Project 1.5 observed vertical and radial accelerations and vertical displacements produced in the ground by air shock from Shot Priscilla, which had an estimated yield of 37 kt, and a burst height of approximately 700 feet. Instrumentation was included to measure vertical acceleration at two depths in the vicinity of ground zero and both radial and vertical acceleration at the surface and at depths of 10, 30, 60, and 100 feet for pressure ranges of 270, 187, 120, and 59 psi. Vertical...

Topics: DTIC Archive, SANDIA CORP ALBUQUERQUE NM, *DETONATIONS, *SEISMOLOGY, AIRBURST, EARTH(PLANET),...

Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURG MS, *UNDERWATER EXPLOSIONS,...

A mechanical method is described for measuring the impulse imparted to a flat rigid surface by the reflection (at 90 deg. or normal incidence) of an air blast wave. The method consists of measuring the velocity at which a cylindrical plug of known mass is projected from a hole in a large rigid surface by a normally incident blast wave and computing the impulse from Newton's 2nd law. Experimental results were obtained for spherical Pentolite explosive charges ranging in weight from 1/4 to 2 lbs...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Johnson, O T, ARMY BALLISTIC RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD, *AIRBURST,...

Air blast data are presented in a form which allows prediction of a number of 'free-field' air blast parameters during the interaction of a blast wave with a moving target. The data are based on sources of compiled blast measurements and on theory of blast waves generated by explosives, and are presented graphically on largescale plots.

Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY BALLISTIC RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD, *AIRBURST, *AIRFOILS, BLAST,...

A model of Wilson Cloud formation following a low-altitude nuclear detonation is developed. It is shown that for detonation yields between 0.001 kt and 100 kt, simple scaling laws characterize the evolution and physical properties of the Wilson Cloud. (Author)

Topics: DTIC Archive, Waltz,R E, VISIDYNE INC BURLINGTON MASS, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, *CLOUDS, AEROSOLS,...

This experiment was performed to obtain data on the spectral distribution of the radiation emitted in a nuclear explosion as a function of altitude. The radiant power versus time was measured with a time resolution of 100 micro sec in 22 narrow spectral bands between 0.25 and 2.5 microns for the high altitude detonation and for the low altitude correlation shots. This was accomplished with vacuum phototubes and lead sulphide photoconductive cells, each sampling a different spectral region in...

Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL RADIOLOGICAL DEFENSE LAB SAN FRANCISCO CA, *SPECTRUM ANALYZERS, *NUCLEAR...

The objective of Project 1.4 was primarily to determine the general shape of that portion of a shock wave propagated near the ground but originating from an atomic explosion high in the air. Secondary objectives were the calculation of peak pressures involved and the computation of a blast efficiency for each bomb. To achieve these purposes the shock arrival time method was used with blast switches at three levels above the ground both in the regular reflection and Mach reflection regions. The...

Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY BALLISTIC RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSION TESTING,...

The handbook sets forth the procedures and techniques for gathering and evaluating the meteorological data necessary for predicting the focus of air blast from surface or near surface explosions, and it describes simple devices to speed the calculations. All the graphs necessary for the evaluation are gathered for easy reference. Eighty-seven sets of vertical velocity gradients and the resulting sound ray paths are assembled for rapid determination of focal distance. These should cover most of...

Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY BALLISTIC RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD, *AIRBURST, *BLAST,...

In an effort to determine the amount of energy transmitted into the water when an explosion occurs above a water surface, both experimental and theoretical investigations were conducted. The experimental study involved detonation of 21-lb spheres of TNT above a water surface and measuring induced water shock at spatial positions underwater. To fully incoroporate the nonlinear characteristics of the airblast into the study, free-air pressure-time data were used as the water surface loading...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Pinkston, Jr , J M, ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURG MS, *WATER,...

Free-field airblast parameters were measured from the detonation of a spherical 500-ton TNT charge. The charge was placed on the ground such that its height of burst would be one radius above the earth's surface. Measured values of shock-wave arrival time, maximum overpressure, positive phase duration, overpressure impulse, dynamic pressure, and dynamic pressure impulses are presented as functions of ground range and are compared with predictions generated from scaled empirical and theoretical...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Giglio-Tos, Louis, DEFENSE NUCLEAR AGENCY WASHINGTON DC, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, *BLAST,...

The report presents a description and evaluation of experimental self-recording pressure-time gages and triaxial accelerometers tested during Operation Snowball, an air blast experiment conducted at Suffield Experimental Station, Alberta, Canada. Values of shock overpressure, duration of positive phase of the shock wave, and impulse derived from the records of these gages are compared to graphs of similar parameters plotted from measurements obtained by Project 1.1 which was responsible for...

Topics: DTIC Archive, LeFevre, Daniel P, ARMY BALLISTIC RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD,...

The primary purpose of this report is to provide guidance for designers of shock isolation systems during the initial phases of design. Volume I presents methods for estimating appropriate free field waveforms and the influence of soil-structure interaction upon interior structure motion. The inherent error in shock isolation design is at least =20%; to reduce this, much more soil test data than is now available will be required. Further, based on purely theoretical arguments, shock isolation...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Morrison, T, GENERAL AMERICAN TRANSPORTATION CORP NILES IL, *SHOCK RESISTANCE,...

The accomplishments achieved over the contract period are documented. Computational results for nuclear and conventional airblast are presented. Improvements in the numerical algorithms are discussed. Theoretical computation of shock waves is compared with available data. (Author)

Topics: DTIC Archive, Fry,Mark, SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INC MCLEAN VA, *Airburst, *Blast, Explosions, High...

The objective of Project 1.8b was to investigate the blast damage sustained by drag-sensitive targets when the blast wave passes over rough, hilly terrain to the target location. Of particular interest was the difference in the damage sustained by those targets which were positioned to take maximum advantage of terrain irregularities and the damage sustained by those targets placed over level terrain at corresponding distances. For this study 51 jeeps were exposed on Shot Smoky. Vehicles were...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Bryant, E J, ARMY BALLISTIC RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD, *NUCLEAR...

Hydrocode calculations for spherical shock propagation using the artificial-viscosity method are carried out to 0.2 psi overpressure for a nuclear explosion and for a TNT explosion. An ideal-gas integration from the literature is used to extend the results to .00016 psi.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Lehto, D L, NAVAL ORDNANCE LAB WHITE OAK MD, *SHOCK WAVES, MATHEMATICAL MODELS,...

The Kirkwood-Brinkley shock propagation theory is used to obtain peak pressure-distance curves for Pentolite and TNT. The curve for Pentolite obtained by using the calculated initial pressure and flow energy at the charge surface as initial values is in excellent agreement with experiment for distances greater than 1.75 charge radii. The curve for TNT obtained by using some approximate values of the peak pressure and energy at the charge surface is in excellent agreement with some recent...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Shear, Ralph E, ARMY BALLISTIC RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD, *SHOCK WAVES,...

The use of scaled models and conventional H.E. charges in the study of the effect of blast from nuclear explosions is discussed. Experimental work using full-scale and one-quarter-scale models of a representative missile and conventional explosive charges of 64 lbs. and 4096 lbs. is described.

Topics: DTIC Archive, King, F, ROYAL ARMAMENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT FORT HALSTEAD (UNITED...

The vortex shedding anemometer (VSA) was developed by Kaman Sciences Corporation (ca. 1967) for measuring transient gas particle velocity in the flow behind an air shock wave. The original VSA was calibrated up to Mach 1 where the minimum response time was on the order of 700 microseconds. A higher velocity model has been designed and tested up to Mach 2.2 with a response time approaching 100 microseconds. This new device was calibrated in the quasi-steady state flow field of a transonic wind...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Cole,Eldine, KAMAN SCIENCES CORP COLORADO SPRINGS CO, *MEASURING INSTRUMENTS,...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Brode, Harold L, RAND CORP SANTA MONICA CA, *NUCLEAR BOMBS, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, SHOCK...

A multiscale finite element analysis for the human head and brain injury analysis has been developed. At the continuum macroscale, the human head is subjected to shock loads from explosions and blasts. A multi-material ALE formulation is implemented to model the air-blast simulation. LS-DYNA as an explicit FE code has been employed to simulate this multi-material fluid structure interaction problem. The 3-D head model is constituted of the detailed structure of the human head anatomy, including...

Topics: DTIC Archive, NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIV FARGO DEPT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, *BLAST, *TRAUMATIC...

The responses of a B-36 aircraft to the effects of a nuclear detonation at levels approaching the thermal and blast limitations of the aircraft were determined. A B-36D aircraft was instrumented and flown in the vicinity of each of the six shots of the CASTLE sequence. Time-history input and response measurements constituted the main instrumentation mentation effort. For the first five shots, the aircraft was positioned at predicted near-limiting inputs in a simulated delivery configuration,...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Miller, G C, DEFENSE ATOMIC SUPPORT AGENCY WASHINGTON DC, *BOMBER AIRCRAFT, AIRCRAFT,...

The local linear dispersion relation for the hot ion cyclotron beam--whistler mode instability near the leading edge of parallel shock waves is generalized into a WKB eigenvalue problem. Its solution reveals the existence of stationary eigen growth modes capable of generating turbulence in the leading edge region. (Author)

Topics: DTIC Archive, Golden,Kenneth I, NORTHEASTERN UNIV BOSTON MASS, *INJECTION, *ELECTRON BEAMS,...

Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVY ELECTRONICS LAB SAN DIEGO CA, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, *SOUND TRANSMISSION, AIR,...

The ground shock response in the superseismic range of a one megation air burst on a homogeneous half-space of a soil is considered. Each of the three types of models, was fitted to laboratory test data and calculations were made for each case. Generally, the results from all three models are comparable only when the stress paths in uniaxial strain are comparable for complete load-unload cycles. When this is not so, major differences occur in the lateral motions and stresses.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Baron, Melvin L, WEIDLINGER ASSOCIATES NEW YORK, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, *SOIL...

Eight topics are described in this report and its classified supplement. These subject categories, in order of their appearance in the progress report, are an investigation of post-attack food production; a study of the special problems of ventilation using warm humid air; the possible effectiveness of biological agents against a sheltered population; the social and psychological constraints on expanded civil defense programs; the interaction of blast waves with tunnels and entranceways; the...

Topics: DTIC Archive, OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LAB TN, *CIVIL DEFENSE, DAMAGE, BIOCHEMISTRY, SHELTERS, SHOCK...

This report provides guidelines for the design and installation of a fiber optic communication system to improve the tolerance of that system to a nuclear environment. These guidelines, if incorporated, can protect a significant portion of the national fiber optic communication system resources that might otherwise be destroyed. (Author)

Topics: DTIC Archive, Reyzer,Ronald J, HARRY DIAMOND LABS ADELPHI MD, *FIBER OPTICS TRANSMISSION LINES,...

Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE SPECIAL WEAPONS CENTER KIRTLAND AFB NM, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, *UNDERGROUND...

A procedure for constructing airblast vulnerability envelopes for supersonic vehicles has been derived which enables the analyst to determine which portions of the envelope are valid. For simplicity, an overpressure of 1 lb/sq in. is used as a damage criterion throughout this report and nonhomogeneous atmosphere effects are ignored. Maximum and minimum shock front velocities are derived for the catching curve as well as the lower limit for the detonation orientation angle theta. (Author)

Topics: DTIC Archive, Campbell, Gerald M., AIR FORCE WEAPONS LAB KIRTLAND AFB NM, *BLAST, *SUPERSONIC...

Hydrodynamic calculations using the HULL code are performed to predict peak airblast overpressure loading on structures. The code uses an Eulerian rectangular mesh. Geometric shapes within the grid are approximated by rectangular islands, where an island is a zone within the mesh for which all four boundaries are reflective. Thus, a ramp would be modeled as a stairway of islands. To demonstrate the validity of this approximation, a calculation was made which compares favorably with experiments....

Topics: DTIC Archive, Happ,Henry J , III, AIR FORCE WEAPONS LAB KIRTLAND AFB N MEX, *STRUCTURAL RESPONSE,...

The accuracy of modified Sachs and Ledsham-Pike scaling of peak shock hydrodynamic variables from a nuclear burst in air is evaluated. The modified Sachs and Ledsham-Pike methods are corrections applied to the similarity transform which is used to compute shock overpressures and related variables for infinite homogeneous atmospheric ambient conditions. This similarity transform no longer applies when the burst and target are located at different altitudes, and the modified Sachs and...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Crawford, Michael L, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH, *AIRBURST,...

This report introduces the reader to radiation hydrodynamics (RH) and discusses its application to fireballs in the atmosphere. After formulating the basic equations of RH, special attention is given to the radiative transfer problem. Several methods for solving the equations of transfer are touched upon but special emphasis is placed on the two stream method with a frequency averaging procedure, which is specifically designed for use with finite zone sizes. A version of the FIREBALL code which...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Brode, Harold L, LOCKHEED MISSILES AND SPACE CO INC SUNNYVALE CA, *NUCLEAR...

Unclassified papers on free-field phenomena, interaction of soils with structures, structural design, and effects on equipment in hardsites are presented.

Topics: DTIC Archive, OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF DEFENSE RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING WASHINGTON DC, *GUIDED...

A recent review of nuclear groundshock test data revealed oscillatory motions of undetermined origin, but of sufficient magnitude to be of concern in the design of shock isolation systems for underground protective structures. Response spectra of the oscillations exhibited amplification ratios far exceeding those employed in most groundshock prediction methods, the ratios being functions of the number of oscillations, and the amplitude and period of each cycle. As the source of the oscillations...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Saffell, H R, PARSONS (RALPH M) CO LOS ANGELES CA, *SHELTERS, *SHOCK WAVES, *SHOCK...

The normal refraction at an air water interface of a plane shock wave incident through the air is considered. The perfect gas and Tait equations of state are used, respectively, to represent the thermodynamic properties of the air and water. For refracted pressures up to 1200 atmospheres, the calculations reveal that the in-water shock front and particle velocities and the changes in density differ by less than 10% from the in-water shock front and particle velocities and the changes in density...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Skop,Richard A, NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON D C, *SHOCK WAVES, *REFRACTION, *AIR...

The objective of CENSE 2 was to study the effects of burst position on ground shock, stress, airblast, and cratering in soil (clayey silt). Nine tests were conducted using 300-pound spherical cast TNT explosive charges. Burst positions ranged from an elevated (airburst, noncratering) charge position of - 10.8 feet to burial at a depth of +10.8 feet. Apparent craters were measured on all tests. Surface airblast was measured on Events 1 through 6, but not on the buried events (Events 7 through...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Ingram, James K., ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURG MS, *SURFACE...

This report describes the conversion of an existing large-cross- sectional-area tunnel into a shock tube and the evaluation of the capabilities of this facility for blast loading and response studies of full-scale and large- scale structural elements. Also included are the results from a preliminary test series of full-scale wall panels conducted as part of the evaluation program and the design of a detailed test program to investigate the loading, response, and debris characteristics of wall...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Willoughby, A B, URS SYSTEMS CORP BURLINGAME CA, *SHOCK TUBES, *UNDERGROUND...

A historical outline of mathematical models used previously to represent soil and rock behavior in ground shock computations at low pressure levels is presented. The problems and deficiencies of these early approaches are discussed. Subsequently, two types of models are developed; one a plastic model in which the yield condition depends on the mean stress and in which different variable bulk moduli are used in loading and unloading. The second type of model, called the 'variable bulk moduli...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Nelson, Ivan, WEIDLINGER ASSOCIATES NEW YORK, *EXPLOSIONS, *SHOCK WAVES,...

Seven 1000-lb nitromethane spheres were detonated at different height/depths of burst with respect to the surface of a sandstone rock mass near Grand Junction, Colorado. The purpose of the tests was to study the effects of burst position on airblast, ground shock (the primary interest), and cratering phenomena. Ground motions were measured directly beneath the charges to maximum depths of 60 ft and at several locations near the ground surface within horizontal distances of 100 ft. Airblast...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Ingram, James K, Drake, James L, Ingram, Leo F, ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT...

ONE HUNDRED AND EIGHTEEN GUINEA PIGS WERE EXPOSED TO AIR BLAST IN SHALLOW, DEEP, AND DEEPWITH-OFFSET CHAMBERS MOUNTED ON A SHOCK TUBE. The LD(50)- 24 hours, in terms of the incident shock pressures measured adjacent to the chambers, was calculated by probit analysis to be 34.9 psi, 19.5 psi, and 26.8 psi for animals in the shallow, deep, and deep-with-offset chambers, respectively. According to the LD(50) incident pressures, the shallow chambers offered the most protection against air blast;...

Topics: DTIC Archive, RICHMOND, DONALD R, LOVELACE FOUNDATION FOR MEDICAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH...

An experimental investigation was conducted to obtain direct measurements of side-on overpressures from spherical charges of six different high explosives at small scaled distances ranging from 0.74 to 3.5 ft/lb to the 1/3 power. The pressure-time recordings of the incident airblast waves were processed to obtain peak side-on overpressures, shock wave arrival times, side- on overpressures, shock wave arrival times, side-on impulses, and positive durations. Comparisons of the test data were made...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Esparza, Edward D, SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INST SAN ANTONIO TX, *AIRBURST, *HIGH...

Contents: Blast Effects of the Crews of U.S. Army Tactical Equipment; Off-Site Blast Predictions; Industrial Equipment Survival/Recovery; Federal Republic of Germany Structures Test Program; Aircraft Shelter Tests; Army Personnel Shelters; Free-Flight Drag Forces on Cylinders; Blast Response of Polemast Antenna; Blast Response of Lattice Mast; Blast Response of Whip Antenna; Canadian Air Blast Measurements; UHF/SHF Transmission; Dust Cloud Calculations; Seismic Measurements; and Army Personnel...

Topics: DTIC Archive, GENERAL ELECTRIC CO SANTA BARBARA CA DASIAC, *BLAST, *EXPLOSION EFFECTS, *HIGH...

The four air-dropped, air-burst nuclear explosions of the TUMBLER tests during the spring of 1952 were conducted primarily to obtain definitive air pressure information. The earth acceleration measurements were designed to study the interaction between phenomena in the air and phenomena in the earth. The main objective was to estimate the magnitudes of the energy absorbed by the ground and the energy fed back into the air by the ground. Subsidiary objectives included a study of the effects of...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Salmon, V, STANFORD RESEARCH INST MENLO PARK CA, *NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, ACCELERATION,...

This study was undertaken to identify structural and simulator concepts for use in the development of designs for low-cost disposable airblast simulator facilities. Specifically addressed were the Dynamic Airblast Simulator (DABS), an explosively-driven shock tube, and the High Explosive Simulation Technique (HEST) an earth-covered, explosive cavity. For the DABS, alternative construction concepts, including parabolic arches, cable suspension systems, concrete box girders, long-span steel...

Topics: DTIC Archive, CIVIL NUCLEAR SYSTEMS CORP ALBUQUERQUE N MEX, *SIMULATORS, *AIRBURST, *BLAST TUBES,...

A series of underwater and air explosion investigations was conducted using the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) numerical technique. The investigation primarily examined the explosive-fluid, fluid-structure, and fluid-air interaction effects, and the shock wave pressure propagation through a subjected medium, with the intent of verifying and validating the ALE analysis. The research also noted the explosive-air and air-structure interaction effects as well as shock wave pressure propagation...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Trevino, Theodore, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *AIRBURST, *UNDERWATER...

The nonlinear pressure response of tourmaline air-blast gauges of various shapes has been investigated by comparing peak pressures recorded by the gauges, based upon the extrapolated values of the effective dynamic calibrations at zero peak pressure, with absolute pressures obtained from velocity measurements of shock-front propagation. A similar comparison has been made based upon the static calibrations. Small bare charges were employed in free air. The principal errors involved have been...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Marks, Spence T, ARMY BALLISTIC RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD, *SHOCK...

The use of finite-difference and finite-element computer codes to solve problems involving fast, transient loading is commonplace. A large number of commercial codes exist and are applied to problems ranging from fairly low to extremely high damage levels (e.g., design of containment structures to mitigate effects of industrial accidents; protection of buildings and people from blast and impact loading; foreign-object impact damage; and design of space structures to withstand impacts of small...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Zukas, Jonas A, ARMY RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD, *FINITE ELEMENT...

The exact closed form integral solutions of Cagniard (1) for the reflection and refraction of spherical waves in elastic solids were adapted and extended to model the ground shock propagation in a layered earth. In this formulation the particle motion is obtained as a sum of components propagated along rays or paths associated with distinct P and S wave arrivals. Calculations using the Cagniard procedure were used previously successfully by the author to predict the reflection of underwater...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Britt, James R, ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURG MS, *AIRBURST,...

Measurements were made of air blast parameters at the midpoint of a line joining 2 equal weight explosive charges. The explosive used was 50/50 Pentolite with dual 1 or 8 lb spheres being detonated simultaneously. The pressure transducer employed was a BRL pancake pressure gage employing a synthetic piezoelectric ceramic as the sensing element. A satisfactory simulation of reflection of a blast wave from a rigid wall was obtained. The pressure-time histories of the colliding waves were measured...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Olsen, W, ARMY BALLISTIC RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD, *BLAST,...

A series of experiments was performed in the NASA Ames Electric Arc Shock Tube to investigate the propagation of strong waves (p approximately 40 BARS) in a model of the M-X Spur. The experiments were designed to measure incident and reflected shock pressures to provide a basis for the development of computer models for analysis of blast wave propagation in the M-X Spur. Since the M-X Spur is an asymmetric design, separate experiments were performed for flow by the Spur and flow into the Spur....

Topics: DTIC Archive, Craig,James E, SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INC EL SEGUNDO CALIF, *AIRBURST, *NUCLEAR...

The interactions between shock waves, produced in air by detonation of explosives, and specific targets which they can destroy by air blast are described. A mathematical analysis is used which relates weights of explosive (or yields of nuclear devices) to the distances at which they can cause lethal damage over the entire range of blasts from a few pounds of conventional high explosive to kilotons or megatons of nuclear blast. Effects at sea level and higher altitudes are examined. In the...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Morton, Harold S, JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV LAUREL MD APPLIED PHYSICS LAB, *EXPLOSIONS,...