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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

by
Brendan Byrne; Colin Goldblatt

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Despite reduced insolation in the late Archean, evidence suggests a warm climate which was likely sustained by a stronger greenhouse effect, the so-called Faint Young Sun Problem (FYSP). CO2 and CH4 are generally thought to be the mainstays of this enhanced greenhouse, though many other gases have been proposed. We present high accuracy radiative forcings for CO2, CH4 and 26 other gases, performing the radiative transfer calculations at line-by-line resolution and using HITRAN 2012 line data...

Topics: Physics, Earth and Planetary Astrophysics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Astrophysics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.1880

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3.0

Jun 28, 2018
06/18

by
Simon Birkholz; Carsten Brée; Ivan Veselić; Ayhan Demircan; Günter Steinmeyer

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Ocean rogue waves are large and suddenly appearing surface gravity waves, which may cause severe damage to ships and other maritime structures. Despite years of research, the exact origin of rogue waves is still disputed. Linear interference of waves with random phase has often been cited as one possible explanation, but apparently does not satisfactorily explain the probability of extreme events in the ocean. Other explanations therefore suggested a decisive role of a nonlinearity in the...

Topics: Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1507.08102

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

by
A. L. Virovlyansky

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A traditional approach to the analysis of mode coupling in a fluctuating underwater waveguide is based on solving the system of coupled equations for the second statistical moments of mode amplitudes derived in the Markov approximation [D.B. Creamer, J.Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 2825--2838 (1996)]. In the present work an alternative approach is considered. It is based on an analytic solution of the mode coupling equation derived in the high frequency approximation [A.L. Virovlyanskii and A.G....

Topics: Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1407.3873

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Jun 28, 2018
06/18

by
Sriram Sudarsanam; James Mathew; Swapnesh Panigrahi; Julien Fade; Mehdi Alouini; Hema Ramachandran

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Numerous everyday situations like navigation, medical imaging and rescue operations require viewing through optically inhomogeneous media. This is a challenging task as photons, instead of traversing ballistically, propagate predominantly diffusively due to random multiple scattering off the inhomogenieties. Imaging {\it in real-time} with ballistic light under continuous-wave illumination is even more challenging due to the extremely weak signal, necessitating voluminous data-processing. In...

Topics: Optics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Medical Physics, Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1511.03390

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3.0

Jun 27, 2018
06/18

by
A. M. Makarieva; V. G. Gorshkov; A. V. Nefiodov; D. Sheil; A. D. Nobre; B. -L. Li

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Starting from basic physical principles, we present a novel derivation linking the global wind power to measurable atmospheric parameters. The resulting expression distinguishes three components of the atmospheric power (the kinetic power associated with horizontal and vertical motion and the gravitational power of precipitation) and highlights problems with previous approaches. Focusing on Lalibert\'e et al. (2015), we show how inappropriate treatment of material derivatives in the presence of...

Topics: Fluid Dynamics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1505.04543

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Jun 29, 2018
06/18

by
Jinkai Li; Edriss S. Titi

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This paper is devoted to reviewing several recent developments concerning certain class of geophysical models, including the primitive equations (PEs) of atmospheric and oceanic dynamics and a tropical atmosphere model. The PEs for large-scale oceanic and atmospheric dynamics are derived from the Navier-Stokes equations coupled to the heat convection by adopting the Boussinesq and hydrostatic approximations, while the tropical atmosphere model considered here is a nonlinear interaction system...

Topics: Fluid Dynamics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Analysis of PDEs, Physics, Mathematics, Geophysics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1604.01695

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

by
L. E. Kon'kov; D. V. Makarov; E. V. Sosedko; M. Yu. Uleysky

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We consider sound wave propagation in a range-periodic acoustic waveguide in the deep ocean. It is demonstrated that vertical oscillations of a sound-speed perturbation, induced by ocean internal waves, influence near-axial rays in a resonant way, producing ray chaos and forming a wide chaotic sea in the underlying phase space. We study interplay between chaotic ray dynamics and wave motion with signal frequencies of 50-100 Hz. The Floquet modes of the waveguide are calculated and visualized by...

Topics: Physics, Nonlinear Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Quantum Physics, Chaotic Dynamics, Atmospheric and...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.4431

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Jun 29, 2018
06/18

by
Mohammad Farazmand; Themistoklis P. Sapsis

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We consider the problem of large wave prediction in two-dimensional water waves. Such waves form due to the synergistic effect of dispersive mixing of smaller wave groups and the action of localized nonlinear wave interactions that leads to focusing. Instead of a direct simulation approach, we rely on the decomposition of the wave field into a discrete set of localized wave groups with optimal length scales and amplitudes. Due to the short-term character of the prediction, these wave groups do...

Topics: Mathematics, Computational Physics, Dynamical Systems, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1610.09558

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Jun 29, 2018
06/18

by
Mark Handschy; Stephen Rose; Jay Apt

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The variability of wind-generated electricity can be reduced by aggregating the outputs of wind generation plants spread over a large geographic area. In this chapter we utilize Monte Carlo simulations to investigate upper bounds on the degree of achievable smoothing and clarify how the degree of smoothing depends on the number of plants and on the size of the geographic area over which they are spread.

Topics: Statistics, Applications, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1608.06257

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

by
Martin Thomas Horsch; Stefan Becker; Michaela Heier; Jayant Kumar Singh; Felix Diewald; Ralf Müller; George Jackson; Jadran Vrabec; Hans Hasse

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The influence of the surface curvature on the surface tension of small droplets in equilibrium with a surrounding vapour, or small bubbles in equilibrium with a surrounding liquid, can be expanded as $\gamma(R) = \gamma_0 + c_1\gamma_0/R + O(1/R^2)$, where $R = R_\gamma$ is the radius of the surface of tension and $\gamma_0$ is the surface tension of the planar interface, corresponding to zero curvature. According to Tolman's law, the first-order coefficient in this expansion is assumed to be...

Topics: Physics, Condensed Matter, Soft Condensed Matter, Chemical Physics, Atomic and Molecular Clusters,...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1703.08719

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Jun 28, 2018
06/18

by
Michael R. Allshouse; Thomas Peacock

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While more rigorous and sophisticated methods for identifying Lagrangian based coherent structures exist, the finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field remains a straightforward and popular method for gaining some insight into transport by complex, time-dependent two-dimensional flows. In light of its enduring appeal, and in support of good practice, we begin by investigating the effects of discretization and noise on two numerical approaches for calculating the FTLE field. A practical method...

Topics: Fluid Dynamics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Dynamical Systems, Mathematics, Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1506.07027

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

by
Fabien Montiel; Vernon Squire; Luke Bennetts

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A new ocean wave/sea-ice interaction model is proposed that simulates how a directional wave spectrum evolves as it travels through an arbitrary finite array of circular ice floes, where wave/ice dynamics are entirely governed by wave scattering effects. The model is applied to characterise the wave reflection and transmission properties of a strip of ice floes, such as an ice edge band. A method is devised to extract the reflected and transmitted directional wave spectra produced by the array....

Topics: Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.3492

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

by
Basile Gallet; William R. Young

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Using recordings of swell from pitch-and-roll buoys, we have reproduced the classic observations of long-range surface wave propagation originally made by Munk et al. (1963) using a triangular array of bottom pressure measurements. In the modern data, the direction of the incoming swell fluctuates by about $\pm 10^\circ$ on a time scale of one hour. But if the incoming direction is averaged over the duration of an event then, in contrast with the observations by Munk et al. (1963), the sources...

Topics: Fluid Dynamics, Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.1676

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

by
F. Spineanu; M. Vlad; D. Palade

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Large scale organization in ensembles of events of atmospheric convection can be generated by the combined effect of forcing and of the interaction between the raising plumes and the environment. Here the "large scale" refers to the space extension that is larger or comparable with the basic resolved cell of a numerical weather prediction system. Under the action of external forcing like heating individual events of convection respond to the slow accumulation of vapor by a...

Topics: Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.4538

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

by
A. Neronov; D. Malyshev; A. Dmytriiev

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Remote sensing of atmosphere is conventionally done via a study of extinction / scattering of light from natural (Sun, Moon) or artificial (laser) sources. Cherenkov emission from extensive air showers generated by cosmic rays provides one more natural light source distributed throughout the atmosphere. We show that Cherenkov light carries information on three-dimensional distribution of clouds and aerosols in the atmosphere and on the size distribution and scattering phase function of...

Topics: Physics, Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics, High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena,...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.2586

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Jun 26, 2018
06/18

by
Benjamin A. Laken

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A litany of research has been published claiming strong solar influences on the Earth's weather and climate. Much of this work includes documented errors and false-positives, yet is still frequently used to substantiate arguments of global warming denial. This manuscript reports on a recent study by Badruddin & Aslam (2014), hereafter BA14, which claimed a highly significant ($p=1.4\times10^{-5}$) relationship between extremes in the intensity of the Indian monsoon and the cosmic ray flux....

Topics: Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1502.00505

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

by
Michael Wilkinson

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This is a reply to a Comment on 'A test-tube model for rainfall', {\it Europhys. Lett.}, {\bf 106}, 40001, (2014).

Topics: Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.6891

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Jun 28, 2018
06/18

by
Richard Blender; Gualtiero Badin

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Dissipation can be represented in Hamiltonian mechanics in an extended phase space as a symplectic process. The method uses an auxiliary variable which represents the excitation of unresolved dynamics and a Hamiltonian for the interaction between the resolved dynamics and the auxiliary variable. This method is applied to viscous dissipation (including hyper-viscosity) in a two-dimensional fluid, for which the dynamics is non-canonical. We derive a metriplectic representation and suggest a...

Topics: Fluid Dynamics, Mathematics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Mathematical Physics, Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1510.05846

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

by
Denys Dutykh; Elena Tobisch

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In this Letter we report new effects of resonance detuning on various dynamical parameters of a generic 3-wave system. Namely, for suitably chosen values of detuning the variation range of amplitudes can be significantly wider than for exact resonance. Moreover, the range of energy variation is not symmetric with respect to the sign of the detuning. Finally, the period of the energy oscillation exhibits non-monotonic dependency on the magnitude of detuning. These results have important...

Topics: Physics, Nonlinear Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Chaotic Dynamics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics,...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1411.5518

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Jun 28, 2018
06/18

by
Anatoly Erlykin; Arnold Wolfendale

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The attribution of part of global warming to changes in the total solar irradiance (TSI) is an important topic which is not, yet, fully understood. Here, we examine the TSI induced temperature (T) changes on a variety of time scales, from one day to centuries and beyond, using a variety of assumptions. Also considered is the latitude variation of the T-TSI correlations, where it appears that over most of the globe there is a small increase in the sensitivity of temperature to TSI in time. It is...

Topics: Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1506.04916

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

by
Corentin Herbert; Annick Pouquet; Raffaele Marino

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Most of the turbulent flows appearing in nature (e.g. geophysical and astrophysical flows) are subjected to strong rotation and stratification. These effects break the symmetries of classical, homogenous isotropic turbulence. In doing so, they introduce a natural decomposition of phase space in terms of wave modes and potential vorticity modes. The appearance of a new time scale associated to the propagation of waves, in addition to the eddy turnover time, increases the complexity of the energy...

Topics: Fluid Dynamics, Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Statistical Mechanics, Condensed Matter

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1401.2103

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Jun 29, 2018
06/18

by
Markus Selmke; Sarah Selmke

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A popular demonstration experiment in optics uses a round-bottom flask filled with water to project a circular rainbow on a screen with a hole through which the flask is illuminated. We show how the vessel's wall shifts the second-order and first-order bows towards each other and consequentially narrows down Alexander's dark band. We address the challenge this introduces in producing Alexander's dark band, and explain the importance of a sufficient distance of the flask to the screen. The...

Topics: Physics Education, Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1612.09563

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

by
Antoine Venaille; Louis-Philippe Nadeau; Geoffrey K. Vallis

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We investigate the non-linear equilibration of a two-layer quasi-geostrophic flow in a channel forced by an imposed unstable zonal mean flow, paying particular attention to the role of bottom friction. In the limit of low bottom friction, classical theory of geostrophic turbulence predicts an inverse cascade of kinetic energy in the horizontal with condensation at the domain scale and barotropization on the vertical. By contrast, in the limit of large bottom friction, the flow is dominated by...

Topics: Fluid Dynamics, Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.2817

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

by
Alexander Sazontov; Ivan Smirnov; Alexander Matveyev

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This paper addresses source localization problem in a random shallow water channel. We present an extension of the generalized MUSIC method to the case, %in which when the signal correlation matrix is imprecisely known. The algorithm is validated by %simulations and its application to the experimental data observed in the Barents Sea. It has been found that the approach proposed demonstrates its excellent performance.

Topics: Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.7519

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Jun 29, 2018
06/18

by
Cihan A. Bayindir

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In this paper we analyze the rogue wave spectra of the Kundu-Eckhaus equation (KEE). We compare our findings with their nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE) analogs and show that the spectra of the individual rogue waves significantly differ from their NLSE analogs. A remarkable difference is the one-sided development of the triangular spectrum before the rogue wave becomes evident in time. Also we show that increasing the skewness of the rogue wave results in increased asymmetry in the...

Topics: Nonlinear Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Physics, Pattern Formation and...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1604.08035

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

by
Giovanni Dematteis; Tobias Grafke; Eric Vanden-Eijnden

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The appearance of rogue waves in deep sea is investigated using the modified nonlinear Schr\"odinger (MNLS) equation with random initial conditions that are assumed to be Gaussian distributed, with a spectrum approximating the JONSWAP spectrum obtained from observations of the North Sea. It is shown that by supplementing the incomplete information contained in the JONSWAP spectrum with the MNLS dynamics one can reliably estimate the probability distribution of the sea surface elevation far...

Topics: Fluid Dynamics, Physics, Dynamical Systems, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Mathematics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1704.01496

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Jun 29, 2018
06/18

by
Cihan Bayindir

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In this paper we study the properties of the chaotic wave fields generated in the frame of the Kundu-Eckhaus equation (KEE). Modulation instability results in a chaotic wave field which exhibits small-scale filaments with a free propagation constant, k. The average velocity of the filaments is approximately given by the average group velocity calculated from the dispersion relation for the plane-wave solution however direction of propagation is controlled by the $\beta$ parameter, the constant...

Topics: Fluid Dynamics, Nonlinear Sciences, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Physics, Chaotic Dynamics,...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1601.00209

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Jun 29, 2018
06/18

by
Erdal Yiğit; Alexander S. Medvedev

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Gravity waves are primarily generated in the lower atmosphere, and can reach thermospheric heights in the course of their propagation. This paper reviews the recent progress in understanding the role of gravity waves in vertical coupling during sudden stratospheric warmings. Modeling of gravity wave effects is briefly reviewed, and the recent developments in the field are presented. Then, the impact of these waves on the general circulation of the upper atmosphere is outlined. Finally, the role...

Topics: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics, Astrophysics, Space Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics,...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1609.00734

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

by
M. V. Budyansky; V. A. Goryachev; D. D. Kaplunenko; V. B. Lobanov; S. V. Prants; A. F. Sergeev; N. V. Shlyk; M. Yu. Uleysky

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We present the results of in-situ measurements of $^{134}$Cs and $^{137}$Cs released from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) collected at surface and different depths in the western North Pacific in June and July 2012. It was found that 15 month after the incident concentrations of radiocesium in the Japan and Okhotsk seas were at background or slightly increased level, while they had increased values in the subarctic front area east of Japan. The highest concentrations of $^{134}$Cs and...

Topics: Physics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.2359

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Jun 30, 2018
06/18

by
Emil J. Zak; Jonathan Tennyson; Oleg L. Polyansky; Lorenzo Lodi; Nikolay F. Zobov; Sergei A. Tashkun; Valery I. Perevalov

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Remote sensing experiments require high-accuracy, preferably sub-percent, line intensities and in response to this need we present computed room temperature line lists for six symmetric isotopologues of carbon dioxide: $^{13}$C$^{16}$O$_2$, $^{14}$C$^{16}$O$_2$, $^{12}$C$^{17}$O$_2$, $^{12}$C$^{18}$O$_2$, $^{13}$C$^{17}$O$_2$ and $^{13}$C$^{18}$O$_2$, covering the range 0-8000 \cm. Our calculation scheme is based on variational nuclear motion calculations and on a reliability analysis of the...

Topics: Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Physics, Solar and Stellar Astrophysics, Astrophysics, Earth and...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1701.08267

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Jun 28, 2018
06/18

by
G. M. Webb; C. T. Duba; Q. Hu

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Green's functions for Rossby waves in an azimuthal wind are obtained, in which the stream-function $\psi$ depends on $r$, $\phi$ and $t$, where $r$ is cylindrical radius and $\phi$ is the azimuthal angle in the $\beta$-plane relative to the easterly direction, in which the $x$-axis points east and the $y$-axis points north. The Rossby wave Green's function with no wind is obtained using Fourier transform methods, and is related to the previously known Green's function obtained for this case,...

Topics: Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1510.00875

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Jun 28, 2018
06/18

by
Kartik P. Iyer; Irene Mazzitelli; Fabio Bonaccorso; Annick Pouquet; Luca Biferale

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The effects of changing the orientation of the rotation axis on homogeneous turbulence is considered. We perform direct numerical simulations on a periodic box of $1024^3$ grid points, where the orientation of the rotation axis is changed (a) at a fixed time instant (b) regularly at time intervals commensurate with the rotation time scale. The former is characterized by a dominant inverse energy cascade whereas in the latter, the inverse cascade is stymied due to the recurrent changes in the...

Topics: Fluid Dynamics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Physics

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1511.06159