The feasibility of reducing data volume and data rate is evaluated for the Earth Observing System (EOS) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). All elements of data stream from the sensor downlink data stream to electronic delivery of browse data products are explored. The factors influencing design of a data compression system are analyzed, including the signal data characteristics, the image quality requirements, and the throughput requirements. The conclusion is that little or no reduction can be...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, DATA COMPRESSION, DATA FLOW ANALYSIS, DATA...

Data compression has become an increasingly popular option as advances in information technology have placed further demands on data storage capabilities. With compression ratios as high as 100:1 the benefits are clear; however, the inherent intolerance of many compression formats to error events should be given careful consideration. If we consider that efficiently compressed data will ideally contain no redundancy, then the introduction of a channel error must result in a change of...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPRESSION RATIO, DATA COMPRESSION, DATA STORAGE, ERRORS,...

This paper presented a novel watermarking method to embed a watermark into an image. To improve the transparency and robustness of watermark embedding, a visual model was employed to calculate the block based just noticeable difference (JND), and the three sub-bands of coefficient matrix in the medium frequencyof block discrete cosine transform (BDCT) were defined to embed objects. Firstly, an original watermark file was transferred into a binary watermark sequence, which was encoded by...

Topics: Image Watermarking, Just Noticeable Difference, Redundant Encoding, Block Discrete Cosine...

Image Compression is usually carried out using discrete cosine transform (DCT) because compressed image using DCT will take less memory to store the image and quality of the image will be good compared JPEG and HEVC. But, in this work an attempt is made to achieve compression using Approximation DCT (ADCT). ADCT is useful for reducing its computational complexity without affecting its coding performance. It provides better image and video compression compared to the DCT. ADCT is orthogonal and...

Topics: approximation discrete cosine transform (ADCT), compression, discrete cosine transform DCT), high...

The two dimensional block transform coding scheme based on the discrete cosine transform was studied extensively for image coding applications. While this scheme has proven to be efficient in the absence of channel errors, its performance degrades rapidly over noisy channels. A method is presented for the joint source channel coding optimization of a scheme based on the 2-D block cosine transform when the output of the encoder is to be transmitted via a memoryless design of the quantizers used...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BLOCK DIAGRAMS, DISCRETE COSINE TRANSFORM, IMAGE PROCESSING,...

The discrete cosine transform (DCT) is widely used in image compression and is part of the JPEG and MPEG compression standards. The degree of compression and the amount of distortion in the decompressed image are controlled by the quantization of the transform coefficients. The standards do not specify how the DCT coefficients should be quantized. One approach is to set the quantization level for each coefficient so that the quantization error is near the threshold of visibility. Results from...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COLOR CODING, DISCRETE COSINE TRANSFORM, IMAGE PROCESSING,...

A method is presented for performing color or grayscale image compression that eliminates redundant and invisible image components. The image compression uses a Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and each DCT coefficient yielded by the transform is quantized by an entry in a quantization matrix which determines the perceived image quality and the bit rate of the image being compressed. The quantization matrix comprises visual masking by luminance and contrast technique all resulting in a minimum...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DATA COMPRESSION, DISCRETE COSINE TRANSFORM, PERCEPTUAL...

372
372

Sep 20, 2010
09/10

by
Dellacorte, Christopher; Deadmore, Daniel L

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The indentation microhardness of stoichiometric and reduced single crystal rutile (TiO2) from 25 to 800 C is presented in this paper. The results serve two main purposes. One is to assess the effect of rutile's stoichiometry on its hardness. The other is to test recently suggested theory on solid lubrication with sub Stoichiometric rutile in an effort to better understand shear controlled phenomenon. Microhardness was measured using a Vickers diamond indentor on both vacuum and hydrogen reduced...

Topics: CODERS, DOWNLINKING, HARDWARE, LOW EARTH ORBITS, METEOROLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS, COMPRESSION RATIO,...

Statistical encoding techniques enable the reduction of the number of bits required to encode a set of symbols, and are derived from their probabilities. Huffman encoding is an example of statistical encoding that has been used for error-free data compression. The degree of compression given by Huffman encoding in this application can be improved by the use of prediction methods. These replace the set of elevations by a set of corrections that have a more advantageous probability distribution....

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DATA COMPRESSION, DIGITAL DATA, DISCRETE COSINE TRANSFORM,...

The aim of this work is to provide a digital watermarking technique using joint DCT-DWT algorithm which have always been realized in RGB colour space. In this study, a secure DCT-DWT based image watermarking technique is proposed and tested in seven colour spaces viz. RGB, HSV, HIS, YCbCr, YUV, YIQ and CIELab to determine which colour space is more effective in watermarking algorithms. In the proposed scheme, a watermark image is embedded into original cover image which is been wavelet...

Topics: Image Watermarking, Discrete Wavelet Transform, Discrete Cosine Transform, Color Space

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109

Nov 6, 2016
11/16

by
ICGST LLC

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Robust Color Image Watermarking Technique Using DWT and Homomorphic based SVD Abstract: This paper presents a robust hybrid image watermarking technique using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). The DWT is utilized to divide the image into non-overlapping bands. The reflectance component of the low-frequency sub-band (LL) is extracted using homomorphic transform for each color (red, green, and blue). The watermark embedding is performed using SVD on the...

Topics: Watermarking, Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), Singular Value...

A VLSI design for performing the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) operation on image blocks of size 16 x 16 in a real time fashion operating at 34 MHz (worst case) is presented. The process used was Hewlett-Packard's CMOS26--A 3 metal CMOS process with a minimum feature size of 0.75 micron. The design is based on Multiply-Accumulate (MAC) cells which make use of a modified Booth recoding algorithm for performing multiplication. The design of these cells is straight forward, and the layouts are...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, CMOS, DISCRETE COSINE TRANSFORM, LOGIC CIRCUITS,...

A method for performing image compression that eliminates redundant and invisible image components is presented. The image compression uses a Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and each DCT coefficient yielded by the transform is quantized by an entry in a quantization matrix which determines the perceived image quality and the bit rate of the image being compressed. The present invention adapts or customizes the quantization matrix to the image being compressed. The quantization matrix comprises...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DATA COMPRESSION, DIGITAL TECHNIQUES, DISCRETE COSINE...

A Generalized Hough Transform (GHT)-based classification scheme for an object-of-interest in maritime-domain images is proposed in this thesis. First, the object edge points are extracted and used to generate a representation of the object as a Hough coordinate table by using the GHT algorithm. The table is then reformatted to a contour map called a Hough features map. The coordinates of dominant peaks or Hough features on the map are extracted and fed into a feed-forward, back-propagation...

Topics: Generalized Hough Transform, object detection, object classification, Discrete Cosine Transform

156
156

May 21, 2011
05/11

by
Hsu, Yu-Ka

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A mathematical model for a two-phase flow laminar airfoil in simulated heavy rain has been established. The set of non-linear partial differential equations has been converted into a set of finite difference equations; appropriate initial and boundary conditions are provided. The numerical results are compared with the experimental measurements. They show good agreement in quality.

Topics: ALGORITHMS, COSTS, ENERGY CONSUMPTION, ITERATION, SILICON, CMOS, DISCRETE COSINE TRANSFORM, LOGIC...

The digital watermarking is a process of hiding an information in multimedia for copyright protection. Where, one data is hidden inside another data. We implement the watermarking algorithm in frequency domain by using a combination of DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform) and SVD (Singular Value Decomposition) with DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform) algorithms. In which the performance analysis of an invisible watermarking can be measured with comparison of MSE (Mean Square Error) and PSNR (Peak...

Topics: DWT(Discrete Wavelet Transform) and SVD (Singular Value Decomposition) based transform, DCT...

This document is the proceedings from the 'Science Information Management and Data Compression Workshop,' which was held on September 26-27, 1994, at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland. The Workshop explored promising computational approaches for handling the collection, ingestion, archival and retrieval of large quantities of data in future Earth and space science missions. It consisted of eleven presentations covering a range of information management and data...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, COMPRESSION RATIO, COMPUTER NETWORKS, DATA...

During this reporting period we have worked on three somewhat different problems. These are modeling of video traffic in packet networks, low rate video compression, and the development of a lossy + lossless image compression algorithm, which might have some application in browsing algorithms. The lossy + lossless scheme is an extension of work previously done under this grant. It provides a simple technique for incorporating browsing capability. The low rate coding scheme is also a simple...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, CODING, DATA COMPRESSION, IMAGE PROCESSING,...

This paper presented a novel watermarking method to embed a watermark into an image. To improve the transparency and robustness of watermark embedding, a visual model was employed to calculate the block based just noticeable difference (JND), and the three sub-bands of coefficient matrix in the medium frequencyof block discrete cosine transform (BDCT) were defined to embed objects. Firstly, an original watermark file was transferred into a binary watermark sequence, which was encoded by...

Topics: Image Watermarking, Just Noticeable Difference, Redundant Encoding, Block Discrete Cosine...

102
102

Jun 11, 2011
06/11

by
Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V

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Periodicities of approx. 155 days in various solar and interplanetary phenomena were first discovered during solar cycle 21 and have been shown to be intermittently present in other solar cycles. In the current solar cycle (23), they have been reported in solar energetic particle events and interplanetary coronal mass ejections. We assess whether the ''unexpected'' October - November 2003 burst of solar activity during the late declining phase of the cycle may have been a manifestation of such...

Topics: ALGORITHMS, DISCRETE COSINE TRANSFORM, POLYNOMIALS, SYMMETRY, COMPUTATION, MEAN SQUARE VALUES,...

Digital watermarking is a highly evolving field, which involves the embedding of a certain kind of information under a digital object (image, video, audio) for the purpose of copyright protection. Both the image and the watermark are most frequently translated into a transform domain where the embedding takes place. The selection of both the transform domain and the particular algorithm that is used for the embedding of the watermark, depend heavily on the application. One of the most widely...

Topics: Image processing, Digital techniques, Digital Image Watermarking, JPEG Compression, Discrete Cosine...

577
577

May 29, 2011
05/11

by
Brown, Kendall K.; Sparks, Dave; Woodcock, Gordo

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Abstract This paper presents the development of a low-cost, regeneratively-cooled thrust chamber for the Fastrac engine. The chamber was fabricated using hydraformed copper tubing to form the coolant jacket and wrapped with a fiber reinforced polymer composite Material to form a structural jacket. The thrust chamber design and fabrication approach was based upon Space America. Inc.'s 12,000 lb regeneratively-cooled LOX/kerosene rocket engine. Fabrication of regeneratively cooled thrust chambers...

Topics: DATA COMPRESSION, EMBEDDING, REAL TIME OPERATION, ERROR ANALYSIS, ALGORITHMS, DISCRETE COSINE...

There is a big issue related to security on the growth of Internet. This is the era of digital data that is transferred on Internet when data is transferred on the Internet there is a problem of authentication and security to the data. Digital data is in the form of audio, video, images etc. Digital image watermarking is used to hide the data with the cover image for authentication. Many techniques have been proposed for robust, secured, high embedding capacity in the world of digital image...

Topics: Digital Image Watermarking, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT),...

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Human face detection is a significant problem of image processing and is usually a first step for face recognition and visual surveillance. This paper presents the details of face detection approach that is implemented to achieve accurate face detection in group color images which are based on facial feature and Support Vector Machine. In the first step, the proposed approach quickly separates skin color regions from the background and from non-skin color regions using YCbCr color space...

Topics: Face Detection, Skin Color Detection, Wavelet Transform, Discrete Cosine Transform, Support Vector...

Data compression coding requirements for aerospace applications differ somewhat from the compression requirements for entertainment systems. On the one hand, entertainment applications are bit rate driven with the goal of getting the best quality possible with a given bandwidth. Science applications are quality driven with the goal of getting the lowest bit rate for a given level of reconstruction quality. In the past, the required quality level has been nothing less than perfect allowing only...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CODING, DATA COMPRESSION, DATA TRANSMISSION, DISCRETE COSINE...

A visually lossless data compression technique is currently being developed for space science applications under the requirement of high-speed push-broom scanning. The technique is also applicable to frame based imaging and is error-resilient in that error propagation is contained within a few scan lines. The algorithm is based on a block transform of a hybrid of modulated lapped transform (MLT) and discrete cosine transform (DCT), or a 2-dimensional lapped transform, followed by bit-plane...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DATA COMPRESSION, REAL TIME OPERATION, ERROR ANALYSIS,...

A Digital Video Quality (DVQ) apparatus and method that incorporate a model of human visual sensitivity to predict the visibility of artifacts. The DVQ method and apparatus are used for the evaluation of the visual quality of processed digital video sequences and for adaptively controlling the bit rate of the processed digital video sequences without compromising the visual quality. The DVQ apparatus minimizes the required amount of memory and computation. The input to the DVQ apparatus is a...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DIGITAL TELEVISION, DISCRETE COSINE TRANSFORM, VIDEO...

138
138

Oct 24, 2015
10/15

by
Engineering

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Image compression is the one of the demand in the current trend to reduce the transmission bandwidth and the storage memory. In this paper we are proposing a hybrid compression technique for image using discrete cosine transform and singular value decomposition. It is proposed that using proper threshold value, the transformed results obtained using discrete cosine transform and singular value decomposition can be truncated. Using these truncated results of the transformation an effort is made...

Topics: DCT-Discrete Cosine Transform, SVD-Singular Value Decomposition, MSE-Mean Squared Error, PSNR-Peak...

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33

Nov 28, 2017
11/17

by
ICGST LLC

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Abstract: This paper presents use of Accordion technique along with modified Run Length Encoding for video compression, which consists of exploiting the high amount of temporal redundancies present in videos by converting them to spatial redundancy and using 2D DCT. The Video compression steps are either optimized or completely revamped to meet the compression and video quality requirement in mobile application. This technique is less complex to suit lower end CPUs and achieves a very good...

Topics: H.264, Accordion, Run Length Encoding(RLE), Discrete Cosine Transform(DCT), Huffman Encoding

The application of two wavelet transforms to image compression is discussed. It is noted that the Haar transform, with proper bit allocation, has performance that is visually superior to an algorithm based on a Daubechies filter and to the discrete cosine transform based Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) algorithm at compression ratios exceeding 20:1. In terms of the root-mean-square error, the performance of the Haar transform method is basically comparable to that of the JPEG algorithm....

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, CODING, DATA COMPRESSION, IMAGE PROCESSING,...

The process of exchange of information between two or more entities is known as data communication. It may evolve data in different format, such as text, images, audio and video, etc. Now- a- days, data in the form of images are used in a wide range of applications, like in medicine, in military operations and communication purposes. To safeguard multimedia information from imposters during transmission through communication channels, security measures are required, which can be achieved by the...

Topics: Chaotic System, Confusion and Diffusion, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), Logistic Map, Shuffling

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23

Jul 16, 2018
07/18

by
Iaset journals

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Image compression is essential to reduce the cost of storage and transmission of large image files. Image compression methods are classified into lossy and lossless compression methods. In lossless compression, the image data in the decompressed image is exactly the same as that of the original image, whereas, in the lossy compression, the data in the decompressed image is very close that of the original. For most applications, lossy compression is used. Lossy compression achieves a higher...

Topics: Image Compression, Discrete Cosine Transform, Truncation of DCT

We show that it is desirable to use data-specific or customized quantization tables for scaling the spatial frequency coefficients obtained using the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). DCT is widely used for image and video compression (MP89, PM93) but applications typically use default quantization matrices. Using actual scientific data gathered from divers sources such as spacecrafts and electron-microscopes, we show that the default compression/quality tradeoffs can be significantly improved...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, DATA REDUCTION, DISCRETE COSINE TRANSFORM, IMAGE...

A set of compressed, then reconstructed, test images submitted to the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF)/Cassini project is presented as part of its evaluation of near lossless high compression algorithms for representing image data. A total of seven test image files were provided by the project. The seven test images were compressed, then reconstructed with high quality (root mean square error of approximately one or two gray levels on an 8 bit gray scale), using discrete cosine transforms...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, DATA COMPRESSION, ERROR ANALYSIS, GRAY SCALE,...

Economical archival and retrieval of image data is becoming increasingly important considering the unprecedented data volumes expected from the Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments. For cost effective browsing the image data (possibly from remote site), and retrieving the original image data from the data archive, we suggest an integrated image browse and data archive system employing incremental transmission. We produce our browse image data with the JPEG/DCT lossy compression approach....

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DATA COMPRESSION, EARTH OBSERVING SYSTEM (EOS), IMAGE...

A number of algorithms for recursive computation of the discrete cosine transform (DCT) have been developed recently. This paper presents a new method for computing the discrete cosine transform and its inverse using Bakhvalov's algorithm, a method developed for evaluation of a polynomial at a point. In this paper, we will focus on both the application of the algorithm to the computation of the DCT-I and its complexity. In addition, Bakhvalov s algorithm is compared with Clenshaw s algorithm...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, DISCRETE COSINE TRANSFORM, POLYNOMIALS, SYMMETRY,...

A method for performing image compression that eliminates redundant and invisible image components is described. The image compression uses a Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and each DCT coefficient yielded by the transform is quantized by an entry in a quantization matrix which determines the perceived image quality and the bit rate of the image being compressed. The present invention adapts or customizes the quantization matrix to the image being compressed. The quantization matrix comprises...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DATA COMPRESSION, DIGITAL TECHNIQUES, DISCRETE COSINE...

94
94

Dec 6, 2013
12/13

by
A. P. C. Saratha Devi & V. Mahesh

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Changes in lighting condition impact the appearance of face images to a large extent . Therefore it becomes very difficult to recognize a face under different lighting conditions. The face images have to be normalized to overcome the illumination variation to get recognized. The work presented here analyzes the performance of the illumination normalization methods of face images like DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform) normalization, Wavelet Denoising, Gradient Faces, Local Contrast Enhancement,...

Topics: Discrete Cosine Transform, Gradient Domain, Local Contrast Enhancement, Principal Component...

Data compression is essential to current low-earth-orbit spectral sensors with global coverage, e.g., meteorological sensors. Such sensors routinely produce in excess of 30 Gb of data per orbit (over 4 Mb/s for about 110 min) while typically limited to less than 10 Gb of downlink capacity per orbit (15 minutes at 10 Mb/s). Astro-Space Division develops spaceborne compression systems for compression ratios from as little as three to as much as twenty-to-one for high-fidelity reconstructions....

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CODERS, COMPRESSION RATIO, DATA COMPRESSION, DATA PROCESSING,...

This presentation describes how a vision model incorporating contrast sensitivity, contrast masking, and light adaptation is used to design visually optimal quantization matrices for Discrete Cosine Transform image compression. The Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) underlies several image compression standards (JPEG, MPEG, H.261). The DCT is applied to 8x8 pixel blocks, and the resulting coefficients are quantized by division and rounding. The 8x8 'quantization matrix' of divisors determines the...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BIT ERROR RATE, DISCRETE COSINE TRANSFORM, DISCRETE...

A method for efficiently coding natural images using a vector-quantized variable-blocksized transform source coder is presented. The method, mixture block coding (MBC), incorporates variable-rate coding by using a mixture of discrete cosine transform (DCT) source coders. Which coders are selected to code any given image region is made through a threshold driven distortion criterion. In this paper, MBC is used in two different applications. The base method is concerned with single-pass low-rate...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CHANNELS (DATA TRANSMISSION), CODING, DATA COMPRESSION,...

A digital image compression preprocessor for use in a discrete cosine transform-based digital image compression device is provided. The preprocessor includes a gathering mechanism for determining discrete cosine transform statistics from input digital image data. A computing mechanism is operatively coupled to the gathering mechanism to calculate a image distortion array and a rate of image compression array based upon the discrete cosine transform statistics for each possible quantization...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DATA COMPRESSION, DISCRETE COSINE TRANSFORM, IMAGE...

Face Recognition has develop one of the most effective presentations of image analysis. This area of research is important not only for the applications in human computer interaction, biometric and security but also in other pattern classification problem. To improve face recognition in this system, two methods are used PCA Principal component analysis and SOM Self organizing feature Map .PCA is a subspace projection method is used compress the input face image. SOM method is used to classify...

Topics: Cognitive Science, PCA (Principal component analysis), SOM (Self-organizing feature Map), DCT...

This paper presents a new computational scheme of image compression based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT), underlying JPEG and MPEG International Standards. The algorithm for the 2-d DCT computation uses integer operations (register shifts and additions / subtractions only); its computational complexity is about 8 additions per image pixel. As a meaningful example of an on-board image compression application we consider the software implementation of the algorithm for the Mars Rover...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER TECHNIQUES, DATA COMPRESSION, DATA TRANSMISSION,...

Face Resolution Enhancement Using Artificial Bee Colony

Topics: Discrete Wavelet Transform, Discrete Cosine Transform, Adaptive Shock Filter, Discrete Fourier...

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564

May 26, 2011
05/11

by
NON

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This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science.

Topics: SIGNAL PROCESSING, ALGORITHMS, INTERFERENCE IMMUNITY, DISCRETE COSINE TRANSFORM, WAVELET ANALYSIS,...

Adaptive linear predictors have been used extensively in practice in a wide variety of forms. In the main, their theoretical development is based upon the assumption of stationarity of the signals involved, particularly with respect to the second order statistics. On this basis, the well-known normal equations can be formulated. If high- order statistical stationarity is assumed, then the equivalent normal equations involve high-order signal moments. In either case, the cross moments (second or...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SIGNAL PROCESSING, INTERFERENCE IMMUNITY, DISCRETE COSINE...

The Mean Square Error (MSE) or the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) are common distortion measures used to assess image quality. Nevertheless, they are usually chosen due to their simplicity and not their performance as they are not always suitable compared to the human observer. In this work we present a Rate‐Distortion approach to color image compression based on subband transforms using perceptual optimization of the compression quality. This approach is based on minimization of the...

Topics: Color Image Compression, Weighted Mean Square Error, Discrete Cosine Transform, Discrete Wavelet...

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Systolic arrays are a family of parallel computer architectures capable of using a very large number of processors simultaneously for important computations in applications such as scientific computing and signal processing. A discrete cosine transform (DCT) expresses a sequence of finitely many data points in terms of a sum of cosine functions at different frequencies. DCT is a Fourier-related transform similar to the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), but using only real numbers....

Topics: Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Systolic Array, VLSI

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3.0

Mar 24, 2021
03/21

by
Ledya Novamizanti, Gelar Budiman, Elsa Nur Fitri Astuti

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The growth of the internet and digital data has resulted forgery, modification and sharing of digital data without property rights. Audio watermarking is one of a solution to protect the copyright of an audio from copyright infringement. This paper proposes an audio watermarking method which is robust against attacks and high capacity. First, a synchronization bit is added to the audio host. After the audio host is decomposed by Lifting Wavelet Transform (LWT), then choose a subband from the...

Topics: Audio watermarking, Compressive sampling, Discrete cosine transform, Lifting wavelet transform,...