANDRIA VA ALEXANDRIA LABS, *AIRBURST,...

Daytime electron density profiles for ambient conditions were computed over the range 60-250 km by adding a solar ionizing source to existing nuclear effects chemistry codes. The computed profiles are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data over most of this altitude range.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Keefer, Jane A, MISSION RESEARCH CORP SANTA BARBARA CA, *ELECTRON DENSITY,...

The series of tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site from October 22 to November 5, 1951, was known as Operation Buster. This report deals with measurements of overpressure time vs distance for airburst weapons. The tests included one tower shot and four air dropped atomic bombs. The latter four were all nuclear bursts and were designated as Baker, Charlie, Dog, and Easy Shots. Relevant information was obtained for the shots designated Baker, Charlie, and Easy. Only one measurement was...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Murphy, B. F., SANDIA CORP ALBUQUERQUE NM, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, *AIRBURST,...

From theoretical calculations of acoustic-gravity waves in the period range 40 to 1,000 seconds from various combinations of yield and burst height, the authors conclude that the power varies as the square of the yield for low- altitude explosions and as the two-thirds power for altitudes above 100 km. For a given yield, the power increases with burst height to a maximum which is found at lower altitudes for higher yields. The affect of variable atmospheric structure along the propagation paths...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Newton, C A, TELEDYNE GEOTECH ALEXANDRIA VA ALEXANDRIA LABS, *MICROBAROMETRIC WAVES,...

Free-field airblast parameters were measured from the detonation of a spherical 500-ton TNT charge. The charge was placed on the ground such that its height of burst would be one radius above the earth's surface. Measured values of shock-wave arrival time, maximum overpressure, positive phase duration, overpressure impulse, dynamic pressure, and dynamic pressure impulses are presented as functions of ground range and are compared with predictions generated from scaled empirical and theoretical...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Giglio-Tos, Louis, DEFENSE NUCLEAR AGENCY WASHINGTON DC, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, *BLAST,...

The self-recording mechanical gages developed for recording over- pressure versus time and dynamic pressure versus time were installed on 12 shots. For several shots more than one blast line was instrumented. In addition to these blast lines, gage stations were prepared in locations to meet specific data requirements, such as in the vicinity of structures, and in particular on a circle of gages at a radius of 2,500 feet on Shots 12 and 14. Furthermore, a very-low-pressure gage was employed to...

Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY BALLISTIC RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD, *AIRBURST, *FLUID MECHANICS,...

In this report the general phenomena connected with a blast wave in air will be discussed. The particular features of the blast wave produced by a nuclear explosion will be emphasized, but many of the developments in this volume will apply generally to blast waves produced by any type of explosion. In this introductory chapter we shall try to give a general idea of the various phenomena occurring in a blast wave in air, of their interrelation and their time sequence. In the following chapters...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Bethe, Hans A, LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LAB NM, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, *BLAST WAVES, DAMAGE...

An experimental program to study the process of entrainment and turbulent mixing in fireballs is described. The high pressure test facility and diagnostic equipment which were developed for this investigation and preliminary analyses which have been performed are discussed. Methods of acquiring density and velocity field data using holographic interferometry and particle tracking techniques, respectively, as well as the interpretation and reduction of these data are outlined. Preliminary...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Haigh, Wayne W, TRW SYSTEMS GROUP REDONDO BEACH CA, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, AIRBURST,...

The objective was to determine the velocity and distance of translation of anthropomorphic dummies and equivalent spheres caused by blast winds. The primary technique for recording the movement of these objects was photo-triangulation. Analysis of the films obtained thereby gave the velocity and distance in the case of shot 1. In shot 2, the field of view was obscured by smoke (perhaps dust too) before any motion could be recorded by the cameras. The secondary technique (applicable to certain...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Taborelli, R V, LOVELACE FOUNDATION FOR MEDICAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH ALBUQUERQUE...

Hydrocode calculations for spherical shock propagation using the artificial-viscosity method are carried out to 0.2 psi overpressure for a nuclear explosion and for a TNT explosion. An ideal-gas integration from the literature is used to extend the results to .00016 psi.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Lehto, D L, NAVAL ORDNANCE LAB WHITE OAK MD, *SHOCK WAVES, MATHEMATICAL MODELS,...

A method is described for the implementation of a time dependent striation structure and convection model into an existing systems code. The purpose is to update estimates of the scintillation effects of the structuring of the ionization of high altitude nuclear bursts on satellite radio signals. The structure and convection model is an extrapolation of the results of a numerical calculation for an idealized situation to the nuclear case combined with a late time bifurcation model.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Sachs, David L, SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INC LA JOLLA CA, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS,...

Measurements of air blast pressures and earth pressures induced by air blast from the airburst bombs of Operation Buster are described. Graphs of the pressure time data derived from the air pressure gauge and earth pressure gauges at four depths are presented. Certain factors which have made the data questionable quantitatively are discussed. The principal findings are that the induced ground pressures are possibly somewhat greater than the air blast pressures, and that the attenuation factor...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Perret, William R., SANDIA CORP ALBUQUERQUE NM, *AIRBURST, *SEISMIC WAVES, NUCLEAR...

Operation BREN (Bare Reactor Experiment, Nevada) was an experiment that used a 1500-ft tower and a bare (no shielding) fast nuclear reactor patterned on 'Godiva' to simulate a nuclear weapon detonated at various heights above the ground. Certain characteristics of the neutron field from this unshielded reactor were measured. The activation of gold, manganese, sulfur, cadmium-covered gold, and cadmium-covered manganese was determined as a function of distance from the reactor and of depth in the...

Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL RADIOLOGICAL DEFENSE LAB SAN FRANCISCO CA, *AIRBURST, *NEUTRON ACTIVATION,...

The detection of nuclear explosions in the atmosphere has posed problems to the variety of techniques used to sense the resulting disturbances. Hence, the research covered by the subject contract was directed toward the extraction of intelligence from microbarographic signals. The principal objective was to improve the ability to determine the yield and height of burst of nuclear explosions in the atmosphere. Necessarily there were two related, intermediate objectives: namely, to develop...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Newton, C A, TELEDYNE GEOTECH ALEXANDRIA VA, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, AIRBURST,...

Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVY ELECTRONICS LAB SAN DIEGO CA, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, *SOUND TRANSMISSION, AIR,...

The local linear dispersion relation for the hot ion cyclotron beam--whistler mode instability near the leading edge of parallel shock waves is generalized into a WKB eigenvalue problem. Its solution reveals the existence of stationary eigen growth modes capable of generating turbulence in the leading edge region. (Author)

Topics: DTIC Archive, Golden,Kenneth I, NORTHEASTERN UNIV BOSTON MASS, *INJECTION, *ELECTRON BEAMS,...

Research was undertaken to determine if field aligned acceleration of plasma will occur following a high altitude nuclear detonation, H.A.N.E. This report represents the preliminary phase of the research. Particle codes were used to study this nonlinear problem in one and two and one-half dimensions using the electrostatic limit. Examination of beam plasma interaction in one dimension showed the expected diffusion of plasma to high energy consistent with previous research. The two and one-half...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Brecht,S H, BERKELEY RESEARCH ASSOCIATES INC CA, *Plasmas(Physics), *Nuclear...

The volume presents new theoretical developments of two problems. The first is the determination of the waves resulting from the passage of a high- pressure disturbance over the free surface of a body of water. This would occur in the case of a burst on or over land near a shore and is, therefore, of interest to the Five City Study in which three nuclear surface bursts are near rivers or bays. The second topic is motion of the ground water table induced by a surface burst. This problem is of...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Le Mehaute, B J, NATIONAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE CO PASADENA CA, *HYDRODYNAMICS,...

In this report, we present results from recent CMHD (Collisionless Magnetohydrodynamics) code calculations of the early time (0 to 1 sec.) evolution of the STARFISH event. The emphasis of this report is on the velocity spectrum of the energy going to the conjugate patches. We present a parameter study, utilizing results from eight simplified, CMHD-like calculations, which demonstrates the dominant role played by ionizing collisions during the blast wave expansion.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Fajen, F E, MISSION RESEARCH CORP SANTA BARBARA CA, *AIRBURST, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS,...

The ground shock response in the superseismic range of a one megation air burst on a homogeneous half-space of a soil is considered. Each of the three types of models, was fitted to laboratory test data and calculations were made for each case. Generally, the results from all three models are comparable only when the stress paths in uniaxial strain are comparable for complete load-unload cycles. When this is not so, major differences occur in the lateral motions and stresses.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Baron, Melvin L, WEIDLINGER ASSOCIATES NEW YORK, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, *SOIL...

The authors investigate the application of two numerical methods (finite element and finite difference approximations) toward the ultimate solution of problems involving the propagation of Rayleigh waves generated by an explosion in the atmosphere over an island atoll. Because of mathematical difficulties in these methods, useful calculations of Rayleigh wave spectra at teleseismic distances were not obtained. It appears that the physical constraints of the atoll structure, e.g., abrupt changes...

Topics: DTIC Archive, McCowan, D W, TELEDYNE GEOTECH ALEXANDRIA VA ALEXANDRIA LABS, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS,...

The Electromagnetic Blackout Guide describes the quantitative relationships between nuclear explosions at various altitudes, geographic locations and yields and the absorptive and refractive effects produced as a function of time, space and frequency. This guide provides quantitative data for war games and for evaluating communication systems and weapon systems.

Topics: DTIC Archive, GENERAL ELECTRIC CO SANTA BARBARA CA TECHNICAL MILITARY PLANNING OPERATION, *RADAR...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Shreve, Jr, J D, LOCKHEED MARTIN CORP ALBUQUERQUE NM SANDIA CORP, *NUCLEAR...

The vortex shedding anemometer (VSA) was developed by Kaman Sciences Corporation (ca. 1967) for measuring transient gas particle velocity in the flow behind an air shock wave. The original VSA was calibrated up to Mach 1 where the minimum response time was on the order of 700 microseconds. A higher velocity model has been designed and tested up to Mach 2.2 with a response time approaching 100 microseconds. This new device was calibrated in the quasi-steady state flow field of a transonic wind...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Cole,Eldine, KAMAN SCIENCES CORP COLORADO SPRINGS CO, *MEASURING INSTRUMENTS,...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Brode, Harold L, RAND CORP SANTA MONICA CA, *NUCLEAR BOMBS, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, SHOCK...

A model for the generation of magnetohydrodynamic waves by high- altitude nuclear bursts is presented which approximates the physical conditions present immediately following the detonation of a nuclear device. This model of the debris expanding into the upper ionosphere-exosphere is taken to be a conducting sphere expanding at a constant velocity into a magnetoplasma, pushing the magnetic field aside and then abruptly stopping. It is found that the system does exhibit hydromagnetic radiation,...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Lutomirski, R F, RAND CORP SANTA MONICA CA, *MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS, *NUCLEAR...

Curvature spectra convey roughly the same information as ordinary or high-resolution f-k spectra, with resolution intermediate between the two. The curvature of an array response function contains information about an array not supplied in the array response function itself. For example, the polarity of side lobes, i.e., whether they are small peaks or valleys, is better judged from curvature response plots. The differential response of an array provides a means of comparing the angular...

Topics: DTIC Archive, McCowan, D W, TELEDYNE GEOTECH ALEXANDRIA VA ALEXANDRIA LABS, *MICROBAROMETRIC WAVES,...

The report establishes a suitable Green's function model to explain the generation of long period, large amplitude gravity modes by thermonuclear and nuclear tests in the atmosphere. Thus, it is shown in a paper in press by Tolstoy and Lau, that the important mechanism here must be the rising shere of hot gas. It is not difficult to demonstrate that - for large yields, at least - this mechanism should be orders of magnitude more efficient in generating long period internal gravity wave modes...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Tolstoy, I, FLORIDA STATE UNIV TALLAHASSEE GEOPHYSICAL FLUID DYNAMICS INST,...

Topics: DTIC Archive, JOINT TASK FORCE ONE WASHINGTON DC, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSION TESTING,...

Low-pressure air blast was measured for Project Danny Boy out to 240 km mainly in order to find the attenuation caused by the hard rock environment of the shot and to compare results with both nuclear and HE shots in other media. Nine microbarograph stations were operated. Various operational difficulties reduced the number of signal correlation points. Air-blast pressures, both close-in and far-out, were appreciably smaller than expected from experience with underground HE shots. Transmission...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Reed, J W, LOCKHEED MARTIN CORP ALBUQUERQUE NM SANDIA CORP, *AIRBURST, ATTENUATION,...

The missile experiment demonstrated that reinforced concrete walls and highways located 40 feet to 140 feet from ground zero were broken and thrown out as missiles. Material nearer than 40 feet (or perhaps 50 feet) was vaporized or pulverized to the extent that it was largely windborne. Missiles of military significance were found 400 feet to 3300 feet from ground zero. Those of major significance were in the range 400 feet to 1500 feet. Analysis has permitted estimates of the missile hazard...

Topics: DTIC Archive, STANFORD RESEARCH INST MENLO PARK CA, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, AIRBURST, AIRCRAFT,...

The results of analysis of microbarograph records from two presumed atmospheric nuclear explosions are given. The events occured on 27 December 1968 and 29 September 1969, and were recorded by microbarograph arrays in Boulder, Colorado, College, Alaska, Huancayo, Peru, Tel Aviv, Israel and at LAMA, the Large Aperature Microbarograph Array in Montana. The authors also show LAMA data and analysis results for eight other presumed explosions. In addition to demonstrating the effectiveness of the...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Kerr, J, TELEDYNE GEOTECH ALEXANDRIA VA ALEXANDRIA LABS, *MICROBAROMETRIC WAVES,...

A model of Wilson Cloud formation following a low-altitude nuclear detonation is developed. It is shown that for detonation yields between 0.001 kt and 100 kt, simple scaling laws characterize the evolution and physical properties of the Wilson Cloud. (Author)

Topics: DTIC Archive, Waltz,R E, VISIDYNE INC BURLINGTON MASS, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, *CLOUDS, AEROSOLS,...